Cancer Causes & Control

, 18:967 | Cite as

Consumption of animal foods and endometrial cancer risk: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

  • Elisa V. Bandera
  • Lawrence H. Kushi
  • Dirk F. Moore
  • Dina M. Gifkins
  • Marjorie L. McCullough
Original Paper

Abstract

This article summarizes and quantifies the current evidence relating dietary intake of animal products and endometrial cancer. Literature searches were conducted to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to December 2006. Twenty-two manuscripts from three cohort studies and 16 case–control studies were identified. One of these cohort studies evaluated only fried meat and another only milk consumption; they were not included in our meta-analyses. The third cohort study identified did not present exposure levels and could not be included in dose–response meta-analysis. This cohort study did not show an association with meat or red meat consumption. Random-effects dose–response summary estimates for case–control studies evaluating these foods were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.54) per 100 g/day of total meat, 1.51 (95% CI: 1.19–1.93) per 100 g/day of red meat, 1.03 (95% CI: 0.32–3.28) per 100 g/day of poultry, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.55–1.98) per 100 g/day of fish, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93–1.01) per serving of dairy. Our meta-analysis, based on case–control data, suggests that meat consumption, particularly red meat, increases endometrial cancer risk. The current literature does not support an association with dairy products, while the evidence is inconsistent for poultry, fish, and eggs. More studies, particularly prospective studies, are needed.

Keywords

Endometrial carcinoma Diet Meat Eggs Fish Poultry Dairy products Milk Animal foods Meta-analysis Systematic literature review 

