The Mind is Willing, but the Situation Constrains: Why and When Leader Conscientiousness Relates to Ethical Leadership

  • Mayowa T. Babalola
  • Michelle C. Bligh
  • Babatunde Ogunfowora
  • Liang Guo
  • Omale A. Garba
Original Paper


While previous research has established that employees who have a more conscientious leader are more likely to perceive that their leader is ethical, the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of this linkage remain unknown. In order to better understand the relationship between leader conscientiousness and ethical leadership, we examine the potential mediating role of leader moral reflectiveness, as well as the potential moderating role of decision-making autonomy. Drawing from social cognitive theory, results from two samples of workgroup leaders and their immediate reports situated in Africa and Asia show that leader conscientiousness is positively related to leader moral reflectiveness, which in turn, is positively associated with employees’ assessment of ethical leadership. Furthermore, and consistent with our hypothesis, results from the two samples show that leader decision-making autonomy moderates the indirect path from leader conscientiousness to ethical leadership through moral reflectiveness, such that only morally reflective leaders who have high (versus low) decision-making autonomy at work engage in ethical leadership behaviors. In our discussion, we highlight the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and suggest ways in which organizations can better foster ethical leadership.


Ethical leadership Leader conscientiousness Moral reflectiveness Decision-making autonomy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mayowa T. Babalola
    • 1
  • Michelle C. Bligh
    • 2
  • Babatunde Ogunfowora
    • 3
  • Liang Guo
    • 4
  • Omale A. Garba
    • 5
  1. 1.Peter Faber Business School, Centre for Sustainable HRM and Well-beingAustralian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Claremont Graduate UniversityClaremontUSA
  3. 3.Haskayne School of BusinessUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  4. 4.NEOMA Business SchoolRouenFrance
  5. 5.Boston UniversityBostonUSA

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