Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 152, Issue 3, pp 589–611 | Cite as

A Resource-Based View of Social Entrepreneurship: How Stewardship Culture Benefits Scale of Social Impact

  • Sophie BacqEmail author
  • Kimberly A. Eddleston


Despite efforts to address societal ills, social enterprises face challenges in increasing their impact. Drawing from the RBV, we argue that a social enterprise’s scale of social impact depends on its capabilities to engage stakeholders, attract government support, and generate earned-income. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 171 US-based social enterprises and find support for the hypothesized relationships between these organizational capabilities and scale of social impact. Further, we find that these relationships are contingent upon stewardship culture. Specifically, we show that an entrepreneur-centered stewardship culture increases the effects of the capabilities to attract government support and to generate earned-income, while an employee-centered stewardship culture compensates for low abilities to attract government support and to generate earned-income.


Social enterprises Resource-based view Stewardship Scale of social impact 



We would like to thank our editor and two anonymous reviewers for their developmental feedback and guidance. We are grateful to Tom Lumpkin for very helpful comments and suggestions on an earlier draft. We also benefited from presenting previous versions of this paper at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Strategic Management Society, and the 2015 Annual Conference of the United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, where the paper was awarded Best Paper in Public Policy. Kimberly Eddleston gratefully acknowledges the support provided by the Schulze Foundation and the Daniel and Dorthy Grady Fellowship.


  1. Alvarez, S. A., & Barney, J. B. (2014). Entrepreneurial opportunities and poverty alleviation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 38(1), 159–184.Google Scholar
  2. Alvord, S. H., Brown, D. L., & Letts, C. W. (2004). Social entrepreneurship and societal transformation: An exploratory study. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3), 260–282.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 30(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  4. Bacq, S., Hartog, C., & Hoogendoorn, B. (2016). Beyond the moral portrayal of social entrepreneurs: An empirical approach to who they are and what drives them. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 703–718.Google Scholar
  5. Bacq, S., & Janssen, F. (2011). The multiple faces of social entrepreneurship: A review of definitional issues based on geographical and thematic criteria. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23(5/6), 373–403.Google Scholar
  6. Bacq, S., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2014). Can social entrepreneurship researchers learn from family business scholarship? A theory-based future research agenda. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 5(3), 270–294.Google Scholar
  7. Barendsen, L., & Gardner, H. (2004). Is the social entrepreneur a new type of leader? Leader to Leader, 2004(34), 43–50.Google Scholar
  8. Bargh, J. A., & Ferguson, M. J. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(6), 925–945.Google Scholar
  9. Barney, J. B. (1986). Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 656–665.Google Scholar
  10. Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.Google Scholar
  11. Battilana, J., Sengul, M., Pache, A.-C., & Model, J. (2015). Harnessing productive tensions in hybrid organizations: The case of work integration social enterprises. Academy of Management Journal, 58(6), 1–28.Google Scholar
  12. Bell, G. G., & Dyck, B. (2011). Conventional resource-based theory and its radical alternative: A less materialist-individualist approach to strategy. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(1), 121–130.Google Scholar
  13. Ben-Ner, A., Ren, T., & Paulson, D. F. (2011). A sectoral comparison of wage levels and wage inequality in human services industries. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly. Advance online publication, 40(4), 608–633.Google Scholar
  14. Bloom, P., & Chatterji, A. (2009). Scaling social entrepreneurial impact. California Management Review, 51(3), 114–133.Google Scholar
  15. Bloom, P., & Smith, B. (2010). Identifying the drivers of social entrepreneurial impact: Theoretical development and an exploratory empirical test of SCALERS. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 126–145.Google Scholar
  16. Boddewyn, J. J., & Brewer, T. L. (1994). International-business political behavior: New theoretical directions. Academy of Management Review, 19(1), 119–143.Google Scholar
  17. Boschee, J. (1995). Some nonprofits are not only thinking about the unthinkable, they’re doing it—Running a profit. Across the Board, the Magazine of the Conference Board (March).Google Scholar