Abbreviations

WCRF

World Cancer Research Fund International

AICR

American Institute for Cancer Research

SLR

Systematic Literature Review

OR

Odds Ratio

RR

Relative Risk

CI

Confidence Interval

FFQ

Food Frequency Questionnaire

BMI

Body Mass Index

HRT

Hormone Replacement Therapy

References

  1. 1.
    American Cancer Society (2006) Cancer facts and figuresGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Persson I, Adami H-O (2002) Endometrial cancer. In: Adami H-O, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D (eds) Textbook of cancer epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    IARC (2002) Handbooks of cancer prevention, vol. 6. Weight control and physical activity. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, LyonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research (1997) Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American Cancer Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larsson SC, Wolk A (2006) Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer 119:2657–2664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Daxenberger A, Ibarreta D, Meyer HH (2001) Possible health impact of animal oestrogens in food. Hum Reprod Update 7:340–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levi F, Franceschi S, Negri E, La Vecchia C (1993) Dietary factors and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer 71:3575–3581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Fasoli M, Gentile A (1986) Nutrition and diet in the etiology of endometrial cancer. Cancer 57:1248–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shu XO, Zheng W, Potischman N et al (1993) A population-based case-control study of dietary factors and endometrial cancer in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Am J Epidemiol 137:155–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bandera EV, Kushi LH, Moore DF, Gifkins DM, McCullough ML (2007) The association between food, nutrition, and physical activity and the risk of endometrial cancer and underlying mechanisms. In: Second Report on food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer. World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research (In Press)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bandera EV, Kushi LH, Moore DF, Gifkins DM, McCullough ML (2007) Fruits and vegetables and endometrial cancer risk: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer 58:6–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Armstrong B, Doll R (1975) Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 15:617–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganmaa D, Sato A (2005) The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers. Med Hypotheses 65:1028–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tao MH, Xu WH, Zheng W et al (2005) A case-control study in Shanghai of fruit and vegetable intake and endometrial cancer. Br J Cancer 92:2059–2064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lissner L, Kroon UB, Bjorntorp P, Blosk S, Wilhelmsen L, Silverstolpe G (1993) Adipose tissue fatty acids and dietary fat sources in relation to endometrial cancer: a retrospective study of cases in remission, and population-based controls. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 72:481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weiderpass E, Adami HO, Baron JA et al (2000) Organochlorines and endometrial cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:487–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kinlen LJ (1982) Meat and fat consumption and cancer mortality: a study of strict religious orders in Britain. Lancet 1:946–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zemla B, Guminski S, Banasik R (1986) Study of risk factors in invasive cancer of the corpus uteri. Neoplasma 33:621–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zemla B, Guminski S, Franek K, Kolosza Z, Banasik R (1991) Etiological factors in invasive corpus uteri carcinoma. Neoplasma 38:157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Terry P, Vainio H, Wolk A, Weiderpass E (2002) Dietary factors in relation to endometrial cancer: a nationwide case-control study in Sweden. Nutr Cancer 42:25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Terry P, Wolk A, Vainio H, Weiderpass E (2002) Fatty fish consumption lowers the risk of endometrial cancer: a nationwide case-control study in Sweden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:143–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Negri E, Parazzini F (1988) Epidemiological aspects of diet and cancer: a summary review of case-control studies from northern Italy. Oncology 45:364–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tavani A, La Vecchia C, Gallus S et al (2000) Red meat intake and cancer risk: a study in Italy. Int J Cancer 86:425–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fernandez E, Chatenoud L, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S (1999) Fish consumption and cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 70:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rothman KJ (1986) Modern epidemiology, 1st edn. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 174–175Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chene G, Thompson SG (1996) Methods for summarizing the risk associations of quantitative variables in epidemiologic studies in a consistent form. Am J Epidemiol 144:610–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Greenland S, Longnecker MP (1992) Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 135:1301–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huedo-Medina TB, Sanchez-Meca J, Marin-Martinez F, Botella J (2006) Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I2 index? Psychol Methods 11:193–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ursin G, Bjelke E, Heuch I, Vollset SE (1990) Milk consumption and cancer incidence: a Norwegian prospective study. Br J Cancer 61:456–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Knekt P, Steineck G, Jarvinen R, Hakulinen T, Aromaa A (1994) Intake of fried meat and risk of cancer: a follow-up study in Finland. Int J Cancer 59:756–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zheng W, Kushi LH, Potter JD et al (1995) Dietary intake of energy and animal foods and endometrial cancer incidence. The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 142:388–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Potischman N, Swanson CA, Brinton LA et al (1993) Dietary associations in a case-control study of endometrial cancer. Cancer Causes Control 4:239–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goodman MT, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR et al (1997) Diet, body size, physical activity, and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Res 57:5077–5085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jain MG, Howe GR, Rohan TE (2000) Nutritional factors and endometrial cancer in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Control 7:288–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McCann SE, Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Brasure JR, Swanson MK, Graham S (2000) Diet in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer in western New York (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11:965–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Littman AJ, Beresford SA, White E (2001) The association of dietary fat and plant foods with endometrial cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 12:691–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xu WH, Dai Q, Xiang YB et al (2006) Animal food intake and cooking methods in relation to endometrial cancer risk in Shanghai. Br J Cancer 95:1568–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tzonou A, Lipworth L, Kalandidi A et al (1996) Dietary factors and the risk of endometrial cancer: a case–control study in Greece. Br J Cancer 73:1284–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mettlin CJ, Schoenfeld ER, Natarajan N (1990) Patterns of milk consumption and risk of cancer. Nutr Cancer 13:89–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Barbone F, Austin H, Partridge EE (1993) Diet and endometrial cancer: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 137:393–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hirose K, Tajima K, Hamajima N et al (1996) Subsite (cervix/endometrium)-specific risk and protective factors in uterus cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res 87:1001–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Petridou E, Kedikoglou S, Koukoulomatis P, Dessypris N, Trichopoulos D (2002) Diet in relation to endometrial cancer risk: a case-control study in Greece. Nutr Cancer 44:16–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Salazar-Martinez E, Lazcano-Ponce E, Sanchez-Zamorano LM, Gonzalez-Lira G, Escudero de los Rios P, Hernandez-Avila M (2005) Dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk. Results of a case-control study in Mexico. Int J Gynecol Cancer 15:938–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kushi LH, Byers T, Doyle C et al (2006) American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin 56:254–281; quiz 313–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bingham SA (1999) High-meat diets and cancer risk. Proc Nutr Soc 58:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Weinberg ED (1996) The role of iron in cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 5:19–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McCord JM (1998) Iron, free radicals, and oxidative injury. Semin Hematol 35:5–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Andersson AM, Skakkebaek NE (1999) Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health. Eur J Endocrinol 140:477–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Matthews KH, Bernstein J, J.C. B. (2003) International trade of meat/poultry products and food safety issues. In: Buzby JC (ed) International trade and food safety: economic theory and case studies. Economic Research Service/USDA. Agricultural Economic Report No. AER828 (http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer828/aer828f.pdf), pp 48–73
  50. 50.
    European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General (2002) Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures Relating to Public Health on Review of previous SCVPH opinions of 30 April 1999 and 3 May 2000 on the potential risks to human health from hormones residues in bovine meat and meat products (Adopted on 10 April 2002)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Malekinejad H, Scherpenisse P, Bergwerff AA (2006) Naturally occurring estrogens in processed milk and in raw milk (from gestated cows). J Agric Food Chem 54:9785–9791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisa V. Bandera
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lawrence H. Kushi
    • 3
  • Dirk F. Moore
    • 2
  • Dina M. Gifkins
    • 1
  • Marjorie L. McCullough
    • 4
  1. 1.Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolThe Cancer Institute of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.School of Public HealthUniversity of Medicine and Dentistry of New JerseyPiscatawayUSA
  3. 3.Division of ResearchKaiser PermanenteOaklandUSA
  4. 4.Epidemiology and Surveillance ResearchAmerican Cancer SocietyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations