This paper examines the growing number of publications on multinational enterprise management of sustainability issues. Based on an integrative literature review and thematic analysis, the paper analyses and synthesises the current state of knowledge about main issues arising. Key issues identified include the following: choice of sustainability strategies; management of the views of headquarters towards sustainability; local cultural sustainability perspectives in developed and developing host countries; MNEs with home in developing/emerging countries; and resource availability for implementing sustainability initiatives. Findings indicate that although the literature is tending towards growing acceptance about sustainability and its challenges most researchers have focused on corporate social responsibility and investigate their own niche problem, industry, and country, using their own chosen theory and do not consider the need for consolidation and integration of social, environmental and economic performance. Avenues for future research are identified which will provide a means for the ethical foundations of theory and practice to be improved.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Aguilera-Caracuel, J., Aragón-Correa, J. A., Hurtado-Torres, N. E., & Rugman, A. M. (2012). The effects of institutional distance and headquarters’ financial performance on the generation of environmental standards in multinational companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(4), 461–474.
Aguilera-Caracuel, J., Hurtado-Torres, N. E., Aragón-Correa, J. A., & Rugman, A. M. (2013). Differentiated effects of formal and informal institutional distance between countries on the environmental performance of multinational enterprises. Journal of Business Research, 66(12), 2657–2665.
Altuntas, C., & Turker, D. (2015). Local or global: Analyzing the internationalization of social responsibility of corporate foundations. International Marketing Review, 32(5), 540–575.
Amba-Rao, S. C. (1993). Multinational corporate social responsibility, ethics, interactions and Third World governments: An agenda for the 1990s. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(7), 553–572.
Arenas, D., & Ayuso, S. (2016). Unpacking transnational corporate responsibility: Coordination mechanisms and orientations. Business Ethics: A European Review, 25(3), 217–237.
Axinn, C. A., Blair, M. A., Heorhiadi, A., & Thach, S. V. (2004). Comparing ethical ideologies across cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 54(2), 103–119.
Bansal, P., & Song, H. C. (2017). Similar but not the same: Differentiating corporate sustainability from corporate responsibility. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), 105–149.
Barkemeyer, R., & Figge, F. (2014). CSR in multiple environments: The impact of headquartering. Critical Perspectives on International Business, 10(3), 124–151.
Barsoum, G., & Refaat, S. (2015). We don’t want school bags. Discourses on corporate social responsibility in Egypt and the challenges of a new practice in a complex setting. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 35(5/6), 390–402.
Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1989). Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Beddewela, E., & Fairbrass, J. (2016). Seeking legitimacy through CSR: Institutional pressures and corporate responses of multinationals in Sri Lanka. Journal of Business Ethics, 136, 503–522.
Berliner, D., & Prakash, A. (2014). The United Nations global compact: An institutionalist perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(2), 217–223.
Bondy, K., Moon, J., & Matten, D. (2012). An institution of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Multi-National Corporations (MNCs): Form and implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(2), 281–299.
Bondy, K., & Starkey, K. (2014). The dilemmas of internationalization: Corporate social responsibility in the multinational corporation. British Journal of Management, 25(1), 4–22.
Brammer, S. J., Pavelin, S., & Porter, L. A. (2006). Corporate social performance and geographical diversification. Journal of Business Research, 59(9), 1025–1034.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.
Brenkert, G. G. (2018). Mind the gap! The challenges and limits of (Global) business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-3902-6.
Brown, D., & Knudsen, S. J. (2012). Managing corporate responsibility globally and locally: Lessons from a CR leader. Business and Politics, 14(3), 1–29.
Campbell, J. T., Eden, L., & Miller, S. R. (2012). Multinationals and corporate social responsibility in host countries: Does distance matter? Journal of international business studies, 43(1), 84–106.
Chan, R. Y. (2010). Corporate environmentalism pursuit by foreign firms competing in China. Journal of World Business, 45(1), 80–92.
Chaudhri, V. A. (2006). Organising global CSR. A case study of Hewlett–Packard’s e-inclusion initiative. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 23, 39–51.
Chen, S., & Bouvain, P. (2009). Is corporate responsibility converging? A comparison of corporate responsibility reporting in the USA, UK, Australia, and Germany. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(1), 299–317.
Christmann, P. (2004). Multinational companies and the natural environment: Determinants of global environmental policy. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5), 747–760.
Christmann, P., & Taylor, G. (2001). Globalization and the environment: Determinants of firm self-regulation in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(3), 439–458.
Christopherson, S., & Lillie, N. (2005). Neither global nor standard: Corporate strategies in the new era of labor standards. Environment and Planning A, 37(11), 1919–1938.
Chudnovsky, D., & Lopez, A. (2003). Diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies by multinational corporations in developing countries. International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 2(1), 5–18.
Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2017). Thematic analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(3), 297–298.
Cruz, L. B., & Boehe, D. M. (2010). How do leading retail MNCs leverage CSR globally? Insights from Brazil. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 243–263.
Cruz, L. B., & Pedrozo, E. A. (2009). Corporate social responsibility and green management: Relation between headquarters and subsidiary in multinational corporations. Management Decision, 47(7), 1174–1199.
De Chiara, A., & Russo Spena, T. (2011). CSR strategy in multinational firms: Focus on human resources, suppliers and community. Journal of Global Responsibility, 2(1), 60–74.
de la Cruz Déniz-Déniz, M., & Garcia-Falcon, J. M. (2002). Determinants of the multinationals’ social response. Empirical application to international companies operating in Spain. Journal of Business Ethics, 38(4), 339–370.
Doh, J., Husted, B. W., & Yang, X. (2016). Guest editors’ introduction: Ethics, corporate social responsibility, and developing country multinationals. Business Ethics Quarterly, 26(03), 301–315.
Dowell, G., Hart, S., & Yeung, B. (2000). Do corporate global environmental standards create or destroy market value? Management Science, 46(8), 1059–1074.
Duran, J. J., & Bajo, N. (2014). Institutions as determinant factors of corporate responsibility strategies of multinational firms. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 21(6), 301–317.
Dyllick, T., & Hockerts, K. (2002). Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Business Strategy and the Environment, 11(2), 130–141.
Epstein, M., & Roy, M. J. (1998). Managing corporate environmental performance: A multinational perspective. European Management Journal, 16(3), 284–296.
Epstein, M. J., & Roy, M. J. (2007). Implementing a corporate environmental strategy: Establishing coordination and control within multinational companies. Business Strategy and the Environment, 16(6), 389–403.
Escobar, L. F., & Vredenburg, H. (2011). Multinational oil companies and the adoption of sustainable development: A resource-based and institutional theory interpretation of adoption heterogeneity. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(1), 39–65.
Famiola, M., & Adiwoso, S. A. (2016). Corporate social responsibility diffusion by multinational subsidiaries in Indonesia: Organisational dynamic and institutional effect. Social Responsibility Journal, 12(1), 117–129.
Figge, F., Hahn, T., Schaltegger, S., & Wagner, M. (2002). The sustainability balanced scorecard–linking sustainability management to business strategy. Business strategy and the Environment, 11(5), 269–284.
Filatotchev, I., & Stahl, G. K. (2015). Towards transnational CSR. Corporate social responsibility approaches and governance solutions for multinational corporations. Organizational Dynamics, 44(2), 121–129.
Forcadell, F. J., & Aracil, E. (2017). Sustainable banking in Latin American developing countries: Leading to (mutual) prosperity. Business Ethics: A European Review, 26(4), 382–395.
Fortanier, F., Kolk, A., & Pinske, J. (2011). Harmonization in CSR reporting: MNEs and Global standards. Management International Review, 51, 665–696.
Garriga, E., & Melé, D. (2004). Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1), 51–71.
Gifford, B., Kestler, A., & Anand, S. (2010). Building local legitimacy into corporate social responsibility: Gold mining firms in developing nations. Journal of World Business, 45(3), 304–311.
Gond, J. P., Grubnic, S., Herzig, C., & Moon, J. (2012). Configuring management control systems: Theorizing the integration of strategy and sustainability. Management Accounting Research, 23(3), 205–223.
Gruber, V., & Schlegelmilch, B. B. (2015). MNEs’ regional headquarters and their CSR agenda in the African context. International Marketing Review, 32(5), 576–602.
Hah, K., & Freeman, S. (2014). Multinational enterprise subsidiaries and their CSR: A conceptual framework of the management of CSR in smaller emerging economies. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(1), 125–136.
Haugh, H. M., & Talwar, A. (2010). How do corporations embed sustainability across the organization? Academy of Management Learning and Education, 9(3), 384–396.
Hayward, R., Lee, J., Keeble, J., McNamara, R., Hall, C., & Cruse, S. (2013). The UN Global Compact-Accenture CEO Study on Sustainability 2013: Architects of a Better World. Retrieved January 17, 2018 from https://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/news_events/8.1/UNGC_Accenture_CEO_Study_2013.pdf.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly-Hills: SAGE.
Hörisch, J., Burritt, R. L., Christ, K. L., & Schaltegger, S. (2017). Legal systems, internationalization and corporate sustainability. An empirical analysis of the influence of national and international authorities. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 17(5), 861–875.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership and organisations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. London: Sage Publications.
Huemer, L. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and multinational corporation identity: Norwegian strategies in the Chilean aquaculture industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 265–277.
Husted, B. W. (2005). Culture and ecology: A cross-national study of the determinants of environmental sustainability. Management International Review, 45, 271–349.
Husted, B. W., & Allen, D. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the multinational enterprise: Strategic and institutional approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), 838–849.
Husted, B. W., Montiel, I., & Christmann, P. (2016). Effects of local legitimacy on certification decisions to global and national CSR standards by multinational subsidiaries and domestic firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(3), 382–397.
Ilhan-Nas, T., Koparan, E., & Okan, T. (2015). The effects of the CSR isomorphism on both CSP and CFP. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 9(3), 251–272.
Jain, R., & De Moya, M. (2013). Global, local, or glocal: Investigating CSR strategies of best corporate citizens in India. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 7(3), 207–226.
Jamali, D. (2010). The CSR of MNC subsidiaries in developing countries: Global, local, substantive or diluted? Journal of Business Ethics, 93(2), 181–200.
Kolk, A. (2010). Social and sustainability dimensions of regionalization and (semi) globalization. Multinational Business Review, 18(1), 51–72.
Kolk, A. (2016). The social responsibility of international business: From ethics and the environment to CSR and sustainable development. Journal of World Business, 51(1), 23–34.
Kolk, A., & Fortanier, F. (2013). Internationalization and environmental disclosure: the role of home and host institutions. Multinational Business Review, 21(1), 87–114.
Kolk, A., & Levy, D. (2004). Multinationals and global climate change: issues for the automotive and oil industries. In Lundan, S. M. (Ed.), Multinationals, environment and global competition (Research in global strategic management) (pp. 171–193). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Kolk, A., & Perego, P. (2010). Determinants of the adoption of sustainability assurance statements: An international investigation. Business Strategy and the Environment, 19(3), 182–198.
Kolk, A., & van Tulder, R. (2010). International business, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. International Business Review, 19(2), 119–125.
Kourula, A., Pisani, N., & Kolk, A. (2017). Corporate sustainability and inclusive development: Highlights from international business and management research. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 24, 14–18.
Lacy, P., Haines, A., & Hayward, R. (2012). Developing strategies and leaders to succeed in a new era of sustainability: Findings and insights from the United Nations Global Compact-Accenture CEO Study. Journal of Management Development, 31(4), 346–357.
Lam, M. L.-L. (2009). Beyond credibility of doing business in China: Strategies for improving corporate citizenship of foreign multinational enterprises in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(1), 137–146.
Lam, M. L.-L. (2011). Challenges of sustainable environmental programs of foreign multinational enterprises in China. Management Research Review, 34(11), 1153–1168.
Lemke, F., & Luzio, J. P. P. (2014). ‘Exploring Green Consumers’ Mind-Set toward Green Product Design and Life Cycle Assessment. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 18(5), 619–630.
Linnenluecke, M. K., & Griffiths, A. (2013). Firms and sustainability: Mapping the intellectual origins and structure of the corporate sustainability field. Global Environmental Change, 23(1), 382–391.
Maak, T., & Pless, N. M. (2006). Responsible leadership in a stakeholder society—A relational perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 66(1), 99–115.
Málovics, G., Nagypál Csigéné, N., & Kraus, S. (2008). The role of corporate social responsibility in strong sustainability. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(3), 907–918.
Marano, V., & Kostova, T. (2016). Unpacking the institutional complexity in adoption of CSR practices in multinational enterprises. Journal of Management Studies, 53(1), 28–54.
Marano, V., Tashman, P., & Kostova, T. (2017). Escaping the iron cage: Liabilities of origin and CSR reporting of emerging market multinational enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(3), 386–408.
Matten, D., & Crane, A. (2005). Corporate citizenship: Toward an extended theoretical conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 166–179.
Meho, L. I., & Yang, K. (2007). Impact of data sources on citation counts and rankings of LIS faculty: Web of Science versus Scopus and Google Scholar. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(13), 2105–2125.
Miska, C., Hilbe, C., & Mayer, S. (2014). Reconciling different views on responsible leadership: A rationality-based approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 125, 349–360.
Miska, C., Stahl, G. K., & Mendenhall, M. E. (2016). Intercultural competencies as antecedents of responsible global leadership. European Journal of International Management, 7(5), 550–569.
Miska, C., Szőcs, I., & Schiffinger, M. (2018). Culture’s effects on corporate sustainability practices: A multi-domain and multi-level view. Journal of World Business, 53, 263–279.
Miska, C., Witt, M. A., & Stahl, G. K. (2016). Drivers of global CSR integration and local CSR responsiveness: Evidence from Chinese MNEs. Business Ethics Quarterly, 26(3), 317–345.
Morand, M., & Rayman-Bacchus, L. (2006). Think global, act local: Corporate social responsibility management in multinational companies. Social Responsibility Journal, 2(3/4), 261–272.
Muller, A. (2006). Global versus local CSR strategies. European Management Journal, 24(2), 189–198.
Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston: Pearson Education.
Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F. L., & Rynes, S. L. (2003). Corporate social and financial performance: A meta-analysis. Organization Studies, 24(3), 403–441.
Park, B. I., & Ghauri, P. N. (2015). Determinants influencing CSR practices in small and medium sized MNE subsidiaries: A stakeholder perspective. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 192–204.
Park, Y.-R., Song, S., Choe, S., & Baik, Y. (2015). Corporate social responsibility in international business: Illustrations from Korean and Japanese Electronics MNEs in Indonesia. Journal of Business Ethics, 129(3), 747–761.
Peng, Y.-S., & Lin, S.-S. (2008). Local responsiveness pressure, subsidiary resources, green management adoption and subsidiary’s performance: Evidence from Taiwanese manufactures. Journal of Business Ethics, 79(1–2), 199–212.
Pereira, M. M., & Amatucci, M. (2014). Local and global influences on the social responsibility performance of multinational corporations in the Brazilian automotive industry. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 14(2), 121–137.
Pinkse, J., & Kolk, A. (2012). Multinational enterprises and climate change: Exploring institutional failures and embeddedness. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(3), 332–341.
Pinkse, J., Kuss, M. J., & Hoffmann, V. H. (2010). On the implementation of a ‘global’ environmental strategy: The role of absorptive capacity. International Business Review, 19(2), 160–177.
Pisani, N., Kourula, A., Kolk, A., & Meijer, R. (2017). How global is international CSR research? Insights and recommendations from a systematic review. Journal of World Business, 52(5), 591–614.
Pless, N. M., & Maak, T. (2011). Responsible leadership: Pathways to the future. In Responsible Leadership (pp. 3–13). Dordrecht: Springer.
Pless, N. M., Maak, T., & Waldman, D. A. (2012). Different approaches toward doing the right thing: Mapping the responsibility orientations of leaders. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4), 51–65.
