Meditation Improves Self-Control in ADHD-Diagnosed Children and Empowers Their Primary Caregiver Grandparents

  • Samta P. PandyaEmail author


Children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD) and raised by grandparents as primary caregivers need research and practice considerations. The aim of this study was to examine whether a joint meditation intervention would improve self-control in ADHD-diagnosed children and also whether it would empower the primary caregiver grandparents. A waitlist-control design study was undertaken to examine the unidirectional and actor-partner effects of the joint meditation intervention. Intervention (pretest N = 55; posttest = 46) and control groups (pretest = 55; posttest = 38) comprised grandchild-grandparent dyads from Mumbai and Pretoria, assessed on self-control and family empowerment measures respectively pre- and post-test. Intervention group dyads exhibited greater self-control and empowerment post-test (Cohen’s d range = 2.30–3.84, p = .001). Participants from Mumbai, grandmother-grandchild dyads, middle class, Hindus, who regularly attended the meditation lessons and practiced at home, demonstrated higher self-control and empowerment. Meditation lessons attended and home practice mediated the relationship between demographic predictors and outcomes. Actor-partner estimates in the pooled regression analyses indicated an association between grandparents’ and grandchildren’s meditation lessons attendance and home practice, as well as interdependent outcomes. The meditation intervention is effective, however, would need to be refined for cultural relevance and some additional exercises on bonding and caregiving for upper class participants and grandfathers.


Meditation ADHD-diagnosed children Grandparents Self-control Empowerment Actor-partner effects Waitlist control design 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to report for this submission.

Ethical Approval

The study conforms to the norms prescribed by the Declaration of Helsinki, 1975 as amended in 2000, and comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed written consent was obtained from all the study participants. No risks resulting from taking part in the study, were identified. There is no registered funder to report for this submission.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

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