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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer in the military: a case–control study utilizing pre-diagnostic serum

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to ascertain whether a relationship exists between pre-diagnostic serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of breast cancer in young women.

Methods

About 600 incident cases of breast cancer were matched to 600 controls as part of a nested case–control study that utilized pre-diagnostic sera. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and breast cancer risk, controlling for race and age.

Results

According to the conditional logistic regression for all subjects, odds ratios for breast cancer by quintile of serum 25(OH)D from lowest to highest were 1.2, 1.0, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 (reference) (p trend = 0.72). After multivariate regression for subjects whose blood had been collected within 90 days preceding diagnosis, odds ratios for breast cancer by quintile of serum 25(OH)D from lowest to highest were 3.3, 1.9, 1.7, 2.6, and 1.0 (reference) (p trend = 0.09).

Conclusions

An inverse association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and risk of breast cancer was not present in the principal analysis, although an inverse association was present in a small subgroup analysis of subjects whose blood had been collected within 90 days preceding diagnosis. Further prospective studies of 25(OH)D and breast cancer risk are needed.

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a Congressional allocation to the Penn State Cancer Institute of the Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, through the Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, under Work Unit No. 60126 at the Naval Health Research Center (San Diego, CA, USA). The views presented here are solely the opinions of the authors and do not represent an official position of the Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Thanks to Dr. Angelee Ferber of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command for providing the blood samples used in this study and for her outstanding support of the research. Thanks to June J. Kim, B.S., of Naval Health Research Center for her valued work editing the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Sharif B. Mohr.

Appendix

Appendix

See Figs. 3, 4 and 5

Fig. 3
figure 3

Serum 25(OH)D level and risk of breast cancer, 536 nonwhite women, unmatched, and unadjusted for covariates

Fig. 4
figure 4

Odds ratio for breast cancer, by serum 25(OH)D concentration, 108 nonwhite women, blood drawn <90 days before diagnosis, unmatched, and unadjusted for covariates

Fig. 5
figure 5

Serum 25(OH)D level and risk of breast cancer, 248 women, blood drawn <90 days before diagnosis, unmatched, and unadjusted for covariates

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Mohr, S.B., Gorham, E.D., Alcaraz, J.E. et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer in the military: a case–control study utilizing pre-diagnostic serum. Cancer Causes Control 24, 495–504 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-012-0140-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-012-0140-6

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Breast neoplasms
  • Case–control studies
  • 25-hyrdoxyvitamin D
  • Epidemiology