  18. Boschee, J. (2001). Eight basic principles for nonprofit entrepreneurs. Nonprofit World (July–August), 15–18Google Scholar
  19. Boschee, J. (2006). The single greatest challenge: Existing organizational culture is frequently the biggest obstacle for social entrepreneurs. The Institute for Social Entrepreneurs.Google Scholar
  20. Branco, M. C., & Rodrigues, L. L. (2006). Corporate social responsibility and resource-based perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2), 111–132.Google Scholar
  21. Brandenburger, A. M., & Nalebuff, B. J. (1996). Co-opetition: A revolutionary mindset that combines competition and cooperation in the marketplace. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  22. Branzei, O. (2012). Social change agency under adversity: How relational processes (re)produce hope in hopeless settings. In K. Golden-Biddle & J. E. Dutton (Eds.), Using a positive lens to explore social change and organizations: Building a theoretical and research foundation (pp. 21–47). New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Chang, S. J., van Witteloostuijn, A., & Eden, L. (2010). From the Editors: Common method variance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(2), 178–184.Google Scholar
  24. Chen, K. K., Lune, H., & Queen, E. L. (2013). How values shape and are shaped by nonprofit and voluntary organizations the current state of the field. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(5), 856–885.Google Scholar
  25. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  26. Colbert, B. A. (2004). The complex resource-based view: Implications for theory and practice in strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 341–358.Google Scholar
  27. Corbetta, G., & Salvato, C. (2004). Self-serving or self-actualizing? Models of man and agency costs in different types of family firms. A commentary on “Comparing the agency costs of family and non‐family firms: Conceptual issues and exploratory evidence”. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(4), 355–362.Google Scholar
  28. Corner, P. D., & Ho, M. (2010). How opportunities develop in social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 34(4), 635–659.Google Scholar
  29. Covin, J. (1991). Entrepreneurial versus conservative firms: A comparison of strategies and performance. Journal of Management Studies, 28(5), 439–462.Google Scholar
  30. Dacin, P. A., Dacin, M. T., & Matear, M. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: Why we don’t need a new theory and how we move forward from here. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(3), 37–57.Google Scholar
  31. Dart, R. (2004). Being “business-like” in a nonprofit organization: A grounded and inductive typology. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(2), 290–310.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, J., Allen, M., & Hayes, H. (2010). Is blood thicker than water? A study of stewardship perceptions in family business. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(6), 1093–1116.Google Scholar
  33. Davis, J., Frankforter, S., Vollrath, D., & Hill, V. (2007). An empirical test of stewardship theory. Journal of Business and Leadership: Research, Practice, & Teaching, 3(1), 40–50.Google Scholar
  34. Davis, J., Schoorman, F., & Donaldson, L. (1997). Toward a stewardship theory of management. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 20–47.Google Scholar
  35. Dees, G. (1998). The meaning of “social entrepreneurship”. Kauffman Foundation, Working paper.Google Scholar
  36. Dees, G. (2008). Developing the field of social entrepreneurship. Report from the Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship, Duke University, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  37. Desa, G., & Basu, S. (2013). Optimization or bricolage? Overcoming resource constraints in global social entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 7(1), 26–49.Google Scholar
  38. Desa, G., & Koch, J. L. (2014). Scaling social impact: Building sustainable social ventures at the base-of-the-pyramid. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 146–174.Google Scholar
  39. Detert, J. R., Schroeder, R. G., & Mauriel, J. J. (2000). A framework for linking culture and improvement initiatives in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 850–863.Google Scholar
  40. DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development—theory and applications. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Di Domenico, M., Haugh, H., & Tracey, P. (2010). Social bricolage: Theorizing social value creation in social enterprises. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 34(4), 681–703.Google Scholar
  42. Dillman, D. (2007). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  43. Doherty, B., Haugh, H., & Lyon, F. (2014). Social enterprises as hybrid organizations: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16(4), 417–436.Google Scholar
  44. Donaldson, L., & Davis, J. H. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management, 16(1), 49–64.Google Scholar
  45. Ebrahim, A., Battilana, J., & Mair, J. (2014). The governance of social enterprises: Mission drift and accountability challenges in hybrid organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 34, 81–100.Google Scholar
  46. Ebrahim, A., & Rangan, V. K. (2014). What Impact? A framework for measuring the scale and scope of social performance. California Management Review, 56(3), 118–141.Google Scholar
  47. Eddleston, K. A. (2008). The prequel to family firm culture and stewardship: The leadership perspective of the founder. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 32(6), 1055–1061.Google Scholar
  48. Eddleston, K. A., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2007). Destructive and productive family relationships: A stewardship theory perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 547–565.Google Scholar
  49. Eddleston, K. A., Kellermanns, F. W. & Kidwell, R. E. (2016). Managing family members: How monitoring and collaboration affect extra-role behavior in family firms. Human Resource Management (in press).Google Scholar
  50. Eddleston, K. A., Kellermanns, F. W., & Sarathy, R. (2008). Resource configuration in family firms: Linking resources, strategic planning and technological opportunities to performance. Journal of Management Studies, 45(1), 26–50.Google Scholar
  51. Edwards, M., & Hulme, D. (1996). Too close for comfort? The impact of official aid on nongovernmental organizations. World Development, 24(6), 961–973.Google Scholar
  52. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A. G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1149–1160.Google Scholar
  53. Flatten, T. C., Engelen, A., Möller, T., & Brettel, M. (2015). How entrepreneurial firms profit from pricing capabilities: An examination of technology-based ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 39(5), 1111–1136.Google Scholar
  54. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.Google Scholar
  55. Frynas, J. G., Mellahi, K., & Pigman, G. A. (2006). First mover advantages in international business and firm-specific political resources. Strategic Management Journal, 27(4), 321–345.Google Scholar
  56. Götz, O., Liehr-Gobbers, K., & Krafft, M. (2009). Evaluation of structural equation models using the partial least squares (PLS) approach. In V. Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 691–712). Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  57. Grant, R. M. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage. California Management Review, 33(3), 114–135.Google Scholar
  58. Gras, D., & Mendoza-Abarca, K. I. (2014). Risky business? The survival implications of exploiting commercial opportunities by nonprofits. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(3), 392–404.Google Scholar
  59. Hambrick, D. C. (1981). Strategic awareness within top management teams. Strategic Management Journal, 2(3), 263–279.Google Scholar
  60. Hart, S. L. (1995). A natural-resource-based view of the firm. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 986–1014.Google Scholar
  61. Haugh, H. (2007). Community-led social venture creation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 31(2), 161–182.Google Scholar
  62. Haugh, H., & Talwar, A. (2016). Linking social entrepreneurship and social change: The mediating role of empowerment. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 643–658.Google Scholar
  63. Hemingway, C. A. (2005). Personal values as a catalyst for corporate social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 60(3), 233–249.Google Scholar
  64. Hollander, B. S., & Elman, N. S. (1988). Family-owned businesses: An emerging field of inquiry. Family Business Review, 1(2), 145–164.Google Scholar
  65. Howard-Grenville, J. A., & Hoffman, A. J. (2003). The importance of cultural framing to the success of social initiatives in business. Academy of Management Perspectives, 17(2), 70–84.Google Scholar
  66. Jeavons, T. H. (1994). Stewardship revisited: Secular and sacred views of governance and management. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 23(2), 107–122.Google Scholar
  67. Jones, T. M., Felps, W., & Bigley, G. A. (2007). Ethical theory and stakeholder-related decisions: The role of stakeholder culture. Academy of Management Review, 32(1), 137–155.Google Scholar
  68. Kanuk, L., & Berenson, C. (1975). Mail surveys and response rate: A literature review. Journal of Marketing Research, 12(4), 440–453.Google Scholar
  69. Kelly, K. S. (2001). Stewardship: The fifth step in the public relations process. In R. L. Heath (Ed.), Handbook of Public Relations (pp. 279–290). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  70. Kickul, J., & Lyons, T. S. (2015). Financing social enterprises. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 5(2), 83–85.Google Scholar
  71. Kickul, J., & Lyons, T. S. (2016). Understanding social entrepreneurship: The relentless pursuit of mission in an ever changing world. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Krishnan, R., Martin, X., & Noorderhaven, N. (2006). When does trust matter to alliance performance? Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 894–917.Google Scholar
  73. Litz, R. A. (1996). A resource-based-view of the socially responsible firm: Stakeholder interdependence, ethical awareness, and issue responsiveness as strategic assets. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(12), 1355–1363.Google Scholar
  74. Lomax, R. G. (1992). Statistical concepts: A second course for education and the behavioral sciences. White Plains: Longman Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  75. London, T. (2008). The base-of-the-pyramid perspective: A new approach to poverty alleviation. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2008(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  76. Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.Google Scholar
  77. Lumpkin, G. T., Moss, T. W., Gras, D. M., Kato, S., & Amezcua, A. S. (2013). Entrepreneurial processes in social contexts: How are they different, if at all? Small Business Economics, 40(3), 761–783.Google Scholar
  78. Mair, J., & Martí, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36–44.Google Scholar
  79. Marquis, C. & Park, P. (2014). Inside the buy-one give-one model. Stanford Social Innovation Review (Winter), 28–33.Google Scholar
  80. Mathews, J. A. (2002). A resource-based view of Schumpeterian economic dynamics. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 12(1), 29–54.Google Scholar
  81. McCambridge, R. (2004). Underestimating the power of nonprofit governance. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(2), 346–354.Google Scholar
  82. McGregor, M. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  83. McWilliams, A., Siegel, D. S., & Wright, P. M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility: Strategic implications. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  84. Meyskens, M., Robb-Post, C., Stamp, J., Carsrud, A., & Reynolds, P. (2010). Social ventures from a resource-based perspective: An exploratory study assessing global Ashoka Fellows. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 34(4), 661–680.Google Scholar
  85. Miller, D., Le Breton-Miller, I., & Scholnick, B. (2008). Stewardship vs. stagnation: An empirical comparison of small family and non-family businesses. Journal of Management Studies, 45(1), 51–78.Google Scholar
  86. Miller, T. L., & Wesley, C. L. (2010). Assessing mission and resources for social change: An Organizational identity perspective on social venture capitalists’ decision criteria. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 34(4), 705–733.Google Scholar
  87. Minkoff, D. C., & Powell, W. W. (2006). Nonprofit mission: Constancy, responsiveness, or deflection? In W. W. Powell & R. Steinberg (Eds.), The nonprofit sector: A research handbook (2nd ed., pp. 591–611). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Montgomery, A. W., Dacin, P. A., & Dacin, M. T. (2012). Collective social entrepreneurship: Collaboratively shaping social good. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 375–388.Google Scholar
  89. Neubaum, D. O., Mitchell, M. S., & Marshall, S. (2004). Firm newness, entrepreneurial orientation, and ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 52(4), 335–347.Google Scholar
  90. Nga, J. K. H., & Shamuganathan, G. (2010). The influence of personality traits and demographic factors on social entrepreneurship start up intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(2), 259–282.Google Scholar
  91. O’Dwyer, B., & Unerman, J. (2008). The paradox of greater NGO accountability: A case study of Amnesty Ireland. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 33(7), 801–824.Google Scholar
  92. Oppenheim, A. N. (1966). Questionnaire design and attitude measurement. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  93. Pearce, J. A., & Doh, J. P. (2005). The high impact of collaborative social initiatives. Sloan Management Review, 46(3), 30–39.Google Scholar
  94. Pless, N. M. (2012). Social entrepreneurship in theory and practice—An introduction. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 317–320.Google Scholar
  95. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavior research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.Google Scholar
  96. Ramahi, T. K. (2012). Aravind Eye Hospitals: Features of organizational culture enhancing performance for the bottom of the pyramid. MSc Thesis, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  97. Renko, M. (2013). Early challenges of nascent social entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 37(5), 1045–1069.Google Scholar
  98. Russo, M. V., & Fouts, P. A. (1997). A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 534–559.Google Scholar
  99. Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 335–351.Google Scholar
  100. Schneider, J. A. (2013). Comparing stewardship across religions. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(3), 517–539.Google Scholar
  101. Sharma, S., & Vredenburg, H. (1998). Proactive corporate environmental strategy and the development of competitively valuable organizational capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 19(8), 729–753.Google Scholar
  102. Shaw, E., & Carter, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship: Theoretical antecedents and empirical analysis of entrepreneurial processes and outcomes. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(3), 418–434.Google Scholar
  103. Short, J., Moss, T., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161–194.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, B. R., Kistruck, G. M., & Cannatelli, B. (2016). The impact of moral intensity and desire for control on scaling decisions in social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 677–689.Google Scholar
  105. Stephan, U., Uhlaner, L., & Stride, C. (2015). Institutions and social entrepreneurship: The role of institutional voids, institutional support, and institutional configurations. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(3), 308–331.Google Scholar
  106. Sud, M., VanSandt, C. V., & Baugous, A. M. (2009). Social entrepreneurship: The role of institutions. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(1), 201–216.Google Scholar
  107. Sundaramurthy, C., & Lewis, M. (2003). Control and collaboration: Paradoxes of governance. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 397–415.Google Scholar
  108. Surroca, J., Tribo, J. A., & Waddock, S. (2010). Corporate responsibility and financial performance: The role of intangible resources. Strategic Management Journal, 31(5), 463–490.Google Scholar
  109. Swanson, L. A., & Zhang, D. D. (2010). The social entrepreneurship zone. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 22(2), 71–88.Google Scholar
  110. Tan, W., Williams, J., & Tan, T. (2005). Defining the ‘social’ in ‘social entrepreneurship’: Altruism and entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 353–365.Google Scholar
  111. Tosi, H. L., Brownlee, A. L., Silva, P., & Katz, J. P. (2003). An empirical exploration of decision-making under agency controls and stewardship structure. Journal of Management Studies, 40(8), 2053–2071.Google Scholar
  112. Van de Ven, A. H., Sapienza, H. J., & Villanueva, J. (2007). Entrepreneurial pursuits of self- and collective interests. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(3–4), 353–370.Google Scholar
  113. Van Puyvelde, S., Caers, R., Du Bois, C., & Jegers, M. (2012). The governance of nonprofit organizations integrating agency theory with stakeholder and stewardship theories. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41(3), 431–451.Google Scholar
  114. Weber, C., Kroeger, A. & Lambrich, K. (2012). Scaling social enterprises—a theoretically grounded framework. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 32(19), Article 3.Google Scholar
  115. Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. S. (2006). Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 21–35.Google Scholar
  116. Yunus, M. (2003). Halving poverty by 2015—we can actually make it happen. The Round Table, 92(370), 363–375.Google Scholar
  117. Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519–532.Google Scholar
  118. Zahra, S. A., Hayton, J. C., Neubaum, D. O., Dibrell, C., & Craig, J. (2008). Culture of family commitment and strategic flexibility: The moderating effect of stewardship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 32(6), 1035–1054.Google Scholar
  119. Zahra, S. A., Hayton, J. C., & Salvato, C. (2004). Entrepreneurship in family vs. non-family firms: A resource-based analysis of the effect of organizational culture. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 28(6), 363–381.Google Scholar
  120. Zahra, S. A., Newey, L. R., & Li, Y. (2014). On the frontiers: The implications of social entrepreneurship for international entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 38(1), 137–158.Google Scholar
  121. Zhang, D. D., & Swanson, L. A. (2013). Social entrepreneurship in nonprofit organizations: An empirical investigation of the synergy between social and business objectives. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 25(1), 105–125.Google Scholar
  122. Zimmerman, M. (2009). The business of giving: TOMS Shoes. Success. Retrieved October 2, 2014 from

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.D’Amore-McKim School of BusinessNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations