Moving beyond two-dimensional screens to interactive three-dimensional visualization in congenital heart disease


Beginning with the discovery of X-rays to the development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging, improvements in acquisition, post-processing, and visualization have provided clinicians with detailed information for increasingly accurate medical diagnosis and clinical management. This paper highlights advances in imaging technologies for congenital heart disease (CHD), medical adoption, and future developments required to improve pre-procedural and intra-procedural guidance.

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Correspondence to Joseph J. Vettukattil.

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Supplementary Material 2 (AVI 216195 kb) A 360° visualization in any plane is feasible on True 3D Viewer(EchoPixel, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA)

Supplementary Material 3 (AVI 260588 kb) A 360° visualization in any plane is feasible on True 3D Viewer(EchoPixel, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA)

Supplementary Material 1 (PDF 9354 kb)3D segmented virtual model

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Byl, J.L., Sholler, R., Gosnell, J.M. et al. Moving beyond two-dimensional screens to interactive three-dimensional visualization in congenital heart disease. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 36, 1567–1573 (2020).

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  • 3D imaging
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Interactive 3D visualization