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Table 5 Empirical support for management practices associated with the tension of competing decision-making rationales

From: Integrating CSR with Business Strategy: A Tension Management Perspective

Second-order theme Underlying codes Illustrative quote
CSR tension: Competing decision-making rationales Performance guidance constricts the realization of visions Many expressed the feeling that service strategy and freedom to develop only materialize in speech while performance guidance constricts good ideas and visions into the same old thing. (Internal summary of strategy workshops, November 2017)
Tolerating unethical practices to protect cash flows The gap between strategy and doing: Old MOs are accepted, particularly in construction projects, because that is where the money is made (e.g., exploiting sub-contracts far from collaborative relationships). (Field notes, August 28, 2017)
Diverging strategic investment priorities Guess how the people feel who generate the cashflow and know. It […] If they start to feel that they are not getting bonuses because the revenue is eaten up by the new stuff. (HR director, November 6, 2017)
Gap between projects and HQ Some pointed out that differences between headquarters and project teams arise from different goals and practices. Others indicated that mental differences are more significant and that not everything done at the headquarters is seen in positive light. (Field notes, October 18, 2018)
Management practice: Developing workforce Recruitment based on employees’ compatible values Most interviewees answer my question ‘Why SmartCo?’ by saying that it is our message that speaks to them, that they want to come and change things with us, do things differently. (COO, March 11, 2015)
Compulsory ethical training And we organize ethical training once a year.[…] For example, last summer, we had a prosecutor explain when the criteria are met for him to prosecute. (COO, March 11, 2015)
Organization-wide events with CSR focus It was nicely expressed in our development day when [the CEO] gave a 15-min presentation on our values, why they matter and talked a lot about trust. (HR director, November 6, 2017)
Endorsement for learning, innovation The absolute strength of SmartCo, something that’s deeply ingrained in the culture, is this almost infinite enthusiasm and open-mindedness, you can try out and advocate just about anything, which is likely the reason that some of the ideas have turned into successes. (Head of strategy development, March 3, 2017)