Broader outlook, ethics, and social responsibility have been long-standing concerns in business practices and management. In this regard, an effective management education would play a pivotal role in instilling an ethical grounding among management students, who represent the future management practitioners. Therefore, going beyond the self-oriented perspective and promoting altruistic behavior among them would be significant in establishing broader, socially responsible considerations in organizations. However, little research has investigated how to increase altruistic behavior. To address this need, we propose that Yoga-based practices (YBP) can build-up altruistic behavior by enhancing subjective vitality (SV), self-transcendence (ST), and psychological capital (PsyCap). We report two studies to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, a survey-based study (n = 342), we examine the impact of SV and ST on altruistic behavior mediated by PsyCap. The results from structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized model. In study 2, we examine the impact of YBP on SV and ST using longitudinal randomized controlled experiment design (n = 109). The findings of study 2 suggest that YBP enhanced both SV and ST and that YBP are effective, efficient, and sustainable training tools for building altruistic behavior among management students. We discuss the significance and implications of these findings for organizations, management education, and leadership development. We consider the limitations of our study and suggest directions for future research.
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The authors are grateful to the Rajesh Chandwani and Tracy Chang for their inputs on the earlier draft of the manuscript and to the section editor and the anonymous reviewers of the journal for their useful suggestions to improve the quality of the paper. This research was carried out with the research grant awarded by Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi. Insightful discussions with Rajen Gupta, Dharm Bhawuk, Kiran Kumar, Mukul Kanitkar are duly acknowledged to shape the ideas presented in this article.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional Ethics Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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Yoga-Based Practices (YBP)—(Duration 25 min approx.)
The practices include the following:
Unfreezing through reverberation and shaking of the body and body tapping: 3 min
Asanas: Vrikshasana (tree pose), Pada-Hasthasana (hand to feet pose) and Trikonasana (triangle pose): 3 min
Pranayama: 12–14 min
Deep breathing (Dirgha Pranayama): 8–10 slow-deep long inhalations and exhalations
High-frequency yoga breathing (HFYB; KapalBhati): 3 × 48 high -frequency exhalations
Alternate nostril breathing (Anulom-Vilom): 5 min
Breathing with humming (Bhramari): 5 rounds
Samatha Meditation: body scan and sitting meditation (bringing back focus of attention to the breath): 5–6 min; Body Scan involves practicing body awareness and sitting meditation comprises of the awareness of body sensations of breathing, thoughts, and emotions while continually bringing back the focus of attention to the breath.
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Dagar, C., Pandey, A. & Navare, A. How Yoga-Based Practices Build Altruistic Behavior? Examining the Role of Subjective Vitality, Self-transcendence, and Psychological Capital. J Bus Ethics 175, 191–206 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04654-7