Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 151, Issue 4, pp 1009–1025 | Cite as

Tax Avoidance as a Sustainability Problem

  • Robert Bird
  • Karie Davis-Nozemack
Article

Abstract

This manuscript proposes that tax avoidance can be better understood and mitigated as a sustainability problem. Tax avoidance is not just a financial problem for tax authorities, but one that erodes critical common spaces necessary for the smooth functioning of regulatory compliance, organizational integrity, and society. Defining tax avoidance as a sustainability problem offers a broader and more holistic understanding of the organizational and societal consequences of tax avoidance behavior. Sustainability is also a mature and legitimized concept that can readily incorporate taxation. A variety of established sustainability metrics have the capacity to incorporate anti-tax avoidance measures or publicize firms that engage in fair tax practices. This manuscript concludes that integrating sustainability principles, in conjunction with important extant work on corporate social responsibility and taxation, can advance the goals of decreasing the occurrence and acceptability of tax avoidance.

Keywords

Sustainability Tax avoidance Tax Corporate social responsibility Soft law 

References

  1. Abbott, K. W., & Snidal, D. (2009). Strengthening international regulation through transnational new governance: Ovearcoming the orchestration deficit. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42(2), 501–578.Google Scholar
  2. Alm, J., & Torgler, B. (2006). Culture differences and tax morale in the United States and in Europe. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27(2), 224–246.Google Scholar
  3. Alm, J., & Torgler, B. (2011). Do ethics matter? Tax compliance and morality. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(4), 635–651.Google Scholar
  4. Aprill, E. P. (1994). Tribal bonds: Indian sovereignty and the tax legislative process. Administrative Law Review, 46(3), 333–368.Google Scholar
  5. Avi-Yonah, R. S. (2004). International tax as international law. Tax Law Review, 57(4), 483–501.Google Scholar
  6. Avi-Yonah, R. S. (2006). The three goals of taxation. Tax Law Review, 60(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  7. Avi-Yonah, R. S. (2014). Corporate taxation and corporate social responsibility. NYU Journal of Law and Business, 11(1), 1–29.Google Scholar
  8. Ayres, I., & Braithwaite, J. (1992). Responsive regulation: Transcending the deregulation debate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, E. W. (2008). Incorporating ecological ethics into manifest destiny: Sustainable development, the population explosion, and the tradition of substantive due process. Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 21(2), 473–493.Google Scholar
  10. Baldock, B. R., Ebel, D. M., Kelly, P. J., Lucero, C. F., Murphy, M. R., Porfilio, J. J., & Seymour, S. K. (1997). Judicial Independence: A discussion with judges of the United States court of appeals for the tenth circuit. Denver University Law Review, 74, 355–373.Google Scholar
  11. Barford, V., & Holt, G. (2013). Google, Amazon, Starbucks: The rise of ‘tax shaming’. BBC News Magazine. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20560359.
  12. Barinka, A., & Drucker, J. (2015, August 14). Etsy taps secret Irish tax haven and brags about transparency at home. Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-08-14/etsy-taps-secret-irish-tax-haven-and-touts-transparency-at-home.
  13. Barkan, J. (2008). Legislatures on the rise? Journal of Democracy, 19(2), 124–137.Google Scholar
  14. Bird, R. C. (2008). Pathways of legal strategy. Stanford Journal of Law, Business and Finance, 14(1), 1–41.Google Scholar
  15. Bird, R. C., & Orozco, D. (2014). Finding the right corporate legal strategy. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(1), 81–89.Google Scholar
  16. Black, B., Jang, H., & Kim, W. (2006). Does corporate governance affect firms' market values? Evidence from Korea. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 22(2), 366–413.Google Scholar
  17. Bodie, M. T. (2011). NASCAR green: The problem of sustainability in corporations and corporate law. Wake Forest Law Review, 46(3), 491–522.Google Scholar
  18. Brewer, C. (2015, September 2). “Dodging” taxes and B corp status. [Socent law web log]. http://socentlaw.com/2015/09/dodging-taxes-and-b-corp-status/.
  19. Browning, A. (2010, July 15). Ireland unlimited companies: No obligation to publicly file accounts. Mondaq. http://www.mondaq.com/x/105484/Corporate+Commercial+Law/Unlimited+Companies+No+Obligation+to+Publicly+File+Accounts.
  20. Buzbee, W. W. (2003). Recognizing the regulatory commons: A theory of regulatory gaps. Iowa Law Review, 89, 1–64Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, P. (2012, October 16). Starbucks facing boycott over tax: Protest groups threaten to try and close branches over revelations it hasn’t paid for three years. Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218819/Starbucks-facing-boycott-tax.html#ixzz3ubluVeNP.
