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A minimally-invasive closed chest myocardial occlusion-reperfusion model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): monitoring by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging


Myocardial infarction is frequently developed in canine and porcine models but exceptionally in non-human primates. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive myocardial ischemic/reperfusion model in the monkey intended to be combined with imaging techniques, in particular myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). A balloon-tipped catheter was advanced via the femoral artery into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) under fluoroscopic guidance in ten anaesthetized male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The balloon was inflated to completely occlude the vessel. Coronary angiography (CA) was performed to control the reality of the LAD occlusion/reperfusion. The ischemia period was followed by 3–6 h of reperfusion. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated during ischemia and at reperfusion by MCE using a novel ultrasound contrast agent (BR38). Occlusion was successfully induced during 18–50 min in nine out of the ten evaluated monkeys. ST segment elevation indicated myocardial ischemia. MCE showed complete transmural arrest of myocardial blood flow during the ischemia period and no persistent microvascular perfusion defects during reperfusion. A minimally invasive closed-chest model was successfully developed for creating myocardial ischemia in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This technique could have an important role in mimicking acute coronary syndrome under physiologically and ethically-acceptable conditions. MCE provides non-invasively information on myocardial perfusion status, information not available from CA.

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The authors would like to acknowledge Marianne Depecker, Anais Michon (VetAgro Sup, Veterinary Campus of Lyon, Equine department, Anesthesiology, 69280- Marcy l’Etoile, France) and Fabrice Taborik (Cynbiose, 69280- Marcy l’Etoile, France) for their valuable technical assistance.

Conflict of interest statement

Hugues Contamin, Gilles Rioufol, Karine G Portier, Olivier M Lepage declare that they have no conflict of interest. Thierry Bettinger, Alexandre Helbert, Anne Broillet, Michel Schneider, François Tranquart, Regi Thomas* are employees of Bracco Suisse SA and Bracco Research USA (*).

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Correspondence to Hugues Contamin.

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Contamin, H., Rioufol, G., Bettinger, T. et al. A minimally-invasive closed chest myocardial occlusion-reperfusion model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): monitoring by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 28, 531–542 (2012).

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  • BR38
  • Myocardial contrast echocardiography
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Myocardial ischemic/reperfusion
  • Primate