Dietary Phytoestrogen, Serum Enterolactone and Risk of Prostate Cancer: The Cancer Prostate Sweden Study (Sweden)
Based on evidence that phytoestrogens may protect against prostate cancer, we evaluated the associations between serum enterolactone concentration or dietary phytoestrogen intake and risk of prostate cancer.
In our Swedish population-based case-control study, questionnaire-data were available for 1,499 prostate cancer cases and 1,130 controls, with serum enterolactone levels in a sub-group of 209 cases and 214 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with risk of prostate cancer.
High intake of food items rich in phytoestrogens was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The OR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of intake was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57–0.95; p-value for trend: 0.01). In contrast, we found no association between dietary intake of total or individual lignans or isoflavonoids and risk of prostate cancer. Intermediate serum levels of enterolactone were associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The ORs comparing increasing quartiles of serum enterolactone concentration to the lowest quartile were, respectively, 0.28 (95% CI: 0.15–0.55), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.35–1.14) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.41–1.32).
Our results support the hypothesis that certain foods high in phytoestrogens are associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer.
KeywordsDiet Enterolactone Epidemiology Lignans Phytoestrogen Prostate cancer
body mass index
- 1.Signorello, L, Adami, HO 2002
Prostate cancerAdami, HOHunter, DTrichopoulos, D eds. Textbook of Cancer EpidemiologyOxford University Press, IncNew York400428Google Scholar
- 23.Demark-Wahnefried, W, Price, DT, Polascik, TJ, et al. 2001Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic featuresUrology584752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Chang, TE, Hedelin, M, Adami, HO, Grönberg, H, Bälter, AK 2005Alcohol drinking and risk of localized versus advanced and sporadic versus familial prostate cancer in SwedenCancer Causes Control Apr1627584Google Scholar
- 30.Swedish Cancer Register (2000) Cancer Incidence in Sweden 1998. Centre for Epidemiology. StockholmGoogle Scholar
- 31.Sobin, LH, Wittekind, C 2002TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours6John Wiley & Sons, IncNew YorkGoogle Scholar
- 32.Mazur, W 2000Phytoestrogens: Occurrance in Foods, and Metabolism of Lignans in Man and PigsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiGoogle Scholar
- 38.Available at: http://www.phytohealth.org/venus/
- 41.Willet, W 1998Nutritional Epidemiology2Oxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
- 42.Hosmer, DW, Lemeshow, S 1989Applied Logistic RegressionWiley & SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
- 48.Hallmans G, Zang J-X, Lundin E et al. (1998) Metabolism of lignans and their realtion to exprimental prostate cancer. In: Bausch-Goldbohm SKA, ed. COST 916 Workshop Phyto-estrogens: Exposure, Bioavailabillity, Health Benefits and Safety Concerns; 1998, Utrecht; 1998, pp. 65–72Google Scholar