Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp 529–543 | Cite as

Treatment of Complex Trauma on the Front Lines: A Preliminary Look at Child Outcomes in an Agency Sample

  • Sarah DauberEmail author
  • Katheryn Lotsos
  • Mary L. Pulido


This study describes a one-group pretest posttest evaluation of an agency-based treatment for children who endured complex trauma, including chronic physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing domestic violence. Participants included 31 children who completed at least 3 months of treatment at a private, child welfare treatment clinic. Treatment was phase-oriented and idiographic, grounded in attachment-based, cognitive-behavioral, and creative arts approaches to complex trauma treatment, and incorporating research-supported interventions. Children completed the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children at pre- and post-treatment, and client change in symptoms was evaluated. Significant improvement in symptoms of anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, and sexual concerns was found following treatment. Effect sizes were in the moderate to large range. Client demographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with symptom improvement. Though preliminary, due to the small sample size and lack of control group, results contribute to the growing body of knowledge on client outcomes in front line clinical settings.


Complex trauma Usual care Child outcomes Trauma-focused treatment Child abuse 


  1. Aarons, G. A., James, S., Monn, A. R., Raghavan, R., Wells, R. S., & Leslie, L. K. (2010). Behavior problems and placement change in a national child welfare sample: A prospective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(1), 70–79. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2009.09.005.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, B., Gharagozloo, L., & Johnson, J. C. (2012). Clinician knowledge and utilization of empirically-supported treatments for maltreated children. Child Maltreatment, 17, 11–21. doi: 10.1177/1077559511426333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, B., & Johnson, J. C. (2012). Utilization and implementation of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of maltreated children. Child Maltreatment, 17, 80–85. doi: 10.1177/1077559511418220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amaya-Jackson, L., & DeRosa, R. R. (2007). Treatment considerations for clinicians in applying evidence-based practice to complex presentations in child trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 379–390. doi: 10.1002/jts.20266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2010). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 414–430.Google Scholar
  6. Arvidson, J., Kinniburgh, K. J., Howard, K., Spinazzola, J., Strothers, H., Evans, M., & Blaustein, M. E. (2011). Treatment of complex trauma in young children: Developmental and cultural considerations in application of the ARC intervention model. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 4, 34–51. doi: 10.1080/19361521.2011.545046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barth, R. P., Kolivoski, K. M., Lindsey, M. A., Lee, B. R., & Collins, K. S. (2014). Translating the common elements approach: Social work’s experiences in education, practice, and research. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43(2), 301–311. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.848771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, J., Greenwald, R., & Mitchell, C. (2011). Trauma-informed treatment for disenfranchised urban children and youth: An open trial. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 28, 257–272. doi: 10.1007/s10560-011-0230-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkowitz, S. J., Stover, C. S., & Marans, S. R. (2011). The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary prevention for youth at risk of developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 676–685. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02321.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bickman, L. (2000). The most dangerous and difficult question in mental health services research. Mental Health Services Research, 2, 71–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blaustein, M., & Kinniburgh, K. M. (2010). Treating traumatic stress in children and adolescents: how to foster resilience through attachment, self-regulation, and competency. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Boelen, P. A., de Keijser, J., van den Hout, M. A., & van den Bout, J. (2011). Factors associated with outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy for complicated grief: A preliminary study. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 18, 284–291. doi: 10.1002/cpp.720.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Borntrager, C., Chorpita, B. F., Higa-McMillan, C. K., Daleiden, E. L., & Starace, N. (2013). Usual care for trauma-exposed youth: Are clinician-reported therapy techniques evidence-based? Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 133–141. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.09.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bratton, S. C., Ray, D., Rhine, T., & Jones, L. (2005). The efficacy of play therapy with children: A meta-analytic review of treatment outcomes. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(4), 376–390. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.36.4.376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bremner, J. D., & Vermetten, E. (2001). Stress and development: Behavioral and biological consequences. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 473–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briere, J. (1996). Trauma symptom checklist for children (TSCC). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  18. Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2009). Mapping of evidence-based treatment for children and adolescents: Application of the distillation and matching model to 615 treatments from 22 randomized trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 566–579. doi: 10.1037/a0014565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chorpita, B. F., Daleiden, E. L., & Weisz, J. R. (2005). Identifying and selecting the common elements of evidence based interventions: A distillation and matching model. Mental Health Services Research, 7(1), 5–20. doi: 10.1007/s11020-00501962-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chu, A. T., & Lieberman, A. F. (2010). Clinical implications of traumatic stress from birth to age five. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 469–494. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. B. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. (2004a). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 393–402. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000111364.94169.f9.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006a). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Iyengar, S. (2011). Community treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 165, 16–21. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.247.Google Scholar
  25. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Kliethermes, M., & Murray, L. A. (2012). Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma. Child Abuse and Neglect, 36, 528–541. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.03.007.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Knudsen, K. (2004b). Treating childhood traumatic grief: A pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 1225–1233. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000135620.15522.38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Knudsen, K. (2005). Treating sexually abused children: One year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 135–145. doi: 10.1016/jchiabu.2004.12.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Staron, V. R. (2006b). A pilot study of modified cognitive behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1465–1473. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000237705.43260.2c.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cook, A., Blaustein, M. E., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. A. (2003). Complex trauma in children and adolescents: white paper from the national child traumatic stress network complex trauma task force. Los Angeles, CA: NCTSN.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C. B., Blaustein, M., Cloitre, M., & Van Der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 390–398.Google Scholar
  31. Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 577–584. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. D’Andrea, W., Ford, J., Stolbach, B., Spinazzola, J., & Van Der Kolk, B. A. (2012). Understanding interpersonal trauma in children: Why we need a developmentally appropriate trauma diagnosis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82, 187–200. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01154.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Runyon, M. K., & Steer, R. A. (2011). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children: Impact of the trauma narrative and treatment length. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 67–75. doi: 10.1002/da.20744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., & Steer, R. (2006). A follow-up study of a multisite randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1474–1484. doi: 10.1097/ Scholar
  35. Eaton, L. G., Doherty, K. L., & Widrick, R. M. (2007). A review of research and methods used to establish art therapy as an effective treatment method for traumatized children. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 34, 256–262. doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2007.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ehrenreich-May, J., Southam-Gerow, M. A., Hourigan, S. E., Wright, L. R., Pincus, D. B., & Weisz, J. R. (2011). Characteristics of anxious and depressed youth seen in two different clinical contexts. Administration and Policy In Mental Health, 38, 398–411. doi: 10.1007/s10488-010-0328-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ellis, B.H, Fogler, J, Hansen, S, Forbes, P, Navalta, C.P, and Saxe, G.N. (2012). Trauma Systems Therapy: 15-month outcomes and the importance of effecting environmental change. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(6), 624–630. doi:
  38. Ford, J. D. (2005). Treatment implications of altered neurobiology, affect regulation and information processing following child maltreatment. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 410–419.Google Scholar
  39. Ford, J. D., Grasso, D., Greene, C., Levine, J., Spinazzola, J., & Van Der Kolk, B. A. (2013). Clinical significance of a proposed developmental trauma disorder diagnosis: Results of an international survey of clinicians. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 74, 841–849. doi: 10.4088/JCP.12m08030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ford, J. D., Steinberg, K. L., Hawke, J., Levine, J., & Zhang, W. (2012). Randomized trial comparison of emotion regulation and relational psychotherapies for PTSD with girls involved in delinquency. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41, 27–37. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.632343.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Friedman, M. J. (2013). Finalizing PTSD in DSM-5: Getting here from there and where to go next. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 548–556. doi: 10.1002/jts.21840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Garland, A. F., Accurso, E. C., Haine-Schlagel, R., Brookman-Frazee, L., Roesch, S., & Zhang, J. (2014). Searching for elements of evidence-based practices in children’s usual care and examining their impact. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43(2), 201–215. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.869750.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gaskill, R. L., & Perry, B. D. (2014). The neurobiological power of play: Using the neurosequential model of therapeutics to guide play in the healing process. In C. Malchiodi & D. Crenshaw (Eds.), Creative arts and play therapy for attachment problems. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  44. Ghosh Ippen, C., Harris, W. W., Van Horn, P., & Lieberman, A. F. (2011). Traumatic and stressful events in early childhood: Can treatment help those at highest risk? Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 50–513. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gil, E. (1991). The healing power of play: working with abused children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Gil, E. (2011). Helping abused and traumatized children: integrating directive and nondirective approaches. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Goldman Fraser, J., Lloyd, S. W., Murphy, R. A., Crowson, M. M., Casanueva, C., Zolotor, A., & Viswanathan, M. (2013). Child exposure to trauma: comparative effectiveness of interventions addressing maltreatment. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.Google Scholar
  48. Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  49. Hodgdon, H. B., Kinniburgh, K. J., Gabowitz, D., Blaustein, M. E., & Spinazzola, J. (2013). Development and implementation of trauma-informed programming in youth residential treatment centers using the ARC framework. Journal of Family Violence, 28, 679–692. doi: 10.1007/s10896-013-9531-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hodges, M., Godbout, N., Briere, J., Lanktree, C. B., Gilbert, A. M., & Kletzka, N. T. (2013). Cumulative trauma and symptom complexity in children: A path analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37, 891–898. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.04.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jaycox, L. H., Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Walker, D. W., Langley, A. K., Gegenheimer, K. L., & Schonlau, M. (2010). Children’s mental health care following Hurricane Katrina: A field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 223–231. doi: 10.1002/jts.20518.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen, T. K., Holt, T., Ormhaug, S. M., Egeland, K., Granly, L., Hoaas, L. C., & Wentzel-Larsen, T. (2014). A randomized effectiveness study comparing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with therapy as usual for youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43(3), 356–369. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.822307.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kezelman, C., & Stavropoulos, P. (2012). The Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Complex Trauma and Trauma Informed Care and Service Delivery. Adults Surviving Child Abuse (ASCA). Funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.Google Scholar
  54. Kinniburgh, K. J., Blaustein, M., Spinazzola, J., & Van Der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Attachment, self-regulation, and competency: A comprehensive intervention framework for children with complex trauma. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 424–430.Google Scholar
  55. Kisiel, C. L., Fehrenbach, T., Torgersen, E., Stolbach, B. C., McClelland, G., Griffin, G., & Burkman, K. (2014). Constellations of interpersonal trauma and symptoms in child welfare: Implications for a developmental trauma framework. Journal of Family Violence, 29, 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10896-013-9559-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kolko, D. J., Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Baumann, B. L., & Knudsen, K. (2009). Community treatment of child sexual abuse: A survey of practitioners in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 36, 37–49. doi: 10.1007/s10488-008-0180-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kolko, D. J., Iselin, A. R., & Gully, K. J. (2011). Evaluation of the sustainability and clinical outcome of alternatives for families: A cognitive behavioral therapy (AF-CBT) in a child protection center. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 105–116. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.09.004.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lanktree, C. B., & Briere, J. (1995). Outcome of therapy for sexually abused children: A repeated measures study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 1145–1155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lanktree, C. B., Briere, J., Godbout, N., Hodges, M., Chen, K., Trimm, L., & Freed, W. (2012). Treating multitraumatized socially marginalized children: Results of a naturalistic treatment outcome study. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 21(8), 813–828. doi: 10.1080/10926771.2012.722588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lanktree, C. B., Gilbert, A. M., Briere, J., Taylor, N., Chen, K., Maida, C. A., & Saltzman, W. R. (2008). Multi-informant assessment of maltreated children: Convergent and discriminant validity of the TSCC and TSCYC. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 621–625. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.10.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lau, A., & Weisz, J. R. (2003). Reported maltreatment among clinic-referred children: Implications for presenting problems, treatment attrition, and long-term outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1327–1334. doi: 10.1097/01.CHI.0000085754.71002.14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lewis, E.E, Dozier, M, Ackerman, J, & Sepulveda-Kozakowski, S. (2007). The effect of placement instability on adopted children’s inhibitory control abilities and oppositional behavior. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1415–1427. doi:
  63. Lieberman, A. F., Chu, A., Van Horn, P., & Harris, W. W. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: Empirical evidence and clinical implications. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 397–410. doi: 10.1017/S0954579411000137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lieberman, A. F., & Van Horn, P. (2006). Don’t hit my mommy: A manual for child parent psychotherapy with young witnesses of family violence. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press.Google Scholar
  65. Ludy-Dobson, C. R., & Perry, B. D. (2010). The role of healthy relational interactions in buffering the impact of childhood trauma. In E. Gil & L. Terr (Eds.), Working with Children to Heal Interpersonal Trauma: The Power of Play. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  66. Malchiodi, C. A. (2008). Creative Interventions with Traumatized Children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  67. McGloin, Jm, & Widom, C. S. (2001). Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 1021–1038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Newton, R. R., Litrownik, A. J., & Landsverk, J. (2000). Children and youth in foster care: Disentangling the relationship between problem behaviors and number of placements. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24(10), 1363–1374. doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00189-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Nilsson, D., Wadsby, M., & Svedin, C. G. (2008). The psychometric properties of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) in a sample of Swedish children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 627–636. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.09.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nolan, M., Carr, A., Fitzpatrick, C., O’Flaherty, A., Keary, K., Turner, R., & Tobin, G. (2002). A comparison of two programmes for victims of child sexual abuse: A treatment outcome study. Child Abuse Review, 11, 103–123. doi: 10.1002/car.727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pederson, L. (2012). The Expanded Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Manual. Wisconsin: PESI Publishing and Media.Google Scholar
  72. Perry, B. D., & Pollard, R. (1998). Homeostasis, stress, trauma, and adaptation: A neurodevelopmental view of childhood trauma. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 33–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Piacentini, J., Bergman, R. L., Jacobs, C., McCracken, J. T., & Kretchman, J. (2002). Open trial of cognitive behavior therapy for childhood obsessive compulsive disorder. Anxiety Disorders, 16, 207–219. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(02)00096-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ray, D, Bratton, S.C, Rhine, T, & Jones, L. (2001). The effectiveness of play therapy: Responding to the critics. International Journal of Play Therapy, 10(1), 85–108. doi:
  75. Resick, P. A., Bovin, M. J., Calloway, A. L., Dick, A. M., King, M. W., Mitchell, K. S., & Wolf, E. J. (2012). A critical evaluation of the complex PTSD literature: Implications for DSM-5. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 241–251. doi: 10.1002/jts.21699.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rubin, D. M., O’Reilly, A. L. R., Luan, X., & Localio, A. R. (2007). The impact of placement stability on behavioral well-being for children in foster care. Pediatrics, 119(2), 336–344. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-1995.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sadowski, C. M., & Friedrich, W. N. (2000). Psychometric properties of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) with psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 5, 364–372. doi: 10.1177/1077559500005004008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Salloum, A. (2008). Group therapy for children after homicide and violence: A pilot study. Research on Social Work Practice, 18(3), 198–211. doi: 10.1177/1049731507307808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Saxe, G. N., Ellis, H., Fogler, J., Hansen, S., & Sorkin, B. (2005). Comprehensive care for traumatized children: An open trial examines treatment using Trauma Systems Therapy. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 443–448.Google Scholar
  80. Schiffer, F., Teicher, M., & Papanicolaou, A. (1995). Evoked potential evidence for right brain activity during the recall of traumatic memories. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 7, 169–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Schneider, S. J., Grilli, S. F., & Schneider, J. R. (2013). Evidence-based treatments for traumatized children and adolescents. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15, 332–341. doi: 10.1007/s11920-012-0332-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schoenwald, S.K, & Hoagwood, K. (2001). Effectiveness, transportability, and dissemination of interventions: What matters when? Psychiatric Services, 52, 1190–1197. doi:
  83. Schore, A. (2001). The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 201–269. doi: 10.1002/1097-0355(200101/04)22:1<201:AID-IMHJ8>3.0.CO;2-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schore, A. (2002). Dysregulation of the right brain: A fundamental mechanism of traumatic attachment and the psychopathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 9–30. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.00996.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sheinber, M., & True, F. (2008). Treating family relational trauma: A recursive process using a decision dialogue. Family Process, 47(2), 173–195. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2008.00247.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shirk, S. R., Karver, M. S., & Brown, R. (2011). The alliance in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 48, 17–24. doi: 10.1037/a0022181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  88. Silverman, W. K., Ortiz, C. D., Viswesvaran, C., Burns, B. J., Kolko, D. J., Putnam, F. W., & Amaya-Jackson, L. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 156–183. doi: 10.1080/15374410701818293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Southam-Gerow, M. A., Weisz, J. R., & Kendall, P. C. (2003). Youth with anxiety disorders in research and service clinics: Examining client differences and similarities. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 375–385. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3203_06.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Spinazzola, J., Ford, J. D., Zucker, M., van der Kolk, B. A., Silva, S., Smith, S. F., & Blaustein, M. E. (2005). Survey evaluates complex trauma exposure, outcome, and intervention among children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35(5), 433–439.Google Scholar
  91. Steketee, G., & Chambless, D. L. (1992). Methodological issues in prediction of treatment outcome. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 387–400. doi: 10.1016/0272-7358(92)90123-P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stolbach, B. C., Minshew, R., Rompala, V., Dominguez, R. Z., Gazibara, T., & Finke, R. (2013). Complex trauma exposure and symptoms in urban traumatized children: A preliminary test of proposed criteria for developmental trauma disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 1–9. doi: 10.1002/jts.21826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tarren-Sweeney, M. (2013). An investigation of complex attachment- and trauma-related symptomatology among children in foster and kinship care. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44, 727–741. doi: 10.1007/s10578-013-0366-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Taussig, H. N., & Raviv, T. (2014). Foster care and child well-being: A promise whose time has come. In J. Korbin & R. Krugman (Eds.), Handbook of child maltreatment. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  95. Van Der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder: Toward a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 401–408.Google Scholar
  96. van der Kolk, B. A., & van der Hart, O. (1989). Pierre Janet and the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1530–1540. doi: 10.1176/ajp.146.12.1530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. van Westrhenen, N., & Fritz, E. (2014). Creative arts therapy as treatment for child trauma: An overview. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 41, 527–534. doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2014.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vernberg, E. M., Jacobs, A. K., Nyre, J. E., Puddy, R. W., & Roberts, M. C. (2004). Innovative treatment for children with serious emotional disturbance: Preliminary outcomes for a school-based intensive mental health program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 359–365. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3302-17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Warren, J. S., Nelson, P. L., Mondragon, S. A., Baldwin, S. A., & Burlingame, G. M. (2010). Youth psychotherapy change trajectories and outcomes in usual care: Community mental health versus managed care settings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 144–155. doi: 10.1037/a0018544.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Weiner, D. A., Schneider, A., & Lyons, J. S. (2009). Evidence-based treatments for trauma among culturally diverse foster care youth: Treatment retention and outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 1199–1205. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.08.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weisz, J., Jensen-Doss, A., & Hawley, K. M. (2006). Evidence-based youth psychotherapies versus usual clinical care: A meta-analysis of direct comparisons. American Psychologist, 61, 671–689. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.7.671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Weisz, J., Ugueto, A. M., Cheron, D. M., & Herren, J. (2013). Evidence-based youth psychotherapy in the mental health ecosystem. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 274–286. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.764824.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Westphal, M., Olfson, M., Gameroff, M. J., Wichramaratne, P., Pilowsky, D. J., Neugebauer, R., & Neria, Y. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Findings from primary care. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 686–695.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Williams, N. J. (2009). Preliminary evaluation of children’s psychosocial rehabilitation for youth with serious emotional disturbance. Research on Social Work Practice, 19, 5–18. doi: 10.1177/1049731507313996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Dauber
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katheryn Lotsos
    • 2
  • Mary L. Pulido
    • 2
  1. 1.The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to ChildrenNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations