Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 29, Issue 4–5, pp 435–443 | Cite as

Trends of two HPV-associated cancers in Massachusetts: cervical and oropharyngeal cancer

  • Erin E. Cook
  • Susan T. Gershman
  • Jane J. Kim
  • Rulla M. Tamimi
  • R. Monina Klevens
  • Michelle D. Holmes
Original paper



To understand trends in the incidence and mortality of two human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, cervical and oropharyngeal cancer, in Massachusetts.


From 2004 to 2014, the Massachusetts Cancer Registry recorded 3,996 incident cases of oropharyngeal cancer and 2,193 incident cases of cervical cancer. Mortality data were obtained from the Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records and Statistics from 2008 to 2014. Rates were age-standardized to the 2000 U.S. population and trends were assessed using joinpoint regression.


While the incidence rate of cervical cancer (5.46 per 100,000) decreased by 2.41% annually (p = 0.004), the incidence rate of oropharyngeal cancer among males (7.85 per 100,000) increased by 2.82% annually (p = 0.0002). Mortality rates for both cancers decreased from 2008 to 2014 but were not statistically significant (cervical − 3.73% annually, p = 0.29; oropharyngeal − 1.94% annually, p = 0.44).


The rising incidence rate of oropharyngeal cancer in men and the decreasing, but relatively high, incidence rate of cervical cancer in women highlight the need for further screening and prevention by HPV vaccination in Massachusetts.


Cancer Cervical cancer Oropharyngeal cancer Human papillomavirus (HPV) Massachusetts Population Surveillance 



We would like to thank Annie MacMillan and Richard Knowlton at the Massachusetts Cancer Registry and Susan Lett from the Division of Epidemiology and Immunization at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health for their help with this project. This journal article was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number, NU58D006271, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the Department of Health and Human Services. We would also like to acknowledge funding from the grants R25 CA 98566-10, T32 CA 009001-40, and T32 ES 007069.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10552_2018_1016_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Online Appendix 1 (DOCX 24 KB)
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Online Appendix Table 2 (DOCX 21 KB)
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Online Appendix Table 3 (DOCX 16 KB)
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Online Appendix 2 The current cigarette smoking prevalence is shown for Massachusetts males, females, and the entire population of Massachusetts from 1990 to 2010 in comparison to the median prevalence in the United States from 1996 to 2010 in Figure 2a. The per capita ethanol consumption for Massachusetts and the United States from 1977 to 2010 is shown in Figure 2b. The annual percent change values for the trends are presented in the legend. For figures 2a and 2b, statistically significant trends (p < 0.05) in the APC are denoted with an *. (DOCX 27 KB)
10552_2018_1016_MOESM5_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Online Appendix 3 The prevalence of high school students having sex with 4 or more persons in Massachusetts and the United States is shown in Figure 3a. The prevalence of high school students having sex before age 13 in Massachusetts and the United States is shown in Figure 3b. The annual percent change values for the trends are presented in the legend. For figures 3a and 3b, statistically significant trends (p < 0.05) in the APC are denoted with an * (DOCX 26 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Massachusetts Cancer RegistryMassachusetts Department of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health Policy and ManagementHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Bureau of Infectious Disease and Laboratory SciencesMassachusetts Department of Public HealthBostonUSA
  5. 5.Channing Division of Network MedicineBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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