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T1 mapping in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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To assess the global and segmental left ventricular (LV) native T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) compared to a control cohort. The study population included 21 HCM patients (mean 14.1 ± 4.6 years) and 21 controls (mean 15.7 ± 1.5 years). Native modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence was performed before and after contrast injection in 3 short axis planes. Global and segmental LV native T1 and ECV were quantified and compared between HCM patients and controls. Mean native T1 in HCM patients and controls was 1020.4 ± 41.2 and 965.6 ± 30.2 ms respectively (p < 0.0001). Hypertrophied myocardium had significantly higher native global T1 and global ECV compared to non-hypertrophied myocardium in HCM (p < 0.0001, = 0.14 and 0.048, = 0.01 respectively). In a subset of patients, ECV was higher in LV segments with LGE compared to no LGE (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was identified between global native T1 and ECV and parameters of LV structure and function. Native T1 cut-off of 987 ms provided the highest sensitivity (95 %) and specificity (91 %) to separate HCM patients from controls. Global and segmental native T1 are elevated in HCM patients. LV segments with hypertrophy and/or LGE had higher ECV in a subset of HCM patients. LV native T1 and ECV do not correlate with parameters of LV structure and function. T1 in children and young adults may be used as a non-invasive tool to assess for HCM and related fibrosis.

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We thank Samantha Schoeneman, BA, Marci Messina, RT®(MR), and Brian Reilly, RT for their assistance with this project. Support by the the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI1R01 HL117888).

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Correspondence to Keyur Parekh.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by an appropriate institutional review board.

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Parekh, K., Markl, M., Deng, J. et al. T1 mapping in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 33, 109–117 (2017).

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