There is suggestive but limited evidence for a relationship between meat intake and breast cancer (BC) risk. Few studies included Hispanic women. We investigated the association between meats and fish intake and BC risk among Hispanic and NHW women.
The study included NHW (1,982 cases and 2,218 controls) and the US Hispanics (1,777 cases and 2,218 controls) from two population-based case–control studies. Analyses considered menopausal status and percent Native American ancestry. We estimated pooled ORs combining harmonized data from both studies, and study- and race-/ethnicity-specific ORs that were combined using fixed or random effects models, depending on heterogeneity levels.
When comparing highest versus lowest tertile of intake, among NHW we observed an association between tuna intake and BC risk (pooled OR 1.25; 95 % CI 1.05–1.50; trend p = 0.006). Among Hispanics, we observed an association between BC risk and processed meat intake (pooled OR 1.42; 95 % CI 1.18–1.71; trend p < 0.001), and between white meat (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; trend p = 0.01) and BC risk, driven by poultry. All these findings were supported by meta-analysis using fixed or random effect models and were restricted to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Processed meats and poultry were not associated with BC risk among NHW women; red meat and fish were not associated with BC risk in either race/ethnic groups.
Our results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in associations between meat and BC risk that may contribute to BC disparities.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Howlader N, Noone A, Krapcho M et al (2014) SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2011, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014
Sweeney C, Baumgartner KB, Byers T et al (2008) Reproductive history in relation to breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Cancer Causes Control 19:391–401. doi:10.1007/s10552-007-9098-1
Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2012) Cancer statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 62:283–298. doi:10.3322/caac.21153
John EM, Phipps AI, Davis A, Koo J (2005) Migration history, acculturation, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:2905–2913. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0483
Chlebowski RT, Chen Z, Anderson GL et al (2005) Ethnicity and breast cancer: factors influencing differences in incidence and outcome. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:439–448. doi:10.1093/jnci/dji064
Ziegler RG, Hoover RN, Pike MC et al (1993) Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst 85:1819–1827. doi:10.1093/jnci/85.22.1819
Fejerman L, John EM, Huntsman S et al (2008) Genetic ancestry and risk of breast cancer among U.S. Latinas. Cancer Res 68:9723–9728. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2039
Fejerman L, Romieu I, John EM et al (2010) European ancestry is positively associated with breast cancer risk in Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 19:1074–1082. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-1193
Fejerman L, Chen GK, Eng C et al (2012) Admixture mapping identifies a locus on 6q25 associated with breast cancer risk in US Latinas. Hum Mol Genet 21:1907–1917. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr617
Fejerman L, Ahmadiyeh N, Hu D et al (2014) Genome-wide association study of breast cancer in Latinas identifies novel protective variants on 6q25. Nat Commun 5:5260. doi:10.1038/ncomms6260
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2010) Continuous update project report. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of breast cancer
Romieu I (2011) Diet and breast cancer. Salud Publica Mex 53:430–439
Huang X (2003) Iron overload and its association with cancer risk in humans: evidence for iron as a carcinogenic metal. Mutat Res 533:153–171
Andersson AM, Skakkebaek NE (1999) Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health. Eur J Endocrinol 140:477–485. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1400477
Felton JS, Knize MG, Wu RW et al (2007) Mutagenic potency of food-derived heterocyclic amines. Mutat Res 616:90–94. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2006.11.010
Rothman N, Poirier MC, Baser ME et al (1990) Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in peripheral white blood cells during consumption of charcoal-broiled beef. Carcinogenesis 11:1241–1243. doi:10.1093/carcin/11.7.1241
Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA (2010) A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev 23:349–365. doi:10.1017/S0954422410000235
Missmer SA, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D et al (2002) Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Int J Epidemiol 31:78–85. doi:10.1093/ije/31.1.78
Taylor VH, Misra M, Mukherjee SD (2009) Is red meat intake a risk factor for breast cancer among premenopausal women? Breast Cancer Res Treat 117:1–8. doi:10.1007/s10549-009-0441-y
Egeberg R, Olsen A, Autrup H et al (2008) Meat consumption, N-acetyl transferase 1 and 2 polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in Danish postmenopausal women. Eur J Cancer Prev 17:39–47. doi:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32809b4cdd
Lee H, Wang Q, Yang F et al (2012) SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism, smoked meat, and breast cancer risk: a case–control study and meta-analysis. DNA Cell Biol 31:688–699. doi:10.1089/dna.2011.1403
Slattery ML, John EM, Torres-Mejia G et al (2012) Genetic variation in genes involved in hormones, inflammation and energetic factors and breast cancer risk in an admixed population. Carcinogenesis 33:1512–1521. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs163
Slattery ML, Sweeney C, Edwards S et al (2007) Body size, weight change, fat distribution and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 102:85–101. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9292-y
McDonald A, Van Horn L, Slattery M et al (1991) The CARDIA dietary history: development, implementation, and evaluation. J Am Diet Assoc 91:1104–1112
Slattery ML, Caan BJ, Duncan D et al (1994) A computerized diet history questionnaire for epidemiologic studies. J Am Diet Assoc 94:761–766
John EM, Horn-Ross PL, Koo J (2003) Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: the San Francisco Bay area breast cancer study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12:1143–1152
Horn-Ross PL, John EM, Lee M et al (2001) Phytoestrogen consumption and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: the Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. Am J Epidemiol 154:434–441
Willett WC, Howe GR, Kushi LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1220S–1228S (discussion 1229S–1231S)
DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7:177–188
Higgins JPT, Thompson SG (2002) Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 21:1539–1558. doi:10.1002/sim.1186
Zheng J, Hu X, Zhao Y et al (2013) Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies. BMJ 346:f3706. doi:10.1136/bmj.f3706
Genkinger JM, Makambi KH, Palmer JR et al (2013) Consumption of dairy and meat in relation to breast cancer risk in the Black Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 24:675–684. doi:10.1007/s10552-013-0146-8
Kiyabu GY, Inoue M, Saito E et al (2015) Fish, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake and breast cancer risk: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Int J Cancer. doi:10.1002/ijc.29672
Stripp C, Overvad K, Christensen J et al (2003) Fish intake is positively associated with breast cancer incidence rate. J Nutr 133:3664–3669
Bessaoud F, Daurès J-P, Gerber M (2008) Dietary factors and breast cancer risk: a case control study among a population in Southern France. Nutr Cancer 60:177–187. doi:10.1080/01635580701649651
Hermann S, Linseisen J, Chang-Claude J (2002) Nutrition and breast cancer risk by age 50: a population-based case–control study in Germany. Nutr Cancer 44:23–34. doi:10.1207/S15327914NC441_4
Hu J, La Vecchia C, DesMeules M et al (2008) Meat and fish consumption and cancer in Canada. Nutr Cancer 60:313–324. doi:10.1080/01635580701759724
Kim J, Lim S-Y, Shin A et al (2009) Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case–control study. BMC Cancer 9:216. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-216
Ambrosone CB, Freudenheim JL, Sinha R et al (1998) Breast cancer risk, meat consumption and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) genetic polymorphisms. Int J Cancer 75:825–830
Bao P-P, Shu X-O, Zheng Y et al (2012) Fruit, vegetable, and animal food intake and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status. Nutr Cancer 64:806–819. doi:10.1080/01635581.2012.707277
Larsson SC, Kumlin M, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Wolk A (2004) Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 79:935–945
Domingo JL, Bocio A, Falcó G, Llobet JM (2007) Benefits and risks of fish consumption part I. A quantitative analysis of the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants. Toxicology 230:219–226. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.11.054
Byrne C, Divekar SD, Storchan GB et al (2013) Metals and breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 18:63–73. doi:10.1007/s10911-013-9273-9
Sidhu KS (2003) Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 38:336–344. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2003.07.002
Burger J, Gochfeld M (2004) Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation. Environ Res 96:239–249. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2003.12.001
Taylor EF, Burley VJ, Greenwood DC, Cade JE (2007) Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 96:1139–1146. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603689
Pala V, Krogh V, Berrino F et al (2009) Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 90:602–612. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27173
Pouchieu C, Deschasaux M, Hercberg S et al (2014) Prospective association between red and processed meat intakes and breast cancer risk: modulation by an antioxidant supplementation in the SU.VI.MAX randomized controlled trial. Int J Epidemiol 43:1583–1592. doi:10.1093/ije/dyu134
Fung TT, Hu FB, Holmes MD et al (2005) Dietary patterns and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 116:116–121. doi:10.1002/ijc.20999
van der Hel OL, Peeters PHM, Hein DW et al (2004) GSTM1 null genotype, red meat consumption and breast cancer risk (The Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control 15:295–303. doi:10.1023/B:CACO.0000024255.16305.f4
Wu K, Sinha R, Holmes MD et al (2010) Meat mutagens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women–a cohort analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 19:1301–1310. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0002
Kabat GC, Cross AJ, Park Y et al (2009) Meat intake and meat preparation in relation to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Int J Cancer 124:2430–2435. doi:10.1002/ijc.24203
Ferrucci LM, Cross AJ, Graubard BI et al (2009) Intake of meat, meat mutagens, and iron and the risk of breast cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Br J Cancer 101:178–184. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605118
Goodman MT, Nomura AM, Wilkens LR, Hankin J (1992) The association of diet, obesity, and breast cancer in Hawaii. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1:269–275
Steck SE, Gaudet MM, Eng SM et al (2007) Cooked meat and risk of breast cancer—lifetime versus recent dietary intake. Epidemiology 18:373–382. doi:10.1097/01.ede.0000259968.11151.06
Fu Z, Deming SL, Fair AM et al (2011) Well-done meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposures in relation to breast cancer risk: the Nashville Breast Health Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 129:919–928. doi:10.1007/s10549-011-1538-7
Mourouti N, Kontogianni MD, Papavagelis C et al (2015) Meat consumption and breast cancer: a case–control study in women. Meat Sci 100:195–201. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.10.019
Chandran U, Zirpoli G, Ciupak G et al (2013) Racial disparities in red meat and poultry intake and breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control 24:2217–2229. doi:10.1007/s10552-013-0299-5
Guo J, Wei W, Zhan L (2015) Red and processed meat intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat 151:191–198. doi:10.1007/s10549-015-3380-9
Richardson S, Gerber M, Cenée S (1991) The role of fat, animal protein and some vitamin consumption in breast cancer: a case control study in southern France. Int J Cancer 48:1–9
Zhang C-X, Ho SC, Chen Y-M et al (2009) Meat and egg consumption and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Cancer Causes Control 20:1845–1853. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9377-0
Franceschi S, Favero A, La Vecchia C et al (1995) Influence of food groups and food diversity on breast cancer risk in Italy. Int J Cancer 63:785–789
Engelman RW, Day NK, Good RA (1994) Calorie intake during mammary development influences cancer risk: lasting inhibition of C3H/HeOu mammary tumorigenesis by peripubertal calorie restriction. Cancer Res 54:5724–5730
Farvid MS, Cho E, Chen WY et al (2014) Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study. BMJ 348:g3437. doi:10.1136/bmj.g3437
Farvid MS, Cho E, Chen WY et al (2015) Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 136:1909–1920. doi:10.1002/ijc.29218
Batis C, Hernandez-Barrera L, Barquera S et al (2011) Food acculturation drives dietary differences among Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites. J Nutr 141:1898–1906. doi:10.3945/jn.111.141473
Dai Q, Shu X-O, Jin F et al (2002) Consumption of animal foods, cooking methods, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 11:801–808
Daniel CR, Cross AJ, Graubard BI et al (2011) Prospective investigation of poultry and fish intake in relation to cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res 4:1903–1911. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0241
The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study was funded by Grant CA14002 from the National Cancer Institute to Dr. Slattery. The San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study was supported by Grants CA63446 and CA77305 from the National Cancer Institute, Grant DAMD17-96-1-6071 from the US Department of Defense, and Grant 7PB-0068 from the California Breast Cancer Research Program. The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Public Health as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885; the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract HHSN261201000036C awarded to the Cancer Prevention Institute of California; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement #1U58 DP000807-01 awarded to the Public Health Institute. The 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study was funded by Grants CA078682, CA078762, CA078552, and CA078802 from the National Cancer Institute. The research also was supported by the Utah Cancer Registry, which is funded by contract N01-PC-67000 from the National Cancer Institute, with additional support from the State of Utah Department of Health, the New Mexico Tumor Registry, and the Arizona and Colorado cancer registries, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Program of Cancer Registries and additional state support. The contents of this manuscript are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the National Cancer Institute or endorsement by the State of California Department of Public Health, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their Contractors and Subcontractors. The Mexico Breast Cancer Study was funded by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) (SALUD-2002-C01-7462). Mariana C. Stern received support from Grant RSF-09-020-01-CNE from the American Cancer Society, from award number 5P30 ES07048 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and award number P30CA014089 from the National Cancer Institute. Andre E. Kim received support from Grant 5T32 ES013678 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
We would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals to the study: Sandra Edwards for data harmonization oversight; Jennifer Herrick for data management and data harmonization; Erica Wolff and Michael Hoffman for laboratory support; Jocelyn Koo for data management for the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study; Dr. Tim Byers for his contribution to the 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study; and Dr. Josh Galanter for assistance in selection of AIMs markers.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Martha L. Slattery and Mariana C. Stern: Co-senior authors.
About this article
Cite this article
Kim, A.E., Lundgreen, A., Wolff, R.K. et al. Red meat, poultry, and fish intake and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Cancer Causes Control 27, 527–543 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-016-0727-4
- Breast cancer
- Processed meat