Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes

Abstract

The major factor in the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients is metastasis. There exists a relative lack of specific therapeutic approaches to control metastasis, and this is a fruitful area for investigation. A healthy diet and lifestyle not only can inhibit tumorigenesis but also can have a major impact on cancer progression and survival. Many chemicals found in edible plants are known to inhibit metastatic progression of cancer. While the mechanisms underlying antimetastatic activity of some phytochemicals are being delineated, the impact of diet, dietary components, and various phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes is underexplored. Epigenetic regulation of metastasis suppressor genes promises to be a potentially important mechanism by which dietary components can impact cancer metastasis since many dietary constituents are known to modulate gene expression. The review addresses this area of research as well as the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of diet, dietary components, and phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes.

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Abbreviations

BRMS:

Breast cancer metastasis suppressor

CTGF:

Connective tissue growth factor

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

DLC:

Deleted in colon cancer

EGCG:

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

EGF:

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR:

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EPA:

Eicosapentaenoic acid

IFN:

Interferon

KAI1:

Kangai 1

MALL:

Mal-like

MAPK:

Mitogen activated protein kinase

MKK:

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

miR:

Micro RNA

NDRG:

N-myc downstream-regulated gene

NM23:

Nonmetastatic gene 23

PDCD:

Programmed cell death

PEBP:

Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein

PTEN:

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

RASSF:

Ras-associated domain family

RECK:

Reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs

RhoGDI2:

Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2

RKIP:

Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein

SNRP:

Small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein

TIMP:

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase

TRAMP:

Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the NIH grants R01-AA-07293 and K05-AA-017149. The author also acknowledges the helpful suggestions and editing expertise of Kathleen Smith-Meadows.

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Correspondence to Gary G. Meadows.

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Meadows, G.G. Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes. Cancer Metastasis Rev 31, 441–454 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10555-012-9369-5

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Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Dietary
  • Nutrients
  • Phytochemicals
  • Metastasis suppressor
  • Epigenetics