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Table 4 Empirical support for management practices associated with the tension of inconsistent behaviors

From: Integrating CSR with Business Strategy: A Tension Management Perspective

Second-order theme Underlying codes Illustrative quote
CSR tension: Inconsistent behaviors Variation in compliance between individuals, projects There are clear differences between construction sites and project managers, and I’ve heard it from others too; they say the vibes are different. (Development manager, April 24, 2015)
Management cuts corners I think this is not about having management who do not believe in our values and want to act accordingly, but it is the speed [of change] that makes them cut corners. (HR director, November 6, 2017)
CSR behaviors lag spoken values We have good basis for our values and everyone tries to promote them, that’s clear. But […] the starting level is so low that even if we talk about transparency and caring and support, it is still in its infancy. (Manager, IT development, January 27, 2017)
Management practice: Formalizing CSR Introducing formal ethical code High ethical principles are an important part of SmartCo’s operations and support the dependability, productivity, image and good internal atmosphere. (Foreword to the company’s “deck of ethics cards” August, 2017)
Ethical principles as part of job contracts Every time a new employee is hired, they sign the code of ethics as a part of the contract of employment. (Development manager, April 24, 2015)
New KPIs with stakeholder focus For example, we have this renovation work […] in which a significant portion of our fee is connected […] to maintaining the users’ customer streams. (CCO, March 11, 2015)
Systematization of processes and contracts We have spent a lot of effort to describe our operations. We have the building movement themes, and certain strategic targets under these main themes.[…] And these are broken down to the individual level, so that everyone can see how their day-to-day work is related to the company’s goals. (Director, construction operations, February 14, 2017)