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Table 3 Empirical support for management practices associated with the tension between past understandings and future visions

From: Integrating CSR with Business Strategy: A Tension Management Perspective

Second-order theme Underlying codes Illustrative quote
CSR tension: Past understandings incompatible with future visions Inherited industry attitudes contradict values We all have worked elsewhere and have a history, myself included. And the challenge is how to get people to adopt the attitude […] that we invest in long customer relationships and do not optimize a single project. (EVP, March 6, 2015)
Ethical values lack concrete guidelines Beautiful sentences are written all over. Should specify what values mean in different contexts. What is transparency at the construction site? Is it different for each contract type? (Participant experiences from ethical training, September 1, 2014)
Strategic visions confusing [A co-worker] said it well that we have been doing this for six years now and nobody still understands why [we advocate] service construction. (HR director, September 22, 2015)
Management practice: Strategic sensemaking Communicating values [CEO] and [HR director] especially talk a lot about the values, in every meeting of collective events, the more strategic ones especially, we always look at things through the values (Development manager, June 14, 2017)
Explicating business strategy with ethical values Despite all attempts, we don’t [have a written strategy].[…] Instead, we try to describe it with this cultural, or… Not with typical strategic elements or with things that create competitive advantage, but through this societal change theme, what we want to accomplish. (Director, housing business, February 4, 2015)
Maintaining internal dialogue and debate on the strategic direction The thing is about interpersonal relationships. When you walk around the office, see people, talk to them […] Not so much about having logical management processes but about creating communication, look at things together, having a low culture in a way. (CEO, April 24, 2015)
Management practice: Directing CSR behavior CEO’s personal values, presence [This] comes back to [the CEO] in many ways, what kind of person he is, how unyielding and uncompromising he is with certain things. Take for example the issues with the black economy or bribery, these reflect [the CEO] a great deal, and how he has managed to infect others with this ethos. (Development manager, subsidiary, May 5, 2015)
Transparency with ethical issues At the beginning of 2012, we made a request for investigation to the police regarding suspected bribery and fraud in [a construction project]. This was based on an internal investigation. (Annual report of 2012)
Setting example with visible problem resolution A good example is the alteration cost disagreement with [a major client], in which [the COO] and [CEO] agreed it with [the client’s] top management. I think they have set an example. (Development manager, April 15, 2015)