Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 197–212 | Cite as

Association of Abnormal Serum Potassium Levels with Arrhythmias and Cardiovascular Mortality: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

  • Liesa K. Hoppe
  • Dana C. Muhlack
  • Wolfgang Koenig
  • Prudence R. Carr
  • Hermann Brenner
  • Ben Schöttker



To provide the first systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies on the association of abnormal serum potassium and cardiovascular outcomes.


Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge were systematically searched from inception until November 24, 2017. Data synthesis of relevant studies was performed using random effects model meta-analyses.


Meta-analyses included 310,825 participants from 24 studies. In the older general population, low serum potassium was associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk of supraventricular arrhythmias (risk ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.62 [1.02–2.55]). Contrarily, high serum potassium was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (CVM) (1.38 [1.14–1.66]). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the risk of ventricular arrhythmias was increased for high serum potassium (2.33 [1.60–3.38]). A U-shaped association was observed with a composite cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients (2.6-fold increased risk with hypokalemia and 1.7-fold increased risk with hyperkalemia), with CVM in dialysis patients (1.1-fold increased risk with hypokalemia and 1.4-fold increased risk with hyperkalemia) and with CVM in heart failure patients (albeit not statistically significant). Further, only hyperkalemia was associated with an increased risk of a composite cardiovascular outcome in both dialysis (1.12 [1.03–1.23]) and chronic kidney disease (1.34 [1.06–1.71]) patients.


Controlled clinical trials are needed to determine which populations may profit from more frequent potassium-monitoring and subsequent interventions, e.g., change or withdrawal of potassium-influencing drugs, in order to restore normal values and prevent cardiovascular outcomes.

Registration Details

Registration in PROSPERO (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination University of York, York, UK): CRD42016048897 (


Serum potassium Arrhythmia Cardiovascular mortality Systematic review Meta-analysis Observational studies 



We thank Maurizio Grilli for his advice and support concerning the development of the search strategy.


This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10557_2018_6783_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (478 kb)
Online Resource 1 (PDF 477 kb)
10557_2018_6783_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (567 kb)
Online Resource 2 (PDF 567 kb)
10557_2018_6783_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (477 kb)
Online Resource 3 (PDF 477 kb)
10557_2018_6783_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (646 kb)
Online Resource 4 (PDF 646 kb)
10557_2018_6783_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (506 kb)
Online Resource 5 (PDF 505 kb)
10557_2018_6783_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (615 kb)
Online Resource 6 (PDF 614 kb)
10557_2018_6783_MOESM7_ESM.pdf (500 kb)
Online Resource 7 (PDF 500 kb)
10557_2018_6783_MOESM8_ESM.pdf (631 kb)
Online Resource 8 (PDF 630 kb)


