Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes


The major factor in the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients is metastasis. There exists a relative lack of specific therapeutic approaches to control metastasis, and this is a fruitful area for investigation. A healthy diet and lifestyle not only can inhibit tumorigenesis but also can have a major impact on cancer progression and survival. Many chemicals found in edible plants are known to inhibit metastatic progression of cancer. While the mechanisms underlying antimetastatic activity of some phytochemicals are being delineated, the impact of diet, dietary components, and various phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes is underexplored. Epigenetic regulation of metastasis suppressor genes promises to be a potentially important mechanism by which dietary components can impact cancer metastasis since many dietary constituents are known to modulate gene expression. The review addresses this area of research as well as the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of diet, dietary components, and phytochemicals on metastasis suppressor genes.

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Breast cancer metastasis suppressor


Connective tissue growth factor


Docosahexaenoic acid


Deleted in colon cancer




Epidermal growth factor


Epidermal growth factor receptor


Eicosapentaenoic acid




Kangai 1




Mitogen activated protein kinase


Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase


Micro RNA


N-myc downstream-regulated gene


Nonmetastatic gene 23


Programmed cell death


Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein


Phosphatase and tensin homolog


Ras-associated domain family


Reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs


Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2


Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein


Small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein


Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase


Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate


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This work was supported by the NIH grants R01-AA-07293 and K05-AA-017149. The author also acknowledges the helpful suggestions and editing expertise of Kathleen Smith-Meadows.

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Correspondence to Gary G. Meadows.

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Meadows, G.G. Diet, nutrients, phytochemicals, and cancer metastasis suppressor genes. Cancer Metastasis Rev 31, 441–454 (2012).

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  • Cancer
  • Dietary
  • Nutrients
  • Phytochemicals
  • Metastasis suppressor
  • Epigenetics