Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 439–458 | Cite as

Racial–Ethnic Socialization and Transracial Adoptee Outcomes: A Systematic Research Synthesis

  • Jordan E. Montgomery
  • Nickolas A. Jordan


Transracial adoptees face unique challenges when it comes to being socialized with their race and culture. Ethnic identity and parent racial–ethnic socialization are two important variables that have been studied in the transracial adoption literature. Additionally, transracial adoptee outcomes of racial–ethnic socialization have been analyzed in multiple studies. However, few reviews have focused on synthesizing empirical studies that include the variables of both racial–ethnic socialization and transracial adoptee outcomes together. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic research synthesis was to examine studies with variables of parent practices of racial–ethnic socialization and transracial adoptee outcomes, and transracial adoptee experiences of racial–ethnic socialization and adoptee outcomes. Thirteen studies were included in the synthesis, and collective findings suggest that racial–ethnic socialization is associated with healthy adoptee outcomes in multiple studies. Implications and limitations about the need for transracially adoptive parents to be educated about racial–ethnic socialization, and resources that adoptive agencies can provide are discussed.


Transracial adoption Racial–ethnic socialization Psychological adjustment Self-esteem 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Jordan E. Montgomery and Nickolas A. Jordan declares that they have no conflict of interest.


These studies can be found in the reference list with an asterisk indicated before the reference

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Family and Child SciencesThe Florida State University, College of Human SciencesTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Human Development and Psychological CounselingAppalachian State University, Reich College of EducationBooneUSA

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