Preuss, L., Barkemeyer, R., & Glavas, A. (2016). Corporate social responsibility in developing country multinationals: identifying company and country-level influences. Business Ethics Quarterly, 26(3), 347–378.
Rasche, A., & Waddock, S. (2014). Global Sustainability governance and the UN global compact: A rejoinder to critics. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(2), 209–216.
Rathert, N. (2016). Strategies of legitimation: MNEs and the adoption of CSR in response to host-country institutions. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(7), 858–879.
Reddy, C. D., & Hamann, R. (2018). Distance makes the (committed) heart grow colder: MNEs’ responses to the state logic in African variants of CSR. Business and Society, 57(3), 562–594.
Reimann, F., Rauer, J., & Kaufmann, L. (2015). MNE subsidiaries’ strategic commitment to CSR in emerging economies: the role of administrative distance, subsidiary size, and experience in the host country. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(4), 845–857.
Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, A., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F., Lenton, T. M., Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H. J., Nykvist, B., de Wit, C. A., Hughes, T., van der Leeuw, S., Rodhe, H., Sorlin, S., Snyder, P. K., Costanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Karlberg, L., Corell, R. W., Fabry, V. J., Hansen, J., Walker, B., Liverman, D., Richardson, K., Crutzen, P., & Foley, J. A. (2009). A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461(7263), 472–475.
Ruud, A. (2002). Environmental management of transnational corporations in India—Are TNCs creating islands of environmental excellence in a sea of dirt? Business Strategy and the Environment, 11(2), 103–118.
Salzmann, O., Ionescu-Somers, A., & Steger, U. (2005). The business case for corporate sustainability: Literature review and research options. European Management Journal, 23(1), 27–36.
Schaltegger, S. (2011). Sustainability as a driver for corporate economic success: Consequences for the development of sustainability management control. Society and Economy, 33(1), 15–28.
Schaltegger, S. & Burritt, R. (2018). Business cases and corporate engagement with sustainability. Exploring ethical motivations. Journal of Business Ethics, 147(2), 241–259.
Schaltegger, S., Beckmann, M., & Hockerts, K. (2018). Collaborative entrepreneurship for sustainability. Creating solutions in light of the UN sustainable development goals. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 10(2), 131–152.
Schaltegger, S., Burritt, R., Zvezdov, D., Hörisch, J., & Tingey-Holyoak, J. (2015). Management roles and sustainability information. Exploring corporate practice. Australian Accounting Review, 25(4), 328–345.
Schaltegger, S., & Burritt, R. L. (2005). Corporate sustainability. In H. Folmer & T. Tietenberg (Eds.), The international yearbook of environmental and resource economics 2005/2006. A survey of current issues (pp. 185–222). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Schaltegger, S., & Burritt, R. L. (2010). Sustainability accounting for companies: Catchphrase or decision support for business leaders? Journal of World Business, 45(4), 375–384.
Schaltegger, S. & Hörisch, J. (2017). In search of the dominant rationale in sustainability management. Legitimacy- or profit-seeking? Journal of Business Ethics, 145(2), 259–276.
Scherer, A. G. (2015). Can hypernorms be justified? Insights from a discourse-ethical perspective. Business Ethics Quarterly, 25(4), 489–516.
Scherer, A. G., & Palazzo, G. (2011). The new political role of business in a globalized world: A review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm, governance, and democracy. Journal of Management Studies, 48(4), 899–931.
Sethi, S. P., & Schepers, D. H. (2014). United Nations global compact: The promise–performance gap. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(2), 193–208.
Shah, K. U., & Arjoon, S. (2015). Through thick and thin? How self-determination drives the corporate sustainability initiatives of multinational subsidiaries. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(6), 565–582.
Shapiro, D., Hobdari, B., & Oh, C. H. (2018). Natural resources, multinational enterprises and sustainable development. Journal of World Business, 53(1), 1–14.
Sharfman, M. P., Shaft, T. M., & Tihanyi, L. (2004). A model of the global and institutional antecedents of high-level corporate environmental performance. Business and Society, 43(1), 6–36.
Shrivastava, P. (1995). The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 936–960.
Stahl, G. K., Pless, N. M., Maak, T., & Miska, C. (2017). Responsible global leadership. In M. E. Mendenhall, J. S. Osland, A. Bird, G. R. Oddou & M. L. Maynevski (Eds.), Global leadership research, practice, and development (3nd Edition ed.), pp. 363–388). London/New York: Routledge.
Surroca, J., Tribó, J. A., & Zahra, S. A. (2013). Stakeholder pressure on MNEs and the transfer of socially irresponsible practices to subsidiaries. Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 549–572.
Tan, J. (2009). Institutional structure and firm social performance in transitional economies: Evidence of multinational corporations in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 86, 171–189.
Tan, J., & Wang, L. (2011). MNC strategic responses to ethical pressure: An institutional logic perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(3), 373–390.
Tatoglu, E., Bayraktar, E., Sahadev, S., Demirbag, M., & Glaister, K. W. (2014). Determinants of voluntary environmental management practices by MNE subsidiaries. Journal of World Business, 49(4), 536–548.
Timur, S., & Getz, D. (2009). Sustainable tourism development: how do destination stakeholders perceive sustainable urban tourism? Sustainable Development, 17, 220–223.
Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 356–367.
Torraco, R. J. (2016). Writing integrative literature reviews: Using the past and present to explore the future. Human Resource Development Review, 15(4), 404–428.
Vachon, S. (2010). International operations and sustainable development: Should national culture matter? Sustainable Development, 18(6), 350–361.
van Marrewijk, M. (2003). Concepts and definitions of CSR and corporate sustainability: Between agency and communion. Journal of Business Ethics, 44, 95–105.
Van Marrewijk, M., & Werre, M. (2003). Multiple levels of corporate sustainability. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2), 107–119.
Voegtlin, C., & Pless, N. M. (2014). Global Governance: CSR and the Role of the UN Global Compact. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(2), 179–191.
Walsh, J., Weber, K., & Margolis, J. (2003). Social issues and management: Our lost cause found. Journal of Management, 29(6), 859–881.
Weidema, B. P., Pizzol, M., Schmidt, J., & Thoma, G. (2018). Attributional or consequential life cycle assessment: A matter of social responsibility. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 305–314.
Weyzig, F. (2009). Political and economic arguments for corporate social responsibility: Analysis and a proposition regarding the CSR Agenda. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(4), 417–428.
Whiteman, G., Walker, B., & Perego, P. (2013). Planetary boundaries: Ecological foundations for corporate sustainability. Journal of Management Studies, 50(2), 307–336.
Yang, X., & Rivers, C. (2009). Antecedents of CSR practices in MNCs’ subsidiaries: A stakeholder and institutional perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 155–169.
Yin, J., & Jamali, D. (2016). Strategic corporate social responsibility of multinational companies’ subsidiaries in emerging markets: Evidence from China. Long Range Planning, 49(5), 541–558.
Yorks, L. (2008). What we know, what we don’t know, what we need to know—Integrative literature reviews are research. Human Resource Development Review, 7(2), 139–141.
Zyglidopoulos, S., Williamson, P., & Symeou, P. (2016). The corporate social performance of developing country multinationals. Business Ethics Quarterly, 26(3), 379–406.
This study was partially funded by the Management Discipline Group Research Grants Scheme, University of Technology Sydney Business School, Sydney, Australia, Grant Number 103010/0210595.
Conflict of interest
Professor Roger Burritt declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dr Katherine Christ declares that she has no conflict of interest. Associate Professor Hussain Rammal has received a research Grant from his employing university, the University of Technology Sydney (Number103010/0210595), and has no conflict of interest. Professor Stefan Schaltagger declares that he has no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Burritt, R.L., Christ, K.L., Rammal, H.G. et al. Multinational Enterprise Strategies for Addressing Sustainability: the Need for Consolidation. J Bus Ethics 164, 389–410 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-4066-0
- Multinational enterprise
- Sustainability strategy