Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 145, Issue 4, pp 811–829 | Cite as

Integrating Leadership Development with Ignatian Spirituality: A Model for Designing a Spiritual Leader Development Practice

Article
  • 392 Downloads

Abstract

Prominent scholars note that current approaches to leader development in business are insufficient in at least three ways, and call for approaches that teach leaders to process and reflect, take personal ownership, and develop their capacities for both proficient and morally centered leadership. This paper explores three related research questions: Can we use evidence from management research to build a process-based model of leader self-development? Does the spiritual leadership literature offer implications for integrating moral development into such a model? Can spiritual development processes from a long-standing tradition be integrated, to further bring spiritual and moral development into leader development? Based on the leader and leadership development, spiritual leadership, and Ignatian literatures, one approach to building a spiritual leader development practice is presented. Using this model, business leaders are guided in forming leader development practices based on six categories of interdependent developmental activities: planning with discernment, experiences based on vocation, reflection including spiritual notes, assessment including examining present faults, education including on the lives of moral and effective leaders, and relationships including spiritual direction. This approach is differentiated from other approaches to leader development and to spiritual leadership. The role of the specific spiritual practices used here versus other traditions and the interplay of religion and spirituality in leader development are discussed, along with limitations of this approach and suggestions for further research.

Keywords

Spiritual leadership Leader development Practices Discernment Vocation Religion at work Ignatius 

References

  1. Ashford, S. J. (1986). Feedback-seeking in individual adaptation: A resource perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 465–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avery, D. R. (2011). Why the playing field remains uneven: Impediments to promotions in organizations. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 577–613). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  3. Avolio, B. J. (2010). Pursuing authentic leadership development. In N. Nohria & R. Khurana (Eds.), Handbook of leadership theory and practice (pp. 739–768). Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  4. Avolio, B. J., & Hannah, S. T. (2009). Leader developmental readiness. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2, 284–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bennis, W. G., & O’Toole, J. (2005). How business schools lost their way. Harvard Business Review, 83(5), 96–104.Google Scholar
  8. Bolen, J. S. (1999). The millionth circle. San Francisco: Conari Press.Google Scholar
  9. Boyatzis, R. E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning through the managerial assessment and development course. Journal of Management Education, 18, 304–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyce, L. A., Zaccaro, S. J., & Wisecarver, M. Z. (2010). Propensity for self-development of leadership attributes: Understanding, predicting, and supporting performance of leader self-development. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 159–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brackley, D. (2004). The call to discernment in troubled times: New perspectives on the transformative wisdom of ignatius of loyola. New York: Crossroad Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Calmus, E. (2004). The copyeditor’s conversion: A forward for skeptics. In D. Brackley (Ed.), The call to discernment in troubled times: New perspectives on the transformative wisdom of ignatius of loyola: ix-xix. New York: Crossroad Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Crippen, J. G. (2015). What is this?. Minneapolis, MN: Sermon delivered at Mount Olive Lutheran Church.Google Scholar
  14. Cuilla, J. (2012). Ethics and effectiveness: The nature of good leadership. In D. V. Day & J. Antonakis (Eds.), The nature of leadership (2nd ed., pp. 508–540). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Daniel, L. (2013). When “Spiritual But Not Religious” is not enough: Seeing god in surprising places, even the church. New York: Jericho Press.Google Scholar
  16. Day, D. V. (2012). The nature of leadership development. In D. V. Day & J. Antonakis (Eds.), The nature of leadership (2nd ed., pp. 108–140). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Day, D. V., Fleenor, J. W., Atwater, L. E., Sturm, R. E., & McKee, R. A. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Day, D. V., Harrison, M. M., & Halpin, S. M. (2009). An integrated approach to leader development: Connecting adult development, identity, and expertise. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  19. Dembinski, P. H. (2011). The incompleteness of the economy and business: A forceful reminder. Journal of Business Ethics, 100, 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dent, E. B., Higgins, M. E., & Wharff, D. M. (2005). Spirituality and leadership: An empirical review of definitions, distinctions, and embedded assumptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 625–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeRue, D. S., & Ashford, S. J. (2010a). Power to the people: Where has personal agency gone in leadership development? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 24–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DeRue, D. S., & Ashford, S. J. (2010b). Who will lead and who will follow? A social process of leadership identity construction in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 35, 627–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DeRue, D. S., & Wellman, N. (2009). Developing leaders via experience: The role of developmental challenge, learning orientation, and feedback availability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 859–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Make your job a calling: How the psychology of vocation can change your life at work. West Conshocken, PA: Templeton Press.Google Scholar
  25. Eagly, A. H., & Chin, J. L. (2010). Diversity and leadership in a changing world. American Psychologist, 65, 216–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ellis, S., Mendel, R., & Nir, M. (2006). Learning from successful and failed experience: The moderating role of kind of after-event review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 669–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fernando, M. (2011). Spirituality and leadership. In A. Bryman, D. Collinson, K. Grint, B. Jackson, & M. Uhl-Bien (Eds.), The Sage handbook of leadership (pp. 483–493). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gardner, W. L., Lowe, K. B., Moss, T. W., Mahoney, K. T., & Cogliser, C. C. (2010). Scholarly leadership of the study of leadership: A review of The Leadership Quarterly’s second decade, 2000–2009. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 958–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gnass, G. E. (Ed.) (1991). Ignatius of loyola: Spiritual exercises and selected works. Paulist Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  32. Goodpaster, K. E. (2011). Goods that are truly good and services that truly serve: Reflections on “Caritas in veritate”. Journal of Business Ethics, 100, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hyland, P.K., Lee, R. A., & Mills, M.J. (in press). Mindfulness at Work: A New Approach to Improving Individual and Organizational Performance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.Google Scholar
  34. Jackson, B., & Parry, K. (2011). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. (2010). Adult development and organizational leadership. In N. Nohria & R. Khurana (Eds.), Handbook of leadership theory and practice (pp. 769–787). Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  36. Khurana, R. (2007). From higher aims to hired hands. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Klein, H. J., Wesson, M. J., Hollenbeck, J. R., Wright, P. M., & DeShon, R. P. (2001). The assessment of goal commitment: A measurement model meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85, 32–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4, 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kriger, M., & Sang, Y. (2005). Leadership with inner meaning: A contingency theory of leadership based on the worldviews of five religions. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 771–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Krueger, W. K. (2014). Windigo Island. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  41. Laloux, F. (2014). Reinventing organizations. Brussels: Nelson Parker.Google Scholar
  42. Lord, R. G., & Hall, R. J. (2005). Identity, deep structure, and the development of leadership skill. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 591–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Manz, C. C. (2011). The leadership wisdom of Jesus: Practical lessons for today (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  44. Marquardt, M. J., Leonard, H. S., Freedman, A. M., & Hill, C. C. (2009). Action learning for developing leaders and organizations: Principles, strategies, and cases. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McDermott, B. (2010). Saint Ignatius’s Spiritual Exercises in Regards to the Discerning of Spirits, Parts 1 and 2. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvhXVQS4LK0 and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uttm0i5WglQ.
  46. McGrath, A. E. (2011). Christian theology: An introduction (5th ed.). West Sussex: Chichester.Google Scholar
  47. Metcalf, L., & Benn, S. (2012). The corporation is ailing social technology: Creating a ‘fit for purpose’ design for sustainability. Journal of Business Ethics, 111, 195–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Michaelson, C., Pratt, M. G., Grant, A. M., & Dunn, C. P. (2014). Meaningful work: Connecting business ethics and organizational studies. Journal of Business Ethics, 121, 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moses, J. (1989). Oneness: Great principles shared by all religions. New York: Fawcett Columbine.Google Scholar
  50. Noe, R. A. (2010). Employee training and development (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  51. Orvis, K. A., & Ratwani, K. L. (2010). Leader self-development: A contemporary context for leader development evaluation. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 657–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Petriglieri, G., & Petriglieri, J. L. (2010). Identity workspaces: The case of business schools. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 9, 44–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. (2004). Compendium of the social doctrine of the church. Washington, DC: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.Google Scholar
  54. Pratt, M. G., Rockmann, K. W., & Kaufmann, J. B. (2006). Constructing professional identity: The role of work and identity learning cycles in the customization of identity among medical residents. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 235–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 655–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rothausen, T.J. (2011). A meso-level mnemonic framework for teaching and practicing leadership and leader development. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting. San Antonio, AugustGoogle Scholar
  57. Rothausen, T.J. (2015). Leader Development Labs: Innovative Leadership and Interpersonal Curriculum in MBA programs. Invited presentation, AACSB International Curriculum Conference: Re (Invent + Think + Design), St. Louis, May 19.Google Scholar
  58. Rothausen, T.J., Henderson, K.E., Arnold, J.K., & Malshe, A. (in press). Should I stay or should I go? Identity and well-being in sensemaking about retention and turnover. Journal of Management.Google Scholar
  59. Rubin, R. S., & Dierdorff, E. C. (2009). How relevant is the MBA? Assessing the alignment of required curricula and required managerial competencies. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 8, 208–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Russo, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sanders, J. E, I. I. I., Hopkins, W. E., & Geroy, G. D. (2003). From transactional to transcendental: Toward an integrated theory of leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9, 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schuurman, D. J. (2004). Vocation: Discerning our callings in life. Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing.Google Scholar
  64. Scott, S. G. (2010). Enhancing reflection skills through learning portfolios: An empirical test. Journal of Management Education, 34, 430–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Silf, M. (1999). Inner compass: An invitation to ignatian spirituality. Chicago: Loyola Press.Google Scholar
  66. Snook, S.A. (2008). Leader(ship) Development. Reprint Number 9-408-064. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.Google Scholar
  67. Van Velsor, E., McCauley, C. D., & Ruderman, M. N. (2010). The center for creative leadership handbook of leadership development (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  68. Whittington, J. L., Pitts, T. M., Kageler, W. V., & Goodwin, V. L. (2005). Legacy leadership: The leadership wisdom of the Apostle Paul. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 749–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yeo, R. K., & Marquardt, M. J. (2015). (Re)interpreting action, learning, and experience: Integrating action learning and experiential learning for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 26, 81–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yost, P. R., & Plunkett, M. M. (2009). Real time leadership development. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Management Department, Opus College of BusinessUniversity of St. ThomasMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations