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Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 193–201 | Cite as

Red and processed meat intake and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies

  • Wen Huang
  • Yujing Han
  • Jiping Xu
  • Wei Zhu
  • Zhaoshen LiEmail author
Original paper

Abstract

Aims

Inconsistent results relating dietary red and processed meat intake and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have been reported. This article summarizes and quantifies the current evidence in a meta-analysis of observational studies.

Methods

Electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts up to 31 May 2012. Random-effects models were used to pool study results.

Results

Ten manuscripts from 3 cohort studies and 7 case–control studies were identified. The summary relative risks (SRRs) of EAC for highest versus lowest intake categories were 1.31 (95 % confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.05–1.64) for red meat consumption, and 1.41 (95 % CIs 1.09–1.83) for processed meat consumption. Subgroup analyses indicated that these positive relations were seen in case–control studies, but not in cohort studies. Based on dose–response analysis, similar results were found; the SRRs were 1.45(95 % CIs 1.09–1.93) per 100 g/day of red meat intake and 1.37 (95 % CIs 1.03–1.81) per 50 g/day of processed meat intake.

Conclusions

The results of this meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and processed meat may be associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. More studies, particularly prospective studies, are needed.

Keywords

Esophageal adenocarcinoma Meta-analysis Red meat Processed meat 

Abbreviations

EC

Esophageal cancer

ESCC

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

EAC

Esophageal adenocarcinoma

SRRs

Summary relative risks

CI

Confidence intervals

BMI

Body mass index

GOR

Gastroesophageal reflux

NOCs

N-nitroso compounds

HCAs

Heterocyclic amines

PAHs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Notes

Conflicts of interests

The authors disclose no conflicts of interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wen Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yujing Han
    • 3
  • Jiping Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhaoshen Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyChanghai Hospital of Second Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-based MedicineSecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Preclinical Medicine, Cancer CenterSun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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