Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 85–93

Reliability and Validity of an Assessment of Usual Phytoestrogen Consumption (United States)

  • Pamela L. Horn-Ross
  • Stephen Barnes
  • Valerie S. Lee
  • Christine N. Collins
  • Peggy Reynolds
  • Marion M. Lee
  • Susan L. Stewart
  • Alison J. Canchola
  • Landon Wilson
  • Kenneth Jones
Original Paper

Abstract

Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and database designed to quantify phytoestrogen consumption.

Methods This study included 195 members of the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort who, over a 10-month period, completed four 24-h dietary recalls, a pre- and post-study FFQ, and provided two 24-h urine specimens. Participants (n=106) in a parallel study (and 18 women who dropped out of the long-term study) completed a single recall and FFQ, and provided one 24-h urine specimen. Urinary phytoestrogens were determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Reliability and validity were evaluated using Shrout–Fleiss intraclass correlations and energy-adjusted deattenuated Pearson correlations, respectively.

Results Correlations reflecting the reproducibility of the FFQ phytoestrogen assessment ranged from 0.67 to 0.81. Validity correlations (FFQ compared to dietary recalls) ranged from 0.67 to 0.79 for the major phytoestrogenic compounds (i.e., daidzein, genistein, and secoisolariciresinol) and 0.43 to 0.54 for the less common compounds. Compared to urinary levels, validity correlations ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 for the isoflavones and 0.16 to 0.21 for total lignans.

Conclusion Our isoflavone assessment is reproducible, valid, and an excellent tool for evaluating the relationship with disease risk in non-Asian populations. Further research is needed before these tools can accurately be used to assess lignan consumption.

Keywords

Phytoestrogens Reliability  Validity Dietary assessment Urinary excretion 

References

  1. 1.
    Horn-Ross, PL, Barnes, S, Lee, M,  et al. 2000Assessing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States)Cancer Causes Control11289298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adlercreutz, H, Mazur, W 1997Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseasesAnn Med2995120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Horn-Ross, PL, Lee, M, John, EM, Koo, J 2000Sources of phytoestrogen exposure among non-Asian women in California, USACancer Causes Control11299302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pillow, PC, Duphorne, CM, Chang, S,  et al. 1999Development of a database for assessing dietary phytoestrogen intakeNutr Cancer33319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reinli, K, Block, G 1996Phytoestrogen content of foods – a compendium of literature valuesNutr Cancer26123148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    USDA – Iowa State University Isoflavone database. www.nal. usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/isoglav.html.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernstein, L, Anton-Culver, H, Deapen, D,  et al. 2002High breast cancer rates among California teachers: results from the California Teachers Study CohortCancer Causes Control13625635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Block, G, Hartman, AM, Dresser, CM, Carroll, MD, Gannon, J, Gardner, L 1986A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testingAm J Epidemiol124453469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Block, G, Woods, M, Potosky, A, Clifford, C 1990Validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire using multiple diet recordsJ Clin Epidemiol4313271335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horn-Ross, PL 2001Assessing phytoestrogen exposure via a food-frequency questionnaireCancer Causes and Control12477478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kelsey, J, Thompson, W, Evans, A 1986Methods in Observational EpidemiologyOxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shrout, P, Fleiss, J 1979Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliabilityPsychol Bull86420428Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Willett, WC 1998Nutritional EpidemiologyOxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stram, DO, Hankin, JH, Wilkens, LR,  et al. 2000Calibration of the dietary questionnaire for a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los AngelesAm J Epidemiol151358570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang, MH, Harrison, GG, Mohamed, MM,  et al. 2000Assessing the accuracy of a food frequency questionnaire for estimating usual intake of phytoestrogensNutr Cancer37145154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maskarinec, G, Singh, S, Meng, L, Franke, AA 1998Dietary soy intake and urinary isoflavone excretion among women from a multiethnic populationCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev7613619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lampe, JW 2003Isoflavonoid and lignan phytoestrogens as dietary biomarkersJ Nutr133956S964SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Atkinson, C, Skor, HE, Fitzgibbons, ED,  et al. 2002Overnight urinary isoflavone excretion in a population of women living in the United States, and its relationship to isoflavone intakeCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev11253260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frankenfeld, CL, Patterson, RE, Horner, NK,  et al. 2003Validation of a soy food-frequency questionnaire and evaluation of correlates of plasma isoflavone concentrations in postmenopausal womenAm J Clin Nutr77674680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen, Z, Zheng, W, Custer, LJ,  et al. 1999Usual dietary consumption of soy foods and its correlation with the excretion rate of isoflavonoids in overnight urine samples among Chinese women in ShanghaiNutr Cancer338287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arai, Y, Uehara, M, Sato, Y,  et al. 2000Comparison of isoflavones among dietary intake, plasma concentration and urinary excretion for accurate estimation of phytoestrogen intake Calibration of the dietary questionnaire for a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los AngelesJ Epidemiol10127135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Heinonen, S, Nurmi, T, Liukkonen, K,  et al. 2001In vitro etabolism of plant lignans: new precursors of mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiolJ Agric Food Chem4931783186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thompson, LU, Robb, P, Serraino, M, Cheung, F 1991Mammalian lignan production from various foodsNutr Cancer164352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Setchell, KD, Brown, NM, Desai, P,  et al. 2001Bioavailability of pure isoflavones in healthy humans and analysis of commercial soy isoflavone supplementsJ Nutr1311362S1375SPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela L. Horn-Ross
    • 1
  • Stephen Barnes
    • 2
  • Valerie S. Lee
    • 1
  • Christine N. Collins
    • 1
  • Peggy Reynolds
    • 3
  • Marion M. Lee
    • 4
  • Susan L. Stewart
    • 5
  • Alison J. Canchola
    • 1
  • Landon Wilson
    • 2
  • Kenneth Jones
    • 2
  1. 1.Northern California Cancer CenterFremontUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Biochemistry and Molecular GeneticsUniversity of AlabamaBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.California Department of Health ServicesEnvironmental Health Investigations BranchOaklandUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations