Do Customer Perceptions of Corporate Services Brand Ethicality Improve Brand Equity? Considering the Roles of Brand Heritage, Brand Image, and Recognition Benefits

Abstract

In order to be competitive in an era of ethical consumerism, brands are facing an ever-increasing pressure to integrate ethical values into their identities and to display their ethical commitment at a corporate level. Nevertheless, studies that relate business ethics to corporate brands are either theoretical or have predominantly been developed empirically in goods contexts. This is surprising, because corporate brands are more relevant in services settings, given the nature of services (i.e., intangible, heterogeneous, inseparable and perishable), and the fact that services settings comprise a greater number of customer–brand interactions and touch points than goods contexts. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to empirically examine the effects of customer perceived ethicality of corporate brands that operate in the services sector. Based on data collected for eight service categories using a panel of 2179 customers, the hypothesized structural model is tested using path analysis. The generalizability theory is applied to test for measurement equivalence between these categories. The results of the hypothesized model show that, in addition to a direct impact, customer perceived ethicality has a positive and indirect impact on brand equity, through the mediators of recognition benefits and brand image. Moreover, brand heritage negatively influences the impact of customer perceived ethicality on brand image. The main implication is that managers need to be aware of the need to reinforce brand image and recognition benefits, as this can facilitate the translation of customer perceived ethicality into brand equity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

Abbreviations

AVE:

Average variance extracted

BE:

Brand equity

BH:

Brand heritage

BI:

Brand image

CER:

Corporate environmental responsibility

CFA:

Confirmatory factor analysis

CMV:

Common method variance

CPE:

Customer perceived ethicality

CR:

Composite reliability

CSR:

Corporate social responsibility

GC:

Generalizability coefficient

G-theory:

Generalizability theory

PLS:

Partial least squares

RB:

Recognition benefits

References

  1. Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38(3), 102–120.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Allen, R. S., Evans, W. R., & White, C. S. (2011). Affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior: Examining the relationship through the lens of equity sensitivity. Organization Management Journal, 8(4), 218–228.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Anselmsson, J., Vestman Bondesson, N., & Johansson, U. (2014). Brand image and customers’ willingness to pay a price premium for food brands. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 23(2), 90–102.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aurier, P., & Séré de Lanauze, G. (2012). Impacts of perceived brand relationship orientation on attitudinal loyalty: An application to strong brands in the packaged goods sector. European Journal of Marketing, 46(11/12), 1602–1627.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Balmer, J. M. T. (2001). The three virtues and seven deadly sins of corporate brand management. Journal of General Management, 27(1), 1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Balmer, J. M. T. (2011a). Corporate heritage brands and the precepts of corporate heritage brand management: Insights from the British Monarchy on the eve of the royal wedding of Prince William (April 2011) and Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee (1952–2012). Journal of Brand Management, 18(8), 517–544.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Balmer, J. M. T. (2011b). Corporate heritage identities, corporate heritage brands and the multiple heritage identities of the British Monarchy. European Journal of Marketing, 45(9/10), 1380–1398.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Balmer, J. M. T. (2013). Corporate heritage, corporate heritage marketing, and total corporate heritage communications: What are they? What of them? Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 18(3), 290–326.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Baumgarth, C., & Schmidt, M. (2010). How strong is the business-to-business brand in the workforce? An empirically-tested model of ‘internal brand equity’ in a business-to-business setting. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(8), 1250–1260.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bendixen, M., & Abratt, R. (2007). Corporate identity, ethics and reputation in supplier–buyer relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(1), 69–82.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Berry, L. L. (1980). Services marketing is different. Business, 30(3), 24–29.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Berry, L. L., Carbone, L. P., & Haeckel, S. H. (2002). Managing the total customer experience. MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(3), 85–89.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bharadwaj, S. G., Varadarajan, P. R., & Fahy, J. (1993). Sustainable competitive advantage in service industries: A conceptual model and research propositions. The Journal of Marketing, 57, 83–99.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Blombäck, A., & Scandelius, C. (2013). Corporate heritage in CSR communication: A means to responsible brand image? Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 18(3), 362–382.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Booms, B. H., & Bitner, M. J. (1981). Marketing strategies and organization structures for service firms. Marketing of Services, 25(3), 47–52.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bowden, J. L. H. (2011). Engaging the student as a customer: A relationship marketing approach. Marketing Education Review, 21(3), 211–228.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand experience: What is it? How is it measured? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 52–68.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Brønn, P. S., & Vrioni, A. B. (2001). Corporate social responsibility and cause-related marketing: An overview. International Journal of Advertising, 20(2), 207–222.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. The Journal of Marketing, 61(1), 68–84.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Brunk, K. H. (2010a). Exploring origins of ethical company/brand perceptions—A consumer perspective of corporate ethics. Journal of Business Research, 63(3), 255–262.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Brunk, K. H. (2010b). Exploring origins of ethical company/brand perceptions—Reply to Shea and Cohn’s commentaries. Journal of Business Research, 63(12), 1364–1367.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Brunk, K. H. (2012). Un/ethical company and brand perceptions: Conceptualising and operationalising consumer meanings. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(4), 551–565.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Brunk, K. H., & Blümelhuber, C. (2011). One strike and you’re out: Qualitative insights into the formation of consumers’ ethical company or brand perceptions. Journal of Business Research, 64(2), 134–141.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Brunk, K. H., & DeBoer, C. (2015). Ethical brand perception formation when information is inconsistent—An impression formation perspective. Advances in Consumer Research, 43, 319–323.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Burmann, C., Jost-Benz, M., & Riley, N. (2009). Towards an identity-based brand equity model. Journal of Business Research, 62(3), 390–397.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Burmann, C., & Zeplin, S. (2005). Building brand commitment: A behavioural approach to internal brand management. The Journal of Brand Management, 12(4), 279–300.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Cai, L., & He, C. (2014). Corporate environmental responsibility and equity prices. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(4), 617–635.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Cambra-Fierro, J., Hart, S., & Polo-Redondo, Y. (2008). Environmental respect: Ethics or simply business? A study in the small and medium enterprise (SME) context. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 645–656.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Carbone, L. P., & Haeckel, S. H. (1994). Engineering customer experiences. Marketing Management, 3(3), 9–19.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Carrigan, M., & Attalla, A. (2001). The myth of the ethical consumer—Do ethics matter in purchase behaviour? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(7), 560–578.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Čater, T., & Čater, B. (2010). Product and relationship quality influence on customer commitment and loyalty in B2B manufacturing relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(8), 1321–1333.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: The role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81–93.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2002). Product-class effects on brand commitment and brand outcomes: The role of brand trust and brand affect. The Journal of Brand Management, 10(1), 33–58.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In V. Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications in marketing and related fields (pp. 655–690). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Cho, E., & Fiore, A. M. (2015). Conceptualization of a holistic brand image measure for fashion-related brands. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 32(4), 255–265.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Chomvilailuk, R., & Butcher, K. (2014). Effects of quality and corporate social responsibility on loyalty. The Service Industries Journal, 34(11), 938–954.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Christodoulides, G., De Chernatony, L., Furrer, O., Shiu, E., & Abimbola, T. (2006). Conceptualising and measuring the equity of online brands. Journal of Marketing Management, 22(7–8), 799–825.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Cronbach, L. J., Gleser, G. C., Nanda, H., & Rajaratnam, N. (1972). The dependability of behavioral measurements: Theory of generalizability for scores and profiles. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Crosby, L. A. (2009). Making the branded experience happen. Marketing Management, 18(4), 8–9.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Dall’Olmo Riley, F., & de Chernatony, L. (2000). The service brand as relationships builder. British Journal of Management, 11(2), 137–150.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Davcik, N. S., Da Silva, R. V., & Hair, J. F. (2015). Towards a unified theory of brand equity: Conceptualizations, taxonomy and avenues for future research. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 24(1), 3–17.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Dawkins, J., & Lewis, S. (2003). CSR in stakeholder expectations: And their implication for company strategy. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2–3), 185–193.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Dobni, D., & Zinkhan, G. (1990). In search of brand image: A foundation analysis. Advances in Consumer Research, 7, 110–119.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Dögl, C., & Holtbrügge, D. (2014). Corporate environmental responsibility, employer reputation and employee commitment: An empirical study in developed and emerging economies. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(12), 1739–1762.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Dwivedi, A., & Johnson, L. W. (2013). Trust–commitment as a mediator of the celebrity endorser–brand equity relationship in a service context. Australasian Marketing Journal, 21(1), 36–42.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Efron, B. (1987). Better bootstrap confidence intervals. Journal of the American statistical Association, 82(397), 171–185.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Eisingerich, A. B., Rubera, G., Seifert, M., & Bhardwaj, G. (2011). Doing good and doing better despite negative information? The role of corporate social responsibility in consumer resistance to negative information. Journal of Service Research, 14(1), 60–75.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Esch, F. R., Langner, T., Schmitt, B. H., & Geus, P. (2006). Are brands forever? How brand knowledge and relationships affect current and future purchases. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(2), 98–105.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Evanschitzky, H., Iyer, G. R., Plassmann, H., Niessing, J., & Meffert, H. (2006). The relative strength of affective commitment in securing loyalty in service relationships. Journal of Business Research, 59(12), 1207–1213.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. Akron, OH: The University of Akron Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Fan, Y. (2005). Ethical branding and corporate reputation. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(4), 341–350.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Farquhar, P. H. (1989). Managing brand equity. Marketing Research, 1(3), 24–33.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Fatma, M., Rahman, Z., & Khan, I. (2015). Building company reputation and brand equity through CSR: The mediating role of trust. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(6), 840–856.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Feldwick, P. (1996). Do we really need ‘brand equity’? Journal of Brand Management, 4(1), 9–28.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373.

    Google Scholar 

  59. García de los Salmones, M., Herrero Crespo, A., & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. (2005). Influence of corporate social responsibility on loyalty and valuation of services. Journal of Business Ethics, 61(4), 369–385.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Gensler, S., Völckner, F., Egger, M., Fischbach, K., & Schoder, D. (2016). Listen to your customers: Insights into brand image using online consumer-generated product reviews. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 20(1), 112–141.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Gill, M. S., & Dawra, J. (2010). Evaluating Aaker’s sources of brand equity and the mediating role of brand image. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 18(3), 189–198.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Grönroos, C. (2006). Adopting a service logic for marketing. Marketing Theory, 6(3), 317–333.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Gustafsson, C. (2005). Trust as an instance of asymmetrical reciprocity: An ethics perspective on corporate brand management. Business Ethics: A European Review, 14(2), 142–150.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Guzman, F., & Davis, D. F. (2017). The impact of corporate social responsibility on brand equity: Consumer responses to two types of fit. Journal of Product and Brand Management. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309202831.

  65. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Hakala, U., Lätti, S., & Sandberg, B. (2011). Operationalising brand heritage and cultural heritage. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 20(6), 447–456.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  68. He, Y., & Lai, K. K. (2014). The effect of corporate social responsibility on brand loyalty: The mediating role of brand image. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 25(3), 249–263.

    Google Scholar 

  69. He, H., & Li, Y. (2011). CSR and service brand: The mediating effect of brand identification and moderating effect of service quality. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(4), 673–688.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Heikkurinen, P. (2010). Image differentiation with corporate environmental responsibility. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(3), 142.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Hillestad, T., Xie, C., & Haugland, S. A. (2010). Innovative corporate social responsibility: The founder’s role in creating a trustworthy corporate brand through “green innovation”. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 19(6), 440–451.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Hooley, G. J., Greenley, G. E., Cadogan, J. W., & Fahy, J. (2005). The performance impact of marketing resources. Journal of Business Research, 58(1), 18–27.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Hsieh, A. T., & Li, C. K. (2008). The moderating effect of brand image on public relations perception and customer loyalty. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 26(1), 26–42.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Hsu, K. T. (2012). The advertising effects of corporate social responsibility on corporate reputation and brand equity: Evidence from the life insurance industry in Taiwan. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 189–201.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Hudson, B. T. (2011). Brand heritage and the renaissance of Cunard. European Journal of Marketing, 45(9/10), 1538–1556.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Hultén, B. (2011). Sensory marketing: The multi-sensory brand-experience concept. European Business Review, 23(3), 256–273.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Hur, W. M., Kim, H., & Woo, J. (2014). How CSR leads to corporate brand equity: Mediating mechanisms of corporate brand credibility and reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(1), 75–86.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Hutchinson, D., Singh, J., Svensson, G., & Mysen, T. (2013). Towards a model of conscientious corporate brands: A Canadian study. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 28(8), 687–695.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Iglesias, O., & Ind, N. (2016). How to build a brand with a conscience. In N. Ind & S. Horlings (Eds.), Brands with a conscience. Amsterdam: Kogan Page.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Iglesias, O., Ind, N., & Alfaro, M. (2013). The organic view of the brand: A brand value co-creation model. Journal of Brand Management, 20(8), 670–688.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Iglesias, O., & Saleem, F. Z. (2015). How to support consumer-brand relationships: The role of corporate culture and human resource policies and practices. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 33(2), 216–234.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Iglesias, O., Singh, J. J., & Batista-Foguet, J. M. (2011). The role of brand experience and affective commitment in determining brand loyalty. Journal of Brand Management, 18(8), 570–582.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Imrie, B. C. (2005). Beyond disconfirmation: The role of generosity and surprise. International Marketing Review, 22(3), 369–383.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Ind, N. (1997). The corporate brand. Oxford: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Ind, N. (2007). Living the brand: How to transform every member of your organization into a brand champion. London: Kogan Page.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Kamakura, W. A., & Russell, G. J. (1993). Measuring brand value with scanner data. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 10(1), 9–22.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Kang, S., & Hur, W. M. (2012). Investigating the antecedents of green brand equity: A sustainable development perspective. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(5), 306–316.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Keh, H. T., & Pang, J. (2010). Customer reactions to service separation. Journal of Marketing, 74(2), 55–70.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. The Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Keller, K. L. (2001). Building customer-based brand equity: A blueprint for creating strong brands. Working Paper, Report No. 01-107, Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.

  91. Khan, Z., Ferguson, D., & Pérez, A. (2015). Customer responses to CSR in the Pakistani banking industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(4), 471–493.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Kim, K. H., Jeon, B. J., Jung, H. S., Lu, W., & Jones, J. (2012). Effective employment brand equity through sustainable competitive advantage, marketing strategy, and corporate image. Journal of Business Research, 65(11), 1612–1617.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Lai, C. S., Chiu, C. J., Yang, C. F., & Pai, D. C. (2010). The effects of corporate social responsibility on brand performance: The mediating effect of industrial brand equity and corporate reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(3), 457–469.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Lane, V., & Jacobson, R. (1995). Stock market reactions to brand extension announcements: The effects of brand attitude and familiarity. Journal of Marketing, 59(1), 63–77.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Lassar, W., Mittal, B., & Sharma, A. (1995). Measuring customer-based brand equity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 11–19.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Lauritsen, B. D., & Perks, K. J. (2015). The influence of interactive, non-interactive, implicit and explicit CSR communication on young adults’ perception of UK supermarkets’ corporate brand image and reputation. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 20(2), 178–195.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Lee, K. H., Cin, B. C., & Lee, E. Y. (2016). Environmental responsibility and firm performance: The application of an environmental, social and governance model. Business Strategy and the Environment, 25, 40–53.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Lehmann, D. R., Keller, K. L., & Farley, J. U. (2008). The structure of survey-based brand metrics. Journal of International Marketing, 16(4), 29–56.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–124.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Loussaïef, L., Cacho-Elizondo, S., Pettersen, I. B., & Tobiassen, A. E. (2014). Do CSR actions in retailing really matter for young consumers? A study in France and Norway. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(1), 9–17.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Luchs, M. G., Naylor, R. W., Irwin, J. R., & Raghunathan, R. (2010). The sustainability liability: Potential negative effects of ethicality on product preference. Journal of Marketing, 74(5), 18–31.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Luo, X., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Malhotra, M. K., & Sharma, S. (2008). Measurement equivalence using generalizability theory: An examination of manufacturing flexibility dimensions. Decision Science, 39(4), 643–669.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Malik, M. (2015). Value-enhancing capabilities of CSR: A brief review of contemporary literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 127, 419–438.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Mandhachitara, R., & Poolthong, Y. (2011). A model of customer loyalty and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(2), 122–133.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Markovic, S., Iglesias, O., Singh, J. J., & Sierra, V. (2015). How does the perceived ethicality of corporate services brands influence loyalty and positive word-of-mouth? Analyzing the roles of empathy, affective commitment, and perceived quality. Journal of Business Ethics. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2985-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Martin, G. S., & Brown, T. J. (1990). In search of brand equity: The conceptualization and measurement of the brand impression construct. Marketing Theory and Applications, 2(1), 431–438.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Martinez, E., & De Chernatony, L. (2004). The effect of brand extension strategies upon brand image. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21(1), 39–50.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Martínez, P., & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. (2013). CSR and customer loyalty: The roles of trust, customer identification with the company and satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, 89–99.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Matthews, D. R., Son, J., & Watchravesringkan, K. (2014). An exploration of brand equity antecedents concerning brand loyalty: A cognitive, affective, and conative perspective. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 9(1), 26–39.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Mattila, A. S. (1999). The role of culture in the service evaluation process. Journal of Service Research, 1(3), 250–261.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Maxfield, S. (2008). Reconciling corporate citizenship and competitive strategy: Insights from economic theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(2), 367–377.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Merz, M. A., He, Y., & Vargo, S. L. (2009). The evolving brand logic: A service-dominant logic perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(3), 328–344.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 116–126.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Morgan, N. A., Kaleka, A., & Gooner, R. A. (2007). Focal supplier opportunism in supermarket retailer category management. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2), 512–527.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Morsing, M. (2006). Corporate moral branding: Limits to aligning employees. Corporate Communications, 11(2), 97–108.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Na, W. B., Marshall, R., & Keller, K. L. (1999). Measuring brand power: Validating a model for optimizing brand equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 8(3), 170–184.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Nowak, L., Thach, L., & Olsen, J. E. (2006). Wowing the millennials: Creating brand equity in the wine industry. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(5), 316–323.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Ogba, I. E., & Tan, Z. (2009). Exploring the impact of brand image on customer loyalty and commitment in China. Journal of Technology Management in China, 4(2), 132–144.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Park, H. J., & Rabolt, N. J. (2009). Cultural value, consumption value, and global brand image: A cross-national study. Psychology and Marketing, 26(8), 714–735.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Park, C. S., & Srinivasan, V. (1994). A survey-based method for measuring and understanding brand equity and its extendibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(2), 271–288.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Peng, D. X., & Lai, F. (2012). Using partial least squares in operations management research: A practical guideline and summary of past research. Journal of Operations Management, 30(6), 467–480.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Plewa, C., Conduit, J., Quester, P. G., & Johnson, C. (2015). The impact of corporate volunteering on CSR image: A consumer perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(3), 643–659.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Poolthong, Y., & Mandhachitara, R. (2009). Customer expectations of CSR, perceived service quality and brand effect in Thai retail banking. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 27(6), 408–427.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Popoli, P. (2011). Linking CSR strategy and brand image: Different approaches in local and global markets. Marketing Theory, 11(4), 419–433.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior research methods, instruments, & computers, 36(4), 717–731.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Rackham, N., & DeVincentis, J. (1998). Rethinking the sales force: Refining selling to create and capture customer value. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  128. Rangaswamy, A., Burke, R., & Olive, T. A. (1993). Brand equity and the extendibility of brand names. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 10(1), 61–75.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Rentz, J. O. (1987). Generalizability theory: A comprehensive method for assessing and improving the dependability of marketing measures. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(1), 19–28.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Reverte, C. (2012). The impact of better corporate social responsibility disclosure on the cost of equity capital. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(5), 253–272.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Rindell, A. (2013). Time in corporate images: Introducing image heritage and image-in-use. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16(2), 197–213.

    Google Scholar 

  132. Rindell, A., & Iglesias, O. (2014). Context and time in brand image constructions. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 27(5), 756–768.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Rindell, A., Svensson, G., Mysen, T., Billström, A., & Wilén, K. (2011). Towards a conceptual foundation of ‘Conscientious Corporate Brands’. Journal of Brand Management, 18(9), 709–719.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Schmitt, B. H. (2011). Experiential marketing: How to get customers to sense, feel, think, act, and relate to your company and brands. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  135. Sen, S., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2001). Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 225–243.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Shahryari Nia, A., Olfat, L., Esmaeili, A., Rostamzadeh, R., & Antuchevičienė, J. (2016). Using fuzzy Choquet Integral operator for supplier selection with environmental considerations. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 17(4), 503–526.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Shaw, D., & Shiu, E. (2002). The role of ethical obligation and self-identity in ethical consumer choice. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26(2), 109–116.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Shugan, S. M. (2005). Brand loyalty programs: Are they shams? Marketing Science, 24(2), 185–193.

    Google Scholar 

  139. Sierra, V., Iglesias, O., Markovic, S., & Singh, J. J. (2015). Does ethical image build equity in corporate services brands? The influence of customer perceived ethicality on affect, perceived quality, and equity. Journal of Business Ethics. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2855-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Singh, J. J., Iglesias, O., & Batista-Foguet, J. M. (2012). Does having an ethical brand matter? The influence of consumer perceived ethicality on trust, affect and loyalty. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(4), 541–549.

    Google Scholar 

  141. Smith, G., & French, A. (2011). Measuring the changes to leader brand associations during the 2010 election campaign. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7–8), 718–735.

    Google Scholar 

  142. Srivastava, R. K., Fahey, L., & Christensen, H. K. (2001). The resource-based view and marketing: The role of market-based assets in gaining competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 27(6), 777–802.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Steenkamp, J. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 78–90.

    Google Scholar 

  144. Story, J., & Hess, J. (2010). Ethical brand management: Customer relationships and ethical duties. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 19(4), 240–249.

    Google Scholar 

  145. Streukens, S., Wetzels, M., Daryanto, A., & De Ruyter, K. (2010). Analyzing factorial data using PLS. In V. Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares. Springer handbooks of computational statistics (pp. 567–587). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  146. Swaen, V., & Chumpitaz, C. R. (2008). L’impact de la responsabilité sociétale de l’entreprise sur la confiance des consommateurs. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 23(4), 7–35.

    Google Scholar 

  147. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D. J., & Park, C. W. (2005). The ties that bind: Measuring the strength of consumers’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91.

    Google Scholar 

  148. Torres, A., Bijmolt, T. H., Tribó, J. A., & Verhoef, P. (2012). Generating global brand equity through corporate social responsibility to key stakeholders. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(1), 13–24.

    Google Scholar 

  149. Urde, M., Greyser, S. A., & Balmer, J. M. (2007). Corporate brands with a heritage. Journal of Brand Management, 15(1), 4–19.

    Google Scholar 

  150. Vanhamme, J., Lindgreen, A., Reast, J., & van Popering, N. (2012). To do well by doing good: Improving corporate image through cause-related marketing. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(3), 259–274.

    Google Scholar 

  151. Veljković, D., & Petrović, D. (2011). The role of corporate image in the process of company takeovers. Megatrend Review, 8(1), 77–94.

    Google Scholar 

  152. Wagner, T., Hennig-Thurau, T., & Rudolph, T. (2009). Does customer demotion jeopardize loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 69–85.

    Google Scholar 

  153. Wahba, H. (2008). Does the market value corporate environmental responsibility? An empirical examination. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(2), 89–99.

    Google Scholar 

  154. Walsh, G., & Beatty, S. E. (2007). Customer-based corporate reputation of a service firm: Scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(1), 127–143.

    Google Scholar 

  155. Webster, F. E., & Keller, K. L. (2004). A roadmap for branding in industrial markets. Journal of Brand Management, 11(5), 388–402.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Williams, J., & Aitken, R. (2011). The service-dominant logic of marketing and marketing ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(3), 439–454.

    Google Scholar 

  157. Yang, Y. C. (2012). High-involvement human resource practices, affective commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Service Industries Journal, 32(8), 1209–1227.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Yasin, N. M., Noor, M. N., & Mohamad, O. (2012). Does image of country-of- origin matter to brand equity? Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16(1), 38–48.

    Google Scholar 

  159. Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  160. Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lee, S. (2000). An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 195–211.

    Google Scholar 

  161. Zambardino, A., & Goodfellow, J. (2007). Being ‘affective’ in branding? Journal of Marketing Management, 23(1–2), 27–37.

    Google Scholar 

  162. Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 49(2), 33–46.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Stefan Markovic.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Iglesias, O., Markovic, S., Singh, J.J. et al. Do Customer Perceptions of Corporate Services Brand Ethicality Improve Brand Equity? Considering the Roles of Brand Heritage, Brand Image, and Recognition Benefits. J Bus Ethics 154, 441–459 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3455-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Brand equity
  • Brand image
  • Common method variance
  • Customer perceived ethicality
  • Corporate services brand
  • Generalizability theory