  22. Carmona, M. S. (2014). Report of the special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights. United Nations General Assembly: Human Rights Council, Doc. A/HRC/26/28.Google Scholar
  23. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2015). Policy basics: Where do our federal tax dollars go? http://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-where-do-our-federal-tax-dollars-go.
  24. Cerioni, L. (2014). International tax planning and corporate social responsibility: Crucial issues and proposed assessment in the European Union context. European Business Law Review, 25(6), 845–875.Google Scholar
  25. Chatterji, A. K., & Toffel, M. W. (2010). How firms respond to being rated. Strategic Management Journal, 31(9), 917–945.Google Scholar
  26. Christensen, J., & Murphy, R. (2004). The social irresponsibility of corporate tax avoidance. Development, 47(3), 37–44.Google Scholar
  27. Christians, A. (2010). Networks, norms, and national tax policy. Washington University Global Studies Law Review, 9(1), 1–37.Google Scholar
  28. Christians, A. (2012). How nations share. Indiana Law Journal, 87(4), 1407–1453.Google Scholar
  29. Christians, A. (2013, August 12). How Starbucks lost its social license—And paid £20 million to get it back. Tax Notes International, 71, 637–639.Google Scholar
  30. Christians, A. (2014). Avoidance, evasion, taxpayer morality. Journal of Law & Policy, 44, 39.Google Scholar
  31. Chung, J., & Trivedi, V. U. (2003). The effect of friendly persuasion and gender on tax compliance behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 47(2), 133–145.Google Scholar
  32. Citizens for Tax Justice. (2013, June 2). Apple is not alone. http://ctj.org/ctjreports/2013/06/apple_is_not_alone.php#.Vm8nATY4lE4.
  33. Colliton, J. W. (1995). Standards, rules and the decline of courts in the law of taxation. Dickinson Law Review, 99, 265–329.Google Scholar
  34. Crumbley, D. L., Epstein, M. J., & Bravenec, L. L. (1977). Tax impact in corporate social responsibility decisions and reporting. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 2(2), 131–139.Google Scholar
  35. Cullis, J., Jones, P., & Lewis, A. (2006). Tax framing, instrumentality and individual differences: Are there two different cultures? Journal of Economic Psychology, 27(2), 304–320.Google Scholar
  36. Cummings, R. G., Martinez-Vazquez, J., McKee, M., & Torgler, B. (2009). Tax morale affects tax compliance: Evidence from surveys and an artefactual field experiment. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 70, 447–457.Google Scholar
  37. Curran, C. E. (1985). Just taxation in the Roman Catholic tradition. The Journal of Religious Ethics, 15(1), 113–133.Google Scholar
  38. Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15, 1–13.Google Scholar
  39. Dalby, D., & Scott, M. (2015). Ireland, accused of giving tax breaks to multinationals, plans an even lower rate. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/14/business/international/ireland-tax-rate-breaks.html.
  40. Daniels, B. (2007). Emerging commons and tragic institutions. Environmental Law, 37, 515–571.Google Scholar
  41. Davies, J. (2013). Why CDP, GRI, DJSI stand out among sustainability frameworks. Greenbiz. http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2013/08/19/why-cdp-gri-djsi-stand-out-among-sustainability-frameworks.
  42. DeGaudenzi, R. C. (1993). Death is still certain, but are taxes? An examination of the due process limitations on retroactive tax legislation after Carlton v. United States. St. John’s Law Review, 67, 327–345.Google Scholar
  43. Depaul, J. (2015, September 2). Advocacy group urges Etsy to change tax structure. Tax Notes Today, TNT 170-7.Google Scholar
  44. Desai, M., & Dharmapala, D. (2006a). Corporate social responsibility and taxation: The missing link. Leading Perspectives, (Winter) 4–5.Google Scholar
  45. Desai, M. A., & Dharmapala, D. (2006b). Corporate tax avoidance and high-powered incentives. Journal of Financial Economics, 79, 145–179.Google Scholar
  46. Dowling, G. (2014). The curious case of corporate tax avoidance: Is it socially irresponsible? Journal of Business Ethics, 124, 173–184.Google Scholar
  47. Drennan, W. A. (2007). The patent office is promoting shocking new tax loopholes—Should the empire strike back? Oklahoma Law Review, 60(3), 491–546.Google Scholar
  48. Drucker, J., & Barinka, A. (2015). Etsy’s B corp status challenged by tax group over Irish haven. Bloomberg Business. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-09-01/etsy-s-b-corp-status-challenged-by-tax-group-over-irish-haven.
  49. Dyreng, S. D., Hanlon, M., & Maydew, E. (2010). The effects of managers on corporate tax avoidance. The Accounting Review, 85, 1163–1189.Google Scholar
  50. Efrat, R. (2008). The tax burden and the propensity of small-business entrepreneurs to file for bankruptcy. Hastings Business Law Journal, 4(2), 175–207.Google Scholar
  51. Etsy. (2013). Etsy values & impact annual report. http://extfiles.etsy.com/Press/reports/Etsy_Values_ImpactReport_2013.pdf.
  52. Etsy. (2015). About Etsy. https://www.etsy.com/about/?ref=ftr.
  53. Fair Tax Mark. (2015a). Fair tax. http://www.fairtaxmark.net/.
  54. Fair Tax Mark. (2015b). What’s the fair tax mark? http://www.fairtaxmark.net/what-is-it/.
  55. Falkenberg, J., & Brunsæl, P. (2011). Corporate social responsibility: A strategic advantage or a strategic necessity? Journal of Business Ethics, 99(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  56. Fama, E. F., & Jensen, M. C. (1983). Separation of ownership and control. Journal of Law and Economics, 26, 301–325.Google Scholar
  57. Fannon, I. L. (2014). The end of the celtic tiger: An Irish case study presenting an initial analysis of the failure of corporate governance and company law. SSRN: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2489028.
  58. Feld, L. P., & Frey, B. S. (2002). Trust breeds trust: How taxpayers are treated. Economics of Governance, 3, 88–89.Google Scholar
  59. Feld, L. P., & Frey, B. S. (2007, January). Tax compliance as the result of a psychological tax contract: The role of incentives and responsive regulation. Law & Policy, 29(1), 102–120.Google Scholar
  60. Fisher, J. M. (2014). Fairer shores: Tax havens, tax avoidance, and corporate social responsibility. Boston University Law Review, 94(1), 337–364.Google Scholar
  61. Fiskel, J. (2006). Sustainability and resilience: Toward a systems approach. Sustainability: Science, Practice, and Policy, 2(2), 14–21.Google Scholar
  62. Fong, C. M., Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2006). Strong reciprocity and the welfare state. In S. Kolm & J. M. Ythier (Eds.), Handbook on the economics of giving, reciprocity, and altruism (pp. 1447–1450). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  63. Gamage, D. (2014). How should governments promote distributive justice? A framework for analyzing the optimal choice of tax instruments. Tax Law Review, 68, 1–87.Google Scholar
  64. Gardner, M. (2015). Will Etsy's brazen tax avoidance cost the company its "B Corporation" status? Tax Justice Blog. http://www.taxjusticeblog.org/archive/2015/08/will_etsys_brazen_tax_avoidanc.php#.VxE9mjY4lE4.
  65. Gangl, K., Torgler, B., & Kirchler, E. (2015). Patriotism’s impact on cooperation with the state: An experimental study on tax compliance. Political Psychology. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com. doi: 10.1111/pops.12294/abstract.
  66. Graetz, M. J., & Doud, R. (2013). Technological innovation, international competition, and the challenges of international income taxation. Columbia Law Review, 113, 401–402.Google Scholar
  67. GRI. (2015b). G4 Sustainability reporting guidelines. https://www.globalreporting.org/standards/g4/Pages/default.aspx.
  68. Hardeck, I., & Hertl, R. (2014). Consumer reactions to corporate tax strategies: Effects on corporate reputation and purchasing behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 123, 309–326.Google Scholar
  69. Hardin, G. (1968, December 13). The tragedy of the commons. Science, New Series, 162(3859), 1243–1248.Google Scholar
  70. Hasseldine, J., & Hite, P. A. (2003). Framing, gender and tax compliance. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 517–521.Google Scholar
  71. Hasseldine, J., & Morris, G. (2013). Corporate social responsibility and tax avoidance: A comment and reflection. Accounting Forum, 37, 1–14.Google Scholar
  72. Hazlett, T. W., & Skorup, B. (2014). Tragedy of the regulatory commons: Lightsquared and the missing spectrum rights. Duke Law & Technology Review, 13(1), 1–35.Google Scholar
  73. Heffernan, M. (2012, November 13). Why Starbucks’ tax claims don’t wash. Moneywatch. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/why-starbucks-tax-claims-dont-wash/.
  74. Hoi, C. K., Wu, Q., & Zhang, H. (2013, June 17). Is corporate social responsibility (CSR) associated with tax avoidance? Evidence from irresponsible CSR activities. The Accounting Review, 88(6), 2025–2059.Google Scholar
  75. Hornstein, D. T. (1999). Environmental sustainability and environmental justice at the international level: Traces of tension and traces of synergy. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 9(2), 291–302.Google Scholar
  76. International Bar Association. (2013). Tax abuses, poverty and human rights: A report of the International Bar Association’s human rights institute task force on illicit financial flows, poverty and human rights. http://www.ibanet.org/Article/Detail.aspx?ArticleUid=4A0CF930-A0D1-4784-8D09-F588DCDDFEA4.
  77. International Tax Review. (2014). Introducing the fair tax mark. http://www.internationaltaxreview.com/Article/3311193/Introducing-the-Fair-Tax-Mark.html.
  78. IRS Oversight Board. (2014). Taxpayer attitude survey. Figure 7. https://www.treasury.gov/IRSOB/reports/Documents/IRSOB%20Taxpayer%20Attitude%20Survey%202014.pdf.
  79. Jackson, K. T. (2010). Global corporate governance: Soft law and reputational accountability. Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 35(1), 41–106.Google Scholar
  80. Jellum, L. D. (2011). Why specific absurdity undermines textualism. Brooklyn Law Review, 76(3), 917–939.Google Scholar
  81. Jus, M. (2015). DJSI: A journey toward sustainability and beyond. Indexology. https://www.indexologyblog.com/2015/10/22/djsi-a-journey-toward-sustainability-and-beyond/.
  82. Kapner, S. (2015, September 1). Etsy faces pressure to abandon Irish tax strategy. The Wall Street Journal. http://www.wsj.com/articles/etsy-faces-pressure-to-abandon-irish-tax-strategy-1441080008.
  83. Karmel, R. S., & Kelly, C. (2009). The hardening of soft law in securities regulation. Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 34, 883.Google Scholar
  84. Kirchler, E. (1999). Reactance to taxation: Employers’ attitudes towards taxes. Journal of Socio-Economics, 28(2), 131–138.Google Scholar
  85. Kirchler, E., Boris, M., & Friedrich, S. (2001). Everyday representations of tax avoidance, tax evasion, and tax flight: Do legal differences matter? Journal of Economic Psychology, 24(4), 535–553.Google Scholar
  86. Kleinbard, E. D. (2013, June 24). Through a latte, darkly: Starbucks’ window into stateless income tax planning. Tax Notes, 139, 1515–1535.Google Scholar
  87. Knuutinen, R. (2014). Corporate social responsibility, taxation, and aggressive tax planning. Nordic Tax Journal, 2014(1), 36–75.Google Scholar
  88. Kornhauser, M. E. (2005). Doing the full monty: Will publicizing tax information increase compliance? Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 18, 95.Google Scholar
  89. Kornhauser, M. E. (2007). Normative and cognitive aspects of tax compliance: Literature review and recommendations for the IRS regarding individual taxpayers. Taxpayer Advocate Service 2007 Annual Report to Congress, 2, 138–180.Google Scholar
  90. Kotter, J. P., & Heskett, J. L. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lanis, R., & Richardson, G. (2011). The effect of board of director composition on corporate tax aggressiveness. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 30, 50–70.Google Scholar
  92. Lanis, R., & Richardson, G. (2013). Corporate social responsibility and tax aggressiveness: A test of legitimacy theory. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 26(1), 75–100.Google Scholar
  93. Lanis, R., & Richardson, G. (2015). Is corporate social responsibility performance associated with tax avoidance? Journal of Business Ethics, 127(2), 439–457.Google Scholar
  94. Lederman, L. (2003). The interplay between norms and enforcement in tax compliance. Ohio State Law Journal, 64(6), 1453–1514.Google Scholar
  95. Levi, M. (1988). Of rule and revenue. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  96. Leviner, S. (2009). A new era of tax enforcement: From ‘big stick’ to responsive regulation. University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 42, 381–429.Google Scholar
  97. Lipsett, L. (n.d.). Tax avoidance as a human rights issue. Shift: Putting Principles into Practice. http://www.shiftproject.org/article/tax-abuse-business-and-human-rights-issue.
  98. Listokin, Y., & Schizer, D. M. (2013). I like to pay taxes: Taxpayer support for government spending and the efficiency of the tax system. Tax Law Review, 66, 185–186.Google Scholar
  99. López, M., Garcia, A., & Rodriguez, L. (2007). Sustainable development and corporate performance: A study based on the Dow Jones sustainability Index. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(3), 285–300.Google Scholar
  100. Lurie, A. D. (2004). How tax shelters evolved: The road from Crane has been paved with bad contentions. Journal of Taxation, 100(5), 274–286.Google Scholar
  101. Martinez, L. P. (1994). Taxes, morals, and legitimacy. Brigham Young University Law Review, 1994(3), 541–569.Google Scholar
  102. Martinez, L. P. (2004). The trouble with taxes: fairness, tax policy, and the constitution. Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, 31, 413–446.Google Scholar
  103. Martinez, L. P. (2013). Structural impediments to tax reform: The environment as case study. Florida Tax Review, 14(2), 45–75.Google Scholar
  104. Merle, R.& Johnson, C. Y. (2016). Pfizer, Allergan call off $160 billion merger after U.S. moves to block inversions. Washington Post.Google Scholar
  105. McClure, C. E. (2008). Legislative, judicial, soft law, and cooperative approaches to harmonizing corporate income taxes in the US and the EU. Columbia Journal of European Law, 14, 377–444.Google Scholar
  106. Mehrotra, A. K. (2005). Envisioning the modern American fiscal state: Progressive-era economists and the intellectual foundations of the U.S. income tax. UCLA Law Review, 52, 1793–1866.Google Scholar
  107. Mehrotra, A. K. (2015). Reviving fiscal citizenship. Michigan Law Review, 113, 943–971.Google Scholar
  108. Miller, J. A. (1993). Indeterminacy, complexity, and fairness: Justifying rule simplification in the law of taxation. Washington Law Review, 68(1), 1–78.Google Scholar
  109. Morse, S. C. (2013). The transfer pricing regs need a good edit. Pepperdine Law Review, 40, 1439.Google Scholar
  110. Murphy, R. (2012, November 13). Amazon, Google and Starbucks are struggling to defend their tax avoidance. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/nov/13/amazon-google-starbucks-tax-avoidance.
  111. New York Times Editorial Board. (2015, November 24). Pfizer’s big breakthrough: global tax avoidance. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/opinion/pfizers-big-breakthrough-global-tax-avoidance.html.
  112. Nov, A. (2006). The “bidding war” to attract foreign direct investment: The need for a global solution. Virginia Tax Review, 25(4), 835–874.Google Scholar
  113. Olawuyi, D. S. (2015). The emergence of rights-based approaches to resource governances in Africa: False start or new dawn? Sustainable Development Law & Policy, 15(2), 13–22.Google Scholar
  114. Ordower, H. (2010). The culture of tax avoidance. Saint Louis University Law Journal, 55, 47–128.Google Scholar
  115. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (2015). OECD/G20 base erosion and profit shifting project: Explanatory statement. http://www.oecd.org/ctp/beps-explanatory-statement-2015.pdf.
  116. Paine, L., Deshpandé, R., Margolis, J. D., & Bettcher, E. (2005). Up to code: Does your company’s conduct meet world-class standards? Harvard Business Review, 83(12), 122–133.Google Scholar
  117. Park, S. K., & Berger-Walliser, G. (2015). A firm driven approach to global governance and sustainability. American Business Law Journal, 52(2), 255–314.Google Scholar
  118. Pew Research Center. (2015). Federal tax system seen in need of overhaul—Top complaints: Wealthy corporations ‘don’t pay fair share’. http://www.people-press.org/2015/03/19/federal-tax-system-seen-in-need-of-overhaul/.
  119. Picolotti, R. (2000). Human rights accountability of private business: A question of sustainable development. American Society of International Law Proceedings, 94, 216.Google Scholar
  120. Pietruszkiewicz, C. M. (2005). Does the internal revenue service have a duty to treat similarly situated taxpayers similarly? University of Cincinnati Law Review, 74, 531–576.Google Scholar
  121. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 56–69.Google Scholar
  122. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.Google Scholar
  123. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 89(1–2), 1–17.Google Scholar
  124. Prebble, Z. M., & Prebble, J. (2010). The morality of tax avoidance. Creighton Law Review, 43(3), 693–745.Google Scholar
  125. Preuss, L. (2010). Tax avoidance and corporate social responsibility: You can’t do both or can you? Corporate Governance, 10(4), 365–374.Google Scholar
  126. Raskolnikov, A. (2007). The cost of norms: Tax effects of tacit understandings. University of Chicago Law Review, 74(2), 601–685.Google Scholar
  127. Raskolnikov, A. (2009). Revealing choices: Using taxpayer choice to target tax enforcement. Columbia Law Review, 109(4), 689–753.Google Scholar
  128. Richardson, G., Taylor, G., & Lanis, R. (2013). The impact of board of director oversight characteristics on corporate tax aggressiveness: an empirical analysis. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 32, 68–88.Google Scholar
  129. RobecoSAM. (