  1. 1.
    Cardiovascular diseases - fact sheet. World Health Organization. Accessed 21 Oct 2016
  2. 2.
    Palmer BF, Clegg DJ. Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium homeostasis. Adv Physiol Educ. 2016;40(4):480–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lerma EV. Potassium. In: Drugs & disease - laboratory medicine. Accessed 23 Dec 2016
  4. 4.
    Brown MJ, Brown DC, Murphy MB. Hypokalemia from beta2-receptor stimulation by circulating epinephrine. N Engl J Med. 1983;309(23):1414–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Obeid AI, Verrier RL, Lown B. Influence of glucose, insulin, and potassium on vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation in the canine heart. Circ Res. 1978;43(4):601–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kovesdy CP. Management of hyperkalaemia in chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2014;10(11):653–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 2000;283(15):2008–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wells GA, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Accessed 7 Dec 2016
  9. 9.
    Ahmed A, Zannad F, Love TE, Tallaj J, Gheorghiade M, Ekundayo OJ, et al. A propensity-matched study of the association of low serum potassium levels and mortality in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2007;28(11):1334–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmed MI, Ekundayo OJ, Mujib M, Campbell RC, Sanders PW, Pitt B, et al. Mild hyperkalemia and outcomes in chronic heart failure: a propensity matched study. Int J Cardiol. 2010;144(3):383–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aldahl M, Jensen AC, Davidsen L, Eriksen MA, Moller Hansen S, Nielsen BJ, et al. Associations of serum potassium levels with mortality in chronic heart failure patients. Eur Heart J. 2017;38(38):2890–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brezins M, Elyassov S, Elimelech I, Roguin N. Comparison of patients with acute myocardial infarction with and without ventricular fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 1996;78(8):948–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bulpitt CJ, Bulpitt PF, Daymond M, Hartley K, Dollery CT. Fifteen year survival of patients presenting with hypertension to a hospital clinic. Postgrad Med J. 1986;62(727):335–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen Y, Chang AR, McAdams DeMarco MA, Inker LA, Matsushita K, Ballew SH, et al. Serum potassium, mortality, and kidney outcomes in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(10):1403–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Choi JS, Kim YA, Kim HY, Oak CY, Kang YU, Kim CS, et al. Relation of serum potassium level to long-term outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113(8):1285–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chow KM, Szeto CC, Kwan BC, Chung KY, Leung CB, Li PK. Factors associated with sudden death in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int J Int Soc Perit Dial. 2009;29(1):58–63.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cleland JG, Dargie HJ, Ford I. Mortality in heart failure: clinical variables of prognostic value. Br Heart J. 1987;58(6):572–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cohen HW, Madhavan S, Alderman MH. High and low serum potassium associated with cardiovascular events in diuretic-treated patients. J Hypertens. 2001;19(7):1315–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dargie HJ, Cleland JG, Leckie BJ, Inglis CG, East BW, Ford I. Relation of arrhythmias and electrolyte abnormalities to survival in patients with severe chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1987;75(5 Pt 2):Iv98–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davidson S, Surawicz B. Ectopic beats and atrioventricular conduction disturbances. In patients with hypopotassemia. Arch Intern Med. 1967;120(3):280–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D'Elia JA, Weinrauch LA, Gleason RE, Hampton LA, Smith-Ossman S, Yoburn DC, et al. Application of the ambulatory 24-hour electrocardiogram in the prediction of cardiac death in dialysis patients. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(11):2381–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Detrano R, Maloney J, Leatherman J. Ventricular arrhythmias and serum potassium: is there a correlation in the arrhythmic patient? Cleve Clin Q. 1984;51(1):55–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dyckner T, Helmers C, Wester PO. Initial serum potassium level, early arrhythmias and previous diuretic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 1982;2(1):146–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fang J, Madhavan S, Cohen H, Alderman MH. Serum potassium and cardiovascular mortality. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15(12):885–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Friedensohn A, Faibel HE, Bairey O, Goldbourt U, Schlesinger Z. Malignant arrhythmias in relation to values of serum potassium in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 1991;32(3):331–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Genovesi S, Valsecchi MG, Rossi E, Pogliani D, Acquistapace I, De Cristofaro V, et al. Sudden death and associated factors in a historical cohort of chronic haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transplant Assoc Eur Renal Assoc. 2009;24(8):2529–36.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goyal A, Spertus JA, Gosch K, Venkitachalam L, Jones PG, Van den Berghe G, et al. Serum potassium levels and mortality in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2012;307(2):157–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gundling F, Schmidtler F, Zelihic E, Seidl H, Haller B, Ronel J, et al. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmia in patients with liver cirrhoses and evaluation of associated factors. Z Gastroenterol. 2012;50(11):1149–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Herlitz J, Hjalmarson A, Bengtson A. Occurrence of hypokalemia in suspected acute myocardial infarction and its relation to clinical history and clinical course. Clin Cardiol. 1988;11(10):678–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Higham PD, Adams PC, Murray A, Campbell RW. Plasma potassium, serum magnesium and ventricular fibrillation: a prospective study. Q J Med. 1993;86(9):609–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Huang CW, Lee MJ, Lee PT, Hsu CY, Huang WC, Chen CL, et al. Low potassium dialysate as a protective factor of sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients with hyperkalemia. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139886.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hughes-Austin JM, Rifkin DE, Beben T, Katz R, Sarnak MJ, Deo R, et al. The relation of serum potassium concentration with cardiovascular events and mortality in community-living individuals. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN. 2017;12(2):245–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Janko O, Seier J, Zazgornik J. Hypokalemia--incidence and severity in a general hospital. Wien Med Wochenschr (1946). 1992;142(4):78–81.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kafka H, Langevin L, Armstrong PW. Serum magnesium and potassium in acute myocardial infarction. Influence on ventricular arrhythmias. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147(3):465–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Karaboyas A, Zee J, Brunelli SM, Usvyat LA, Weiner DE, Maddux FW, et al. Dialysate potassium, serum potassium, mortality, and arrhythmia events in hemodialysis: results from the Dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (DOPPS). Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2017;69(2):266–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Keskin M, Kaya A, Tatlisu MA, Hayiroglu MI, Uzman O, Borklu EB, et al. The effect of serum potassium level on in-hospital and long-term mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2016;221:505–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Korgaonkar S, Tilea A, Gillespie BW, Kiser M, Eisele G, Finkelstein F, et al. Serum potassium and outcomes in CKD: insights from the RRI-CKD cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN. 2010;5(5):762–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kovesdy CP, Regidor DL, Mehrotra R, Jing J, McAllister CJ, Greenland S, et al. Serum and dialysate potassium concentrations and survival in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(5):999–1007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krijthe BP, Heeringa J, Kors JA, Hofman A, Franco OH, Witteman JC, et al. Serum potassium levels and the risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam Study. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168(6):5411–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lai YH, Leu HB, Yeh WT, Chang HY, Pan WH. Low-normal serum potassium is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death in community-based elderly. J Formos Med Assoc Taiwan Yi Zhi. 2015;114(6):517–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li SH, Xie JT, Long HB, Zhang J, Zhou WD, Niu HX, et al. Time-averaged serum potassium levels and its fluctuation associate with 5-year survival of peritoneal dialysis patients: two-center based study. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15743.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    López Castro J, Ortega RA, Romero MPD, Juanatey JRG. Mortality prognosis factors in heart failure in a cohort of north-West Spain. EPICOUR study. Rev Clin Esp. 2010;210(9):438–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Luo J, Brunelli SM, Jensen DE, Yang A. Association between serum potassium and outcomes in patients with reduced kidney function. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN. 2016;11(1):90–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Madias JE, Shah B, Chintalapally G, Chalavarya G, Madias NE. Admission serum potassium in patients with acute myocardial infarction: its correlates and value as a determinant of in-hospital outcome. Chest. 2000;118(4):904–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nielsen LK, Schultz A, Astrup G, Schmidt EB. Hypokalemia and arrhythmia in acute myocardial infarction. Ugeskr Laeger. 1986;148(16):951–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nolan J, Batin PD, Andrews R, Lindsay SJ, Brooksby P, Mullen M, et al. Prospective study of heart rate variability and mortality in chronic heart failure: results of the United Kingdom heart failure evaluation and assessment of risk trial (UK-heart). Circulation. 1998;98(15):1510–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nordrehaug JE, Johannessen KA, von der Lippe G. Serum potassium concentration as a risk factor of ventricular arrhythmias early in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1985;71(4):645–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Park S, Baek SH, Lee SW, Lee A, Chin HJ, Na KY, et al. Elevated baseline potassium level within reference range is associated with worse clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):2402.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reuben SR, Thomas RD. The relationship between serum potassium and cardiac arrhythmias following cardiac infarction in patients aged over 65 years. Curr Med Res Opin. 1982;7(Suppl 1):79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ribeiro SC, Figueiredo AE, Barretti P, Pecoits-Filho R, de Moraes TP. Low serum potassium levels increase the infectious-caused mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients: a propensity-matched score study. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0127453.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shlomai G, Berkovitch A, Pinchevski-Kadir S, Bornstein G, Leibowitz A, Goldenberg I, et al. The association between normal-range admission potassium levels in Israeli patients with acute coronary syndrome and early and late outcomes. Medicine. 2016;95(23):e3778.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Simpson RJ, Jr., Cascio WE, Schreiner PJ, Crow RS, Rautaharju PM, Heiss G. Prevalence of premature ventricular contractions in a population of African American and white men and women: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am Heart J 2002;143(3):535–540.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Su J, Fu X, Tian Y, Ma Y, Chen H, Wang Y, et al. Additional predictive value of serum potassium to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score for early malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Emerg Med. 2012;30(7):1089–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thomas RD. Ventricular fibrillation and initial plasma potassium in acute myocardial infarction. Postgrad Med J. 1983;59(692):354–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Torlen K, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Molnar MZ, Vashistha T, Mehrotra R. Serum potassium and cause-specific mortality in a large peritoneal dialysis cohort. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN. 2012;7(8):1272–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tsuji H, Venditti FJ Jr, Evans JC, Larson MG, Levy D. The associations of levels of serum potassium and magnesium with ventricular premature complexes (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 1994;74(3):232–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Uluganyan M, Ekmekci A, Murat A, Avsar S, Ulutas TK, Uyarel H, et al. Admission serum potassium level is associated with in-hospital and long-term mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Anatolian J Cardiol. 2016;16(1):10–5.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wagner S, Metzger M, Flamant M, Houillier P, Haymann JP, Vrtovsnik F, et al. Association of plasma potassium with mortality and end-stage kidney disease in patients with chronic kidney disease under nephrologist care—the NephroTest study. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18(1):295.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Walsh CR, Larson MG, Leip EP, Vasan RS, Levy D. Serum potassium and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham heart study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(9):1007–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wannamethee SG, Lever AF, Shaper AG, Whincup PH. Serum potassium, cigarette smoking, and mortality in middle-aged men. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(7):598–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Xu Q, Xu F, Fan L, Xiong L, Li H, Cao S, et al. Serum potassium levels and its variability in incident peritoneal dialysis patients: associations with mortality. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e86750.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yusuf AA, Hu Y, Sing B, Menoyo JA, Wetmore JB. Serum potassium levels and mortality in hemodialysis patients: a retrospective cohort study. Am J Nephrol. 2016;44(3):179–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Weisberg LS. Management of severe hyperkalemia. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(12):3246–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dunn JD, Benton WW, Orozco-Torrentera E, Adamson RT. The burden of hyperkalemia in patients with cardiovascular and renal disease. Am J Manag Care. 2015;21(15 Suppl):s307–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rossignol P, Legrand M, Kosiborod M, Hollenberg SM, Peacock WF, Emmett M, et al. Emergency management of severe hyperkalemia: guideline for best practice and opportunities for the future. Pharmacol Res. 2016;113(Pt A):585–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Koplan BA, Stevenson WG. Ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;84(3):289–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    John RM, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Albert CM, Epstein LM, Sweeney MO, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Lancet (London, England). 2012;380(9852):1520–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gheeraert PJ, De Buyzere ML, Taeymans YM, Gillebert TC, Henriques JP, De Backer G, et al. Risk factors for primary ventricular fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(21):2499–510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JG, Coats AJ, et al. 2016 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Rev Esp Cardiol (English ed). 2016;69(12):1167.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lehnhardt A, Kemper MJ. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia. Pediatric Nephrol (Berlin, Germany). 2011;26(3):377–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gansevoort RT, Correa-Rotter R, Hemmelgarn BR, Jafar TH, Heerspink HJ, Mann JF, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention. Lancet (London, England). 2013;382(9889):339–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Karnik JA, Young BS, Lew NL, Herget M, Dubinsky C, Lazarus JM, et al. Cardiac arrest and sudden death in dialysis units. Kidney Int. 2001;60(1):350–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bleyer AJ, Hartman J, Brannon PC, Reeves-Daniel A, Satko SG, Russell G. Characteristics of sudden death in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2006;69(12):2268–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Al-Ghamdi G, Hemmelgarn B, Klarenbach S, Manns B, Wiebe N, Tonelli M. Dialysate potassium and risk of death in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Nephrol. 2010;23(1):33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pun PH, Lehrich RW, Honeycutt EF, Herzog CA, Middleton JP. Modifiable risk factors associated with sudden cardiac arrest within hemodialysis clinics. Kidney Int. 2011;79(2):218–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Abuelo JG. Low dialysate potassium concentration: an overrated risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia? Semin Dial. 2015;28(3):266–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hung AM, Hakim RM. Dialysate and serum potassium in hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dise Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2015;66(1):125–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Karaboyas A, Zee J, Brunelli SM, Usvyat LA, Weiner DE, Maddux FW, et al. Dialysate potassium, serum potassium, mortality, and arrhythmia events in hemodialysis: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. 2016;69:266–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    2013 Practice guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC): ESH/ESC Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013;31(10):1925–38.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
  81. 81.
    Cohn JN, Kowey PR, Whelton PK, Prisant LM. New guidelines for potassium replacement in clinical practice: a contemporary review by the National Council on Potassium in Clinical Practice. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(16):2429–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 guideline update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2005;112(12):e154–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Macdonald JE, Struthers AD. What is the optimal serum potassium level in cardiovascular patients? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(2):155–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Van Harrison R, Lukela J, Jimbo M, Mahallati A, Saran R, Sy A. Management of chronic kidney disease. In: Guidelines for Clinical Care. 2014.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Collins AJ, Pitt B, Reaven N, Funk S, McGaughey K, Wilson D, et al. Association of Serum Potassium with all-cause mortality in patients with and without heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and/or diabetes. Am J Nephrol. 2017;46(3):213–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liesa K. Hoppe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dana C. Muhlack
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Koenig
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Prudence R. Carr
    • 2
  • Hermann Brenner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ben Schöttker
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Network Aging ResearchUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging ResearchGerman Cancer Research CenterHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Deutsches Herzzentrum MünchenTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  4. 4.DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart AllianceTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  5. 5.Department of Internal Medicine II – CardiologyUniversity of Ulm Medical CentreUlmGermany
  6. 6.Institute of Health Care and Social SciencesFOM UniversityEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations