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Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 359–380 | Cite as

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer: lessons learned from clinical trials

  • Seyed Fazel Nabavi
  • Stefania Bilotto
  • Gian Luigi Russo
  • Ilkay Erdogan Orhan
  • Solomon Habtemariam
  • Maria Daglia
  • Kasi Pandima Devi
  • Monica Rosa Loizzo
  • Rosa Tundis
  • Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Clinical

Abstract

Over the past decades, extensive studies have addressed the therapeutic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) against different human diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, etc. A growing body of scientific research shows the pharmacokinetic information and safety of these natural occurring substances. Moreover, during recent years, a plethora of studies has demonstrated that omega-3 FAs possess therapeutic role against certain types of cancer. It is also known that omega-3 FAs can improve efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy. Previous reports showed that suppression of nuclear factor-κB, activation of AMPK/SIRT1, modulation of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, and up-regulation of novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as protectins, maresins, and resolvins, are the main mechanisms of antineoplastic effect of omega-3 FAs. In this review, we have collected the available clinical data on the therapeutic role of omega-3 FAs against breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukemia, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, as well as cancer cachexia. We also discussed the chemistry, dietary source, and bioavailability of omega-3 FAs, and the potential molecular mechanisms of anticancer and adverse effects.

Keywords

Omega-3 FA Cancer Nuclear factor-κB Clinical trials 

Abbreviations

FAs

Fatty acids

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-κB

COX

Cyclooxygenase

ALA

Alpha-linolenic acid

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

AA

Arachidonic acid

Bcl-2

B-cell lymphoma 2

LTA

Light transmission aggregometry

EQELS

Electrophoretic quasi-elastic light scattering technology

Notes

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyed Fazel Nabavi
    • 1
  • Stefania Bilotto
    • 2
  • Gian Luigi Russo
    • 2
  • Ilkay Erdogan Orhan
    • 3
  • Solomon Habtemariam
    • 4
  • Maria Daglia
    • 5
  • Kasi Pandima Devi
    • 6
  • Monica Rosa Loizzo
    • 7
  • Rosa Tundis
    • 7
  • Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Biotechnology Research CenterBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.National Research CouncilInstitute of Food SciencesAvellinoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of PharmacyGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories, Medway School of ScienceUniversity of GreenwichChatham-MaritimeUK
  5. 5.Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology SectionUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly
  6. 6.Department of BiotechnologyAlagappa UniversityKaraikudiIndia
  7. 7.Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional SciencesUniversity of CalabriaRendeItaly

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