Predictors of colorectal cancer screening behaviors among average-risk older adults in the United States
To critically evaluate recent studies that examined determinants of CRC screening behaviors among average-risk older adults (≥50 years) in the United States.
A PUBMED (1996–2006) search was conducted to identify recent articles that focused on predictors of CRC initiation and adherence to screening guidelines among average-risk older adults in the United States.
Frequently reported predictors of CRC screening behaviors include older age, male gender, marriage, higher education, higher income, White race, non-Hispanic ethnicity, smoking history, presence of chronic diseases, family history of CRC, usual source of care, physician recommendation, utilization of other preventive health services, and health insurance coverage. Psychosocial predictors of CRC screening adherence are mostly constructs from the Health Belief Model, the most prominent of which are perceived barriers to CRC screening.
Evidence suggests that CRC screening is a complex behavior with multiple influences including personal characteristics, health insurance coverage, and physician–patient communication. Health promotion activities should target both patients and physicians, while focusing on increasing awareness of and accessibility to CRC screening tests among average-risk older adults in the United States.
Key wordsColorectal cancer Screening Aging
- 6.Ahluwalia IB, Mack KA, Murphy W, Mokdad AH, Bales VS (2001) State-specific prevalence of selected chronic disease-related characteristics—Behavioral risk factor surveillance systemGoogle Scholar
- 14.Levin TR, Palitz AM (2002) Flexible sigmoidoscopy: an important screening option for average-risk individuals. Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America 12(1):23–40, viGoogle Scholar
- 19.Plaza CI, Rane S (2003) Finance issue brief: mandated benefits: colorectal cancer screening coverage requirements: year end report-2003. Issue Brief Health Policy Track Serv 31:1–5Google Scholar
- 20.Provenzale D, Gray RN (2004) Colorectal cancer screening and treatment: review of outcomes research. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (33):45–55Google Scholar
- 21.Screening for colorectal cancer–United States, 1992–1993, and new guidelines (1996) MMWR 45(5):107–110Google Scholar
- 23.Borum ML (2001) Colorectal cancer screening. Primary care. 28(3):661–674, viiiGoogle Scholar
- 28.Rudy DR, Zdon MJ (2000) Update on colorectal cancer. Am Fam Physician 61(6):1759–1770, 73–74Google Scholar
- 39.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001) Trends in screening for colorectal cancer–United States, 1997 and 1999. Jama 285(12):1570–1571Google Scholar
- 40.Increased use of colorectal cancer tests–United States, 2002 and 2004 (2006) MMWR 55(11):308–311Google Scholar
- 41.Claes E, Denayer L, Evers-Kiebooms G, Boogaerts A, Philippe K, Tejpar S et al (2005) Predictive testing for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: subjective perception regarding colorectal and endometrial cancer, distress, and health-related behavior at one year post-test. Genet Test 9(1):54–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Colorectal cancer test use among persons aged > or =50 years–United States, 2001 (2003) MMWR 52(10):193–196Google Scholar
- 51.Trends in screening for colorectal cancer–United States, 1997 and 1999. (2001) MMWR 50(9):162–166Google Scholar
- 53.Goodman MJ, Ogdie A, Kanamori MJ, Canar J, O’Malley AS (2006) Barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among Mid-Atlantic Latinos: focus group findings. Ethnic Dis 16(1):255–261Google Scholar
- 55.James TM, Greiner KA, Ellerbeck EF, Feng C, Ahluwalia JS (2006) Disparities in colorectal cancer screening: a guideline-based analysis of adherence. Ethnic Dis 16(1):228–233Google Scholar
- 56.Rustgi AK (2004) Breaking the barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Gastroenterology 126(5):1232–1233Google Scholar
- 57.Marcus AC, Mason M, Wolfe P, Rimer BK, Lipkus I, Strecher V et al (2005) The efficacy of tailored print materials in promoting colorectal cancer screening: results from a randomized trial involving callers to the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service. J Health Commun 10(Suppl 1):83–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 66.Fisher DA, Dougherty K, Martin C, Galanko J, Provenzale D, Sandler RS (2004) Race and colorectal cancer screening: a population-based study in North Carolina. North Carolina Med J 65(1):12–15Google Scholar
- 67.Honda K (2004) Factors associated with colorectal cancer screening among the US urban Japanese population. Am J Publ Health 94(5):815–822Google Scholar
- 79.Lemon S, Zapka J, Puleo E, Luckmann R, Chasan-Taber L (2001) Colorectal cancer screening participation: comparisons with mammography and prostate-specific antigen screening. Am J Publ Health 91(8):1264–1272Google Scholar
- 92.Janz NK, Champion VL, Strecher VJ (2002) The health belief model. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM (eds) Health behavior and health education, 3rd edn. John Wiley & Sons Inc, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- 94.Prochaska JO, Redding CA, Evers K (2002) The Transtheoretical model and stages of change. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM (eds) Health behavior and health education—theory, research and practice. 3rd edn. John Wiley & Sons Inc, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar