Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 152, Issue 4, pp 899–916 | Cite as

Integrating Servant Leadership into Managerial Strategy to Build Group Social Capital: The Mediating Role of Group Citizenship Behavior

  • Jorge Linuesa-Langreo
  • Pablo Ruiz-Palomino
  • Dioni Elche-Hortelano
Original Paper


Recently, various studies have suggested that ethical leadership offers an important antecedent of fluid internal workplace relationships, which are conducive of internal social capital. Yet existing research has neither inquired into potential mediators of this relationship nor addressed the role of other distinct leadership strategies in encouraging such a valuable capital. This study advances previous research by examining if servant leadership, which seeks to put followers’ interests and needs first, can account for social capital variance within the work group, which is the building block of organizations. New to the literature, we also investigate whether group citizenship behavior mediates this relationship. A sample of 352 work groups, spanning 187 hotels located in Spain, reveal that group citizenship behavior partially mediates the positive influence of servant leadership on group social capital. Managers can use these findings to lead their businesses in a more socially friendly direction while also building group social capital, which can improve the competitiveness of their work groups, and the entire business.


Servant leadership Serving others Group citizenship behavior Group social capital 



This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER funds (Project ECO2016-75781-P). Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2016–2020.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.


  1. Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S.-W. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad, and the ugly. In E. L. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 89–115). Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of occupational psychology, 63(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, J. (2013). AMOS (Version 22.0) [Computer Program]. Chicago, IL: SPSS.Google Scholar
  4. Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.Google Scholar
  5. Ayers, M. R. (2008). Agapao in servant leadership. Virginia Beach, VA: Research Roundtable at Regent University.Google Scholar
  6. Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 421–458.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, T. L., Hunt, T. G., & Andrews, M. C. (2006). Promoting ethical behavior and organizational citizenship behaviors: The influence of corporate ethical values. Journal of Business Research, 59(7), 849–857.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Banki, S. (2010). Is a good deed constructive regardless of intent? Organization citizenship behavior, motive, and group outcomes. Small Group Research, 41(3), 354–375.Google Scholar
  10. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.Google Scholar
  11. Bascle, G. (2008). Controlling for endogeneity with instrumental variables in strategic management research. Strategic Organization, 6(3), 285–327.Google Scholar
  12. Blader, S. L., Van Knippenberg, D., & Sleebos, E. (2008). Tit-for-tat and give-and-take: Communal and exchange dynamics in work organizations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  13. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Bliese, P. D. (1998). Group size, ICC values, and group size correlations: A simulation. Organizational Research Methods, 1(4), 355–373.Google Scholar
  15. Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349–381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  16. Bobbio, A., Van Dierendonck, D., & Manganelli, A. M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership, 8(3), 229–243.Google Scholar
  17. Bolino, M., & Turnley, V. H. (2003). Going the extra mile: Cultivating and managing employee citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Executive, 17(3), 60–71.Google Scholar
  18. Bolino, M., Turnley, V. H., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2002). Citizenship behavior and the creation of social capital in organization. Academy of Management Review, 27(4), 505–522.Google Scholar
  19. Bowler, M., & Brass, D. (2006). Relational correlates of interpersonal citizenship behavior: A social network perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 70–82.Google Scholar
  20. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Cross-cultural research methods: Strategies, problems, applications. In I. Altman, A. Rapoport, & J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.), Human behavior and environment (pp. 47–82). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, M., Harrison, D., & Treviño, L. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117–134.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595–616.Google Scholar
  23. Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes: The structure of social competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Calantone, R., & Rubera, G. (2012). When should RD&E and marketing collaborate? The moderating role of exploration-exploitation and environmental uncertainty. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29, 144–157.Google Scholar
  25. Cardona, P., Morley, M. J., & Reiche, S. B. (2013). Manager–subordinate trust relationships across cultures. In P. Cardona & M. J. Morley (Eds.), Manager–subordinate trust. A global perspective. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Chen, Z., Zhu, J., & Zhou, M. (2015). How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self-identity, group competition climate and customer service performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 511–521.Google Scholar
  27. Chow, W. S., & Chan, L. S. (2008). Social network, social trust and shared goals in organizational knowledge sharing. Information & Management, 45(7), 458–465.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Conway, J. M., & Lance, C. E. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 325–334.Google Scholar
  30. Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behaviour. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 61–94.Google Scholar
  31. Ehrhart, M. G., Bliese, P. D., & Thomas, J. L. (2016). Unit-level OCB and unit effectiveness: Examining the incremental effect of helping behavior. Human Performance, 19(2), 159–173.Google Scholar
  32. Ehrhart, M. G., & Naumann, S. E. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior in work groups: A group norms approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 960–974.Google Scholar
  33. Farh, J. L., Zhong, C. B., & Organ, D. W. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior in the People’s Republic of China. Organization Science, 15(2), 241–253.Google Scholar
  34. Flynn, F. J. (2003). How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity. Academy of Management Journal, 46(5), 539–553.Google Scholar
  35. Fontrodona, J. (2002). Pragmatism and management inquiry: Insights from the thought of Charles S. Peirce. Westport: Quorum Books.Google Scholar
  36. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.Google Scholar
  37. Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161–178.Google Scholar
  38. Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. New York: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hall, D. T., Schneider, B., & Nygren, H. T. (1970). Personal factors in organizational identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 176–190.Google Scholar
  40. Hansen, M. T. (1999). The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1), 82–112.Google Scholar
  41. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny. Statistical mediation analysis in the New Millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420.Google Scholar
  42. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modelling in international marketing. In R. R. Sinkovics & P. N. Ghauri (Eds.), New challenges to international marketing: Advances in international marketing (pp. 277–319). Bingley: Emerald JAI Press.Google Scholar
  44. Herman, H. M., Dasborough, M. T., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2008). A multi-level analysis of team climate and interpersonal exchange relationships at work. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 195–211.Google Scholar
  45. Hitt, M. A., & Duane, R. (2002). The essence of strategic leadership: Managing human and social capital. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(1), 3–14.Google Scholar
  46. Hoffman, B. J., Blair, C. A., Meriac, J. P., & Woehr, D. J. (2007). Expanding the criterion domain? A quantitative review of the OCB literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 555–566.Google Scholar
  47. Hu, J., & Liden, R. C. (2011). Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: An examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 851–862.Google Scholar
  48. Hu, L., & Randel, A. E. (2014). Knowledge sharing in teams: Social capital, extrinsic incentives, and team innovation. Group and Organization Management, 39(2), 213–243.Google Scholar
  49. Hunter, A. (1975). The loss of community an empirical test through replication. American Sociological Review, 40, 537–552.Google Scholar
  50. Hunter, E. M., Neubert, M. J., Perry, S. J., Witt, L. A., Penney, L. M., & Weinberger, E. (2013). Servant leaders inspire servant followers: Antecedents and outcomes for employees and the organization. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(2), 316–331.Google Scholar
  51. Ibarra, H. (1992). Structural alignments, individual strategies, and managerial action: Elements toward a network theory of getting things done. In N. Nohria & R. G. Eccles (Eds.), Networks and organizations: Structure, form, and action (pp. 165–188). Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  52. Irving, J. A., & Longbotham, G. J. (2007). Team effectiveness and six essential servant leadership themes: A regression model based on items in the organizational leadership assessment. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2(2), 98–113.Google Scholar
  53. James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., & Wolf, G. (1984). Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(1), 85–98.Google Scholar
  54. James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (2006). A tale of two methods. Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 233–244.Google Scholar
  55. Joseph, E., & Winston, B. E. (2005). A correlation of servant leadership, leader trust, and organizational trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(1), 6–22.Google Scholar
  56. Kankanhalli, A., Kwok, K. W., & Bernard, C. Y. T. (2005). Contributing knowledge to electronic knowledge repositories: An empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 113–143.Google Scholar
  57. Karlgaard, R. (2013) .Teams matter, talent is not enough. Forbes Magazine, 191(4), 38. Accessed September 2016.
  58. Krebs, V. (2008). Social capital: The key to success for the 21st century organization. IHRIM journal, 12(5), 38–42.Google Scholar
  59. Leana, C. R., & Pil, F. K. (2006). Social capital and organizational performance: Evidence from urban public schools. Organization Science, 17(3), 353–366.Google Scholar
  60. Leana, C. R., & Van Buren, H. J. (1999). Organizational social capital and employment practices. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 538–555.Google Scholar
  61. Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 131–142.Google Scholar
  62. Lewicki, R. J., McAllister, D. J., & Bies, R. J. (1998). Trust and distrust: New relationships and realities. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 438–458.Google Scholar
  63. Li, W., Humphreys, P. K., Yeung, A. C. L., & Cheng, T. C. E. (2007). The impact of specific supplier development efforts on buyer competitive advantage: An empirical model. International Journal of Production Economics, 106(1), 230–247.Google Scholar
  64. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, Ch., & Meuser, J. M. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434–1452.Google Scholar
  65. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161–177.Google Scholar
  66. Mackenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Jarvis, C. B. (2005). The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioural and organizational research and some recommended solutions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 710–730.Google Scholar
  67. MacKinnon, D. P., Coxe, S., & Baraldi, A. N. (2012). Guidelines for the investigation of mediating variables in business research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  68. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 83–104.Google Scholar
  69. Mangelsdorf, M. E. (2012). The Human Side of Business. Magazine: Summer 2012. Accessed September 2016.
  70. McAllister, D. J. (1995). Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24–59.Google Scholar
  71. Meissner, P., & Wulf, T. (2014). Antecedents and effects of decision comprehensiveness: The role of decision quality and perceived uncertainty. European Management Journal, 32(4), 625–635.Google Scholar
  72. Melé, D. (2003). Organizational humanizing cultures: Do they generate social capital? Journal of Business Ethics, 45(1–2), 3–14.Google Scholar
  73. Melé, D. (2009). Business ethics in action: Seeking human excellence in organizations. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  74. Melé, D. (2012). Management ethics: Placing ethics at the core of good management. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  75. Mullen, B., & Copper, C. (1994). The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin, 115(2), 210–277.Google Scholar
  76. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242–266.Google Scholar
  77. Nancarrow, C., Brace, I., & Wright, L. T. (2001). Tell me lies, tell me sweet little lies: Dealing with socially desirable responses in market research. The Marketing Review, 2(1), 55–69.Google Scholar
  78. Newman, A., Schwarz, G., Cooper, B., & Sendjaya, S. (2015). How servant leadership influences organizational citizenship behavior: The roles of LMX, empowerment, and proactive personality. Journal of Business Ethics. Scholar
  79. Oh, H., Labianca, G., & Chung, M.-H. (2006). A multilevel model of group social capital. Academy of Management Review, 31(3), 569–582.Google Scholar
  80. Onyx, J., & Bullen, P. (2000). Measuring social capital in five communities. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(1), 23–42.Google Scholar
  81. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  82. Organ, D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 12(1), 43–72.Google Scholar
  83. Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A. J., & Clark, M. A. (2002). Substantive and operational issues of response bias across levels of analysis: An example of climate-satisfaction relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 355–368.Google Scholar
  84. Panaccio, A., Henderson, D. J., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Cao, X. (2015). Toward an understanding of when and why servant leadership accounts for employee extra-role behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(4), 657–675.Google Scholar
  85. Pastoriza, D., & Ariño, M. A. (2013). Does the ethical leadership of supervisors generate internal social capital? Journal of Business Ethics, 118(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  86. Pastoriza, D., Ariño, M. A., & Ricart, J. E. (2009). Creating an ethical work context: A pathway to generate social capital in the firm. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(3), 477–489.Google Scholar
  87. Pastoriza, D., Arino, M. A., Ricart, J. E., & Canela, M. A. (2015). Does an ethical work context generate internal social capital? Journal of Business Ethics, 129(1), 77–92.Google Scholar
  88. Patterson, K. (2003). Servant leadership: A theoretical model. Virginia Beach, VA: Research Roundtable at Regent University.Google Scholar
  89. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.Google Scholar
  90. Podsakoff, N. P., Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Maynes, T. D., & Spoelma, T. M. (2014). Consequences of unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors: A review and recommendations for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(S1), S87–S119.Google Scholar
  91. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36(4), 717–731.Google Scholar
  92. Putnam, R. (1993). The prosperous community: Social capital and public life. American Prospect, 4(13), 35–42.Google Scholar
  93. Reed, L. L., Vidaver-Cohen, D., & Colwell, S. R. (2011). A new scale to measure executive servant leadership: Development, analysis, and implications for research. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(3), 415–434.Google Scholar
  94. Ress, A. (2015). HR left for dead amongst business chaos. HR Review. Accessed September 2016.
  95. Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. M. (2015). Smart PLS 3. Hamburg: Smart PLS. Retrieved from Accessed 7 July 2016.
  96. Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145–157.Google Scholar
  97. Salvati, A. (2008). Altruism and social capital. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.Google Scholar
  98. Segars, A. H. (1997). Assessing unidimensionality of measurement: A paradigm and illustration within the context of information systems research. Omega, 25(1), 107–121.Google Scholar
  99. Sendjaya, S., & Pekerti, A. (2010). Servant leadership as antecedent of trust in organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(7), 643–663.Google Scholar
  100. Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. (2002). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9(2), 57–64.Google Scholar
  101. Shaver, J. M. (2005). Testing for mediating variables in management research: Concerns, implications, and alternative strategies. Journal of Management, 31(3), 330–353.Google Scholar
  102. Shin, Y. (2012). CEO ethical leadership, ethical climate, climate strength, and collective organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(3), 299–312.Google Scholar
  103. Sison, A. J. G., & Fontrodona, J. (2011). The common good of business: Addressing a challenge posed by « Caritas in veritate». Journal of Business Ethics, 100, 99–107.Google Scholar
  104. Sison, A. J. G., & Fontrodona, J. (2013). Participating in the common good of the firm. Journal of Business Ethics, 113, 611–625.Google Scholar
  105. Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653–663.Google Scholar
  106. Sousa, M., & Van Dierendonck, D. (2017). Servant leadership and the effect of the interaction between humility, action, and hierarchical power on follower engagement. Journal of Business Ethics. Scholar
  107. Spears, L. C. (1998). Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant leadership. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  108. Spears, L. C. (2010). Character and servant leadership: Ten characteristics of effective, caring leaders. The Journal of Virtues & Leadership, 1(1), 25–30.Google Scholar
  109. Spreitzer, G. M., & Mishra, A. K. (1999). Giving up control without losing control trust and its substitutes’ effects on managers’ involving employees in decision making. Group and Organization Management, 24(2), 155–187.Google Scholar
  110. Spreitzer, G., Sutcliffe, K., Dutton, J., Sonenshein, S., & Grant, A. M. (2005). A socially embedded model of thriving at work. Organization Science, 16(5), 537–549.Google Scholar
  111. StataCorp. (2015). Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
  112. Stock, J. H., & Yogo, M. (2004). Testing for weak instruments in linear IV regression. Working Paper, Department of Economics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  113. Sun, P. Y. T. (2013). The servant identity: Influences on the cognition and behavior of servant leaders. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(4), 544–557.Google Scholar
  114. Tippins, M. J., & Sohi, R. S. (2003). IT competency and firm performance: Is organizational learning a missing link? Strategic Management Journal, 24(8), 745–761.Google Scholar
  115. Van Dick, R., Grojean, M. W., Christ, O., & Wieseke, J. (2006). Identity and the extra mile: Relationships between organizational identification and organizational citizenship behaviour. British Journal of Management, 17(4), 283–301.Google Scholar
  116. Van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and syntheses. Journal of Management, 27(4), 1228–1261.Google Scholar
  117. Van Dierendonck, D., & Nuijten, I. (2011). The servant-leadership survey (SLS): Development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 249–267.Google Scholar
  118. Van Dierendonck, D., & Patterson, K. (2015). Compassionate love as a cornerstone of servant leadership: An integration of previous theorizing and research. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(1), 119–131.Google Scholar
  119. Van Knippenberg, D., Van Knippenberg, B., De Cremer, D., & Hogg, M. A. (2004). Leadership, self, and identity: A review and research agenda. Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 825–856.Google Scholar
  120. Walumbwa, F. O., Hartnell, C. A., & Oke, A. (2010). Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 517–529.Google Scholar
  121. Washington, R. R., Sutton, C. D., & Feild, H. S. (2006). Individual differences in servant leadership: The roles of values and personality. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(8), 700–716.Google Scholar
  122. West, M. A., & Markiewicz, L. (2004). Building team-based working: A practical guide to organizational transformation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  123. Whetstone, J. T. (2002). Personalism and moral leadership: the servant leaders with a transforming vision. Business Ethics: A European Review, 11(4), 385–392.Google Scholar
  124. Winston, B. E. (2003). Extending Patterson’s servant leadership model: Explaining how leaders and followers inter-act in a circular model. Virginia Beach, VA: Research Roundtable at Regent University.Google Scholar
  125. Winston, B., & Fields, D. (2015). Seeking and measuring the essential behaviors of servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(4), 413–434.Google Scholar
  126. Worchel, S., Rothgerber, H., Day, E. A., Hart, D., & Butemeyer, J. (1998). Social identity and individual productivity within groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37(4), 389–413.Google Scholar
  127. Wu, L. Z., Tse, E. C., Fu, P., Kwan, H. K., & Liu, J. (2013). The impact of servant leadership on hotel employees “servant behavior”. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 54(4), 383–395.Google Scholar
  128. Yoon, Ch., & Wang, Z.-W. (2011). The role of citizenship behaviors and social capital in virtual communities. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 52(1), 106–115.Google Scholar
  129. Zhang, H., Kwong Kwan, H., Everett, A. M., & Jian, Z. (2012). Servant leadership, organizational identification, and work-to-family enrichment: The moderating role of work climate for sharing family concerns. Human Resource Management, 51(5), 747–767.Google Scholar
  130. Zhang, M., Zheng, W., & Wei, J. (2009). Sources of social capital: Effects of altruistic citizenship behavior and job involvement on advice network centrality. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20(2), 195–217.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Linuesa-Langreo
    • 1
  • Pablo Ruiz-Palomino
    • 1
  • Dioni Elche-Hortelano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of Castilla-La ManchaCuencaSpain

Personalised recommendations