The current paper provides an empirical literature review of protective factors for children and adolescents exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Twenty-one empirical studies were reviewed for the empirical review. A critique of methodology used in the studies is presented. The role of race, age, and gender on protective factors is explored. Finally, implications for future social work practice, policy, and research with children and adolescents exposed to IPV are addressed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
References marked with an asterisk * indicate studies included in the empirical research review
Alvord, M. K., & Grados, J. J. (2005). Enhancing resilience in children: A proactive approach. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(3), 238–245.
Becker, K. B., & McCloskey, L. A. (2002). Attention and conduct problems in children exposed to family violence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72(1), 83–91.
Bolognini, M., Plancherel, B., Bettschart, W., & Halfon, O. (1996). Self-esteem and mental health in early adolescence: Development and gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 233–245.
Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Balka, E. B., Win, P. T., & Gursen, M. D. (1998). Drug use among Puerto Ricans: Ethnic identity as a protective factor. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20, 241–254.
Caetano, R., Field, C. A., & Nelson, S. (2003). Association between childhood physical abuse, exposure to parental violence, and alcohol problems in adulthood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(3), 240–257.
* Carbonell, D. M., Reinherz, H. Z., Giaconia, R. M., Stashwick, C. K., Paradis, A. D., & Beardslee, W. R. (2002). Adolescent protective factors promoting resilience in young adults at risk for depression. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 19(5), 393–412.
Carr, J. L., & VanDeusen, K. M. (2002). The relationship between family of origin violence and dating violence in college men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(6), 630–646.
* Chandy, J. M., Blum, R. W., & Resnick, M. D. (1996). History of sexual abuse and parental alcohol misuse: Risk, outcomes, and protective factors in adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 13(5), 411–432.
* Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Lapp, A. L. (2002). Family adversity, positive peer relationships, and children’s externalizing behavior: A longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience. Child Development, 73(4), 1220–1237.
* Denny, S., Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., & Wall, M. (2004). Emotional resilience: Risk and protective factors for depression among alternative education students in New Zealand. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(2), 137–149.
Fraser, M. W., Richman, J. M., & Galinsky, M. J. (1999). Risk, protection, and resilience: Toward a conceptual framework for social work practice. Social Work Research, 23(3), 131–144.
* Grossman, F. K., Beinashowitz, J., Anderson, L., Sakurai, M., Finnin, L., & Flaherty, M. (1992). Risk and resilience in young adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescents, 21(5), 529–550.
Grych, J. H., Jouriles, E. N., Swank, P. R., McDonald, R., & Norwood, W. D. (2000). Patterns of adjustment among children of battered women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 84–94.
* Hagen, K. A., Myers, B. J., & Mackintosh, V. H. (2005). Hope, social support, and behavioral problems in at-risk children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(2), 211–219.
* Herrenkohl, T. I., Hill, K. G., Chung, I. J., Guo, J., Abbott, R. D., & Hawkins, J. D. (2003). Protective factors against serious violent behavior in adolescence: A prospective study of aggressive children. Social Work Research, 27(3), 179–191.
Howard, S., Dryden, J., & Johnson, B. (1999). Childhood resilience: Review and critique of literature. Oxford Review of Education, 25(3), 307–323.
* Jackson, Y. (2005). Testing the compensatory and immunity models of children’s adaptive behaviors: The role of appraisal. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(3), 369–380.
* Jackson, Y., Sifers, S. K., Warren, J. S., & Velasquez, D. (2003). Family protective factors and behavioral outcome: The role of appraisal in family life events. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(2), 103–111.
Jenkins, E. J., & Bell, C. C. (1997). Exposure and response to community violence among children and adolescents. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Children in a violent society (pp. 9–31). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kerig, P. K. (1998). Gender and appraisals as mediators of adjustment in children exposed to interparental violence. Journal of Family Violence, 13(4), 345–363.
* Kliewer, W., et al. (2004). Violence exposure and adjustment in inner-city youth: Child and caregiver emotion regulation skill, caregiver-child relationship quality, and neighborhood cohesion as protective factors. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(3), 477–487.
* Kogan, S. M., Luo, Z., Murry, V. M., & Brody, G. H. (2005). Risk and protective factors for substance use among African American high school dropouts. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(4), 382–391.
* Lee, M. Y. (2001). Marital violence: Impact on children’s emotional experiences, emotional regulation and behaviors in a post-divorce/separation situation. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 18(2), 137–163.
Lehmann, P. (1997). The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of child witnesses to mother assault. Journal of Family Violence, 12(3), 241–257.
* Lengua, L. J. (2002). The contribution of emotionality and self-regulation to the understanding of children’s response to multiple risk. Child Development, 73(1), 144–161.
Levendosky, A. A., Hutch-Bocks, A. C., Semel, M. A., & Shapiro, D. L. (2002). Trauma symptoms in preschool-age children exposed to domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(2), 150–164.
Luster, T., Small, S. A., & Lower, R. (2002). The correlates of abuse and witnessing abuse among adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(12), 1323–1340.
* Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents. Child Development, 62, 600–616.
* Margolin, S. (2006). African American youths with internalizing difficulties: Relation to social support and activity involvement. Children and Schools, 28(3), 135–144.
* McCabe, K. M., Clark, R., & Barnett, D. (1999). Family protective factors among urban African American youth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28(2), 137–150.
McCloskey, L. A., & Lichter, E. L. (2003). The contribution of marital violence to adolescent aggression across different relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(4), 390–412.
Minnard, C. V. (2002). A strong building: Foundation of protective factors in schools. Children & Schools, 24(4), 233–246.
Office of Violence Against Women. (2004). Violence Against Women Act of 1994. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from U.S. Department of Justice Web Site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/vawo/laws/vawa.
* O’Keefe, M. (1998). Factors mediating the link between witnessing interparental violence and dating violence. Journal of Family Violence, 13(1), 39–57.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
* Pottinger, A. M. (2005). Children’s experience of loss by parental migration in inner-city Jamaica. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(4), 485–496.
* Prelow, H. M., & Loukas, A. (2003). The role of resource, protective, and risk factors on academic achievement-related outcomes of economically disadvantaged Latino youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(5), 513–529.
Quatman, T., & Watson, C. M. (2001). Gender differences in adolescent self-esteem: An exploration of domains. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 162(1), 93–117.
Rak, C. F., & Patterson, L. E. (1996). Promoting resilience in at-risk children. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, 368–373.
Ruben, A., & Babbie, E. (2001). Research Methods for Social Work (4th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Sandler, I. N., Miller, P., Short, J., & Wolchik, S. A. (1989). Social support as a protective factor for children in stress. In D. Belle (Ed.), Children’s Social Networks and Social Supports (pp. 277–307). New York: Wiley.
* Scheingart, J. S., Molnar, J., Klein, T. P., Lowe, C. B., & Hartmann, A. H. (1995). Homelessness and child functioning in the context of risk and protective factors moderating child outcomes. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24(3), 320–331.
Steele, W., & Malchiodi, C. A. (2012). Trauma-informed practices with children and adolescents. New York: Routledge.
Umana-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latino adolescents’ mental health: Exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 549–567.
Whitbeck, L. B., Hoyt, D. R., Stubben, J. D., & LaFromboise, T. (2001). Traditional culture and academic success among American Indian children in the upper Midwest. Journal of American Indian Education, 40(2), 48–60.
Whitfield, C. L., Anda, R. F., Dube, S. R., & Felitti, V. J. (2003). Violent childhood experiences and the risk of intimate partner violence in adults: Assessment in a large health maintenance organization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(2), 166–185.
Williams, L. M. (2003). Understanding child abuse and violence against women: A life course perspective. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(4), 441–451.
* Williams, N. R., Lindsey, E. W., Kurtz, P. D., & Jarvis, S. (2001). From trauma to resiliency: Lessons from former runaway and homeless youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 4(2), 233–253.
Yexley, M., Bowowsky, I., & Ireland, M. (2002). Correlation between different experiences of intrafamilial physical violence and violent adolescent behavior. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(7), 707–720.
About this article
Cite this article
Benavides, L.E. Protective Factors in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: An Empirical Research Review. Child Adolesc Soc Work J 32, 93–107 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-014-0339-3
- Protective factors
- Intimate partner violence