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Table 5 Development over time of the outcome variables with time treated as a categorical variable

From: The Contribution of Professional Youth Work to the Personal Development and Social Participation of Socially Vulnerable Youngsters: A Dutch Longitudinal Cohort Study

Fixed Mean: Wave 1 Mean: Wave 2 Mean: Wave 3 Mean: Wave 4
Cohort 1 (N = 457)
 Prosocial skills 4.11 [4.05, 4.17] 4.07 [4.00, 4.14] 4.04 [3.96, 4.13] 3.98* [3.89, 4.08]
 Self-mastery 3.52 [3.46, 3.58] 3.48 [3.41, 3.56] 3.49 [3.39, 3.58] 3.48 [3.38, 3.59]
 Social network 3.40 [3.33, 3.48] 3.35 [3.26, 3.42] 3.32 [3.21, 3.43] 3.27*[3.15, 3.39]
 Volunteering 1.78 [1.65, 1.91] 1.90 [1.74, 2.06] 1.81 [1.62, 2.01] 1.97 [1.75, 2.19]
 Organizing activities 1.75 [1.63, 1.87] 1.69 [1.54, 1.84] 1.76 [1.57, 1.94] 1.70 [1.49, 1.91]
Cohort 2 (N = 501)
 Prosocial skills 4.13 [4.08, 4.18] 4.13 [4.06, 4.19] 4.07 [3.99, 4.15] 4.09 [4.01, 4.17]
 Self-mastery 3.57 [3.51, 3.62] 3.50 [3.43, 3.58] 3.43**[3.34, 3.51] 3.48 [3.39, 3.57]
 Social network 3.60 [3.52, 3.67] 3.51*[3.42, 3.59] 3.43**[3.33, 3.54] 3.43**[3.33, 3.54]
 Volunteering 1.87 [1.74, 2.01] 1.99 [1.82, 2.15] 2.03 [1.83, 2.22] 2.02 [1.81, 2.22]
 Organizing activities 1.93 [1.80, 2.06] 2.07 [1.91, 2.23] 2.00 [1.80, 2.19] 1.92 [1.71, 2.12]
Cohort 3 (N = 639)
 Prosocial skills 4.17 [4.12, 4.22] 4.13 [4.07, 4.20] 4.18 [4.11, 4.26] 4.08* [4.00, 4.15]
 Self-mastery 3.67 [3.61, 3.72] 3.56**[3.49, 3.62] 3.49***[3.42, 3.57] 3.48*** [3.41, 3.56]
 Social network 3.64 [3.58, 3.70] 3.50**[3.43, 3.58] 3.53*[3.44, 3.62] 3.49**[3.40, 3.57]
 Volunteering 2.21 [2.07, 2.34] 2.48**[2.32, 2.65] 2.37 [2.17, 2.56] 2.45*[2.27, 2.64]
 Organizing activities 1.98 [1.87, 2.09] 1.86 [1.72, 2.00] 2.05 [1.89, 2.21] 2.07 [1.91, 2.23]
  1. Means and CI
  2. ***Significant at < 0.001; **significant at < 0.01; *significant at < 0.05; ns not significant
  3. aWave 1 is the reference category