Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 527–543 | Cite as

Red meat, poultry, and fish intake and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

  • Andre E. Kim
  • Abbie Lundgreen
  • Roger K. Wolff
  • Laura Fejerman
  • Esther M. John
  • Gabriela Torres-Mejía
  • Sue A. Ingles
  • Stephanie D. Boone
  • Avonne E. Connor
  • Lisa M. Hines
  • Kathy B. Baumgartner
  • Anna Giuliano
  • Amit D. Joshi
  • Martha L. Slattery
  • Mariana C. SternEmail author
Original Paper



There is suggestive but limited evidence for a relationship between meat intake and breast cancer (BC) risk. Few studies included Hispanic women. We investigated the association between meats and fish intake and BC risk among Hispanic and NHW women.


The study included NHW (1,982 cases and 2,218 controls) and the US Hispanics (1,777 cases and 2,218 controls) from two population-based case–control studies. Analyses considered menopausal status and percent Native American ancestry. We estimated pooled ORs combining harmonized data from both studies, and study- and race-/ethnicity-specific ORs that were combined using fixed or random effects models, depending on heterogeneity levels.


When comparing highest versus lowest tertile of intake, among NHW we observed an association between tuna intake and BC risk (pooled OR 1.25; 95 % CI 1.05–1.50; trend p = 0.006). Among Hispanics, we observed an association between BC risk and processed meat intake (pooled OR 1.42; 95 % CI 1.18–1.71; trend p < 0.001), and between white meat (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; trend p = 0.01) and BC risk, driven by poultry. All these findings were supported by meta-analysis using fixed or random effect models and were restricted to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Processed meats and poultry were not associated with BC risk among NHW women; red meat and fish were not associated with BC risk in either race/ethnic groups.


Our results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in associations between meat and BC risk that may contribute to BC disparities.


Breast cancer Meat Hispanics Processed meat 



The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study was funded by Grant CA14002 from the National Cancer Institute to Dr. Slattery. The San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study was supported by Grants CA63446 and CA77305 from the National Cancer Institute, Grant DAMD17-96-1-6071 from the US Department of Defense, and Grant 7PB-0068 from the California Breast Cancer Research Program. The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Public Health as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885; the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract HHSN261201000036C awarded to the Cancer Prevention Institute of California; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement #1U58 DP000807-01 awarded to the Public Health Institute. The 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study was funded by Grants CA078682, CA078762, CA078552, and CA078802 from the National Cancer Institute. The research also was supported by the Utah Cancer Registry, which is funded by contract N01-PC-67000 from the National Cancer Institute, with additional support from the State of Utah Department of Health, the New Mexico Tumor Registry, and the Arizona and Colorado cancer registries, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Program of Cancer Registries and additional state support. The contents of this manuscript are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the National Cancer Institute or endorsement by the State of California Department of Public Health, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their Contractors and Subcontractors. The Mexico Breast Cancer Study was funded by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) (SALUD-2002-C01-7462). Mariana C. Stern received support from Grant RSF-09-020-01-CNE from the American Cancer Society, from award number 5P30 ES07048 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and award number P30CA014089 from the National Cancer Institute. Andre E. Kim received support from Grant 5T32 ES013678 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Author contributions

We would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals to the study: Sandra Edwards for data harmonization oversight; Jennifer Herrick for data management and data harmonization; Erica Wolff and Michael Hoffman for laboratory support; Jocelyn Koo for data management for the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study; Dr. Tim Byers for his contribution to the 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study; and Dr. Josh Galanter for assistance in selection of AIMs markers.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10552_2016_727_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 13 kb)
10552_2016_727_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andre E. Kim
    • 1
  • Abbie Lundgreen
    • 2
  • Roger K. Wolff
    • 2
  • Laura Fejerman
    • 3
  • Esther M. John
    • 4
    • 5
  • Gabriela Torres-Mejía
    • 6
  • Sue A. Ingles
    • 1
  • Stephanie D. Boone
    • 7
  • Avonne E. Connor
    • 8
  • Lisa M. Hines
    • 9
  • Kathy B. Baumgartner
    • 7
  • Anna Giuliano
    • 10
  • Amit D. Joshi
    • 11
  • Martha L. Slattery
    • 2
  • Mariana C. Stern
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Preventive Medicine, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine of USCUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Utah Health Sciences CenterSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Human Genetics and Department of MedicineUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Epidemiology, Cancer Prevention Institute of CaliforniaFremontUSA
  5. 5.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, and Stanford Cancer InstituteStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  6. 6.Instituto Nacional de Salud PúblicaCentro de Investigación en Salud PoblacionalCuernavaca MorelosMexico
  7. 7.Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, School of Public Health and Information SciencesUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  8. 8.Departments of Epidemiology and OncologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer CenterBaltimoreUSA
  9. 9.Department of BiologyUniversity of Colorado at Colorado SpringsColorado SpringsUSA
  10. 10.Department of ImmunologyH. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research InstituteTampaUSA
  11. 11.Department of GastroenterologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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