Coffee consumption, genetic susceptibility and bladder cancer risk
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We evaluated the bladder cancer risk associated with coffee consumption in a case–control study in Spain and examined the gene–environment interactions for genetic variants of caffeine-metabolizing enzymes.
The analyses included 1,136 incident cases with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 1,138 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for area, age, gender, amount of cigarette smoking, and years since quitting among former smokers.
The OR (95% CI) for ever consumed coffee was 1.25 (0.95–1.64). For consumers of 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more cups/day relative to never drinkers, OR were, respectively, 1.24 (0.92–1.66), 1.11 (95% CI 0.82–1.51), 1.57 (1.13–2.19), and 1.27 (0.88–1.81). Coffee consumption was higher in smokers compared to never smokers. The OR for drinking at least 4 cups/day was 1.13 (0.61–2.09) in current smokers, 1.57 (0.86–2.90) in former smokers, and 1.23 (0.55–2.76) in never smokers. Gene–coffee interactions evaluated in NAT2, CYP1A2, and CYP2E1-02 and CYP1A1 were not identified after adjusting for multiple testing.
We observed a modest increased bladder cancer risk among coffee drinkers that may, in part, be explained by residual confounding by smoking. The findings from the gene–coffee interactions need replication in further studies.
KeywordsBladder cancer Coffee Genetic susceptibility Epidemiology
We thank Francisco Fernández from CREAL, Barcelona, Spain; Robert C. Saal from Westat, Rockville, MD, USA; and Leslie Carroll and Eric Boyd from IMS, SilverSpring, MD, USA, for technical assistance. Participating Study Centers in Spain were Institut Municipal d’Investigacio Medica, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona—Coordinating Center (M. Sala, G. Castano, M. Tora, D. Puente, C. Villanueva, C. Murta-Nascimento, J. Fortuny, E. Lopez, S. Hernandez, R. Jaramillo); Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (J. Lloreta, S. Serrano, L. Ferrer, A. Gelabert, J. Carles, O. Bielsa, K. Villadiego); Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona (L. Cecchini, J. M. Saladie, L. Ibarz); Hospital de Sant Boi, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona (M. Cespedes); Consorci Hospitalari Parc Tauli, Sabadell (D. Garcia, J. Pujadas, R. Hernando, A. Cabezuelo, C. Abad, A. Prera, J. Prat); Centre Hospitalari i Cardiologic, Manresa, Barcelona (M. Domenech, J. Badal, J. Malet); Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (J. Rodriguez de Vera, A. I. Martin); Hospital Universitario Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria, Tenerife (F. J. Tano, F. Caceres); Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Alicante (F. Garcia-Lopez, M. Ull, A. Teruel, E. Andrada, A. Bustos, A. Castillejo, J. L. Soto); Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias; Hospital San Agustin, Aviles, Asturias (J. L. Guate, J. M. Lanzas, J. Velasco); Hospital Central Covadonga, Oviedo, Asturias (J. M. Fernandez, J. J. Rodriguez, A. Herrero); Hospital Central General, Oviedo, Asturias (R. Abascal, C. Manzano, T. Miralles); Hospital de Cabuenes, Gijon, Asturias (M. Rivas, M. Arguelles); Hospital de Jove, Gijon, Asturias (M. Diaz, J. Sanchez, O. Gonzalez); Hospital de Cruz Roja, Gijon, Asturias (A. Mateos, V. Frade); Hospital Alvarez-Buylla (Mieres, Asturias): P. Muntanola, C. Pravia; Hospital Jarrio, Coana, Asturias (A. M. Huescar, F. Huergo); Hospital Carmen y Severo Ochoa, Cangas, Asturias (J. Mosquera). This work has been conducted at the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL) and Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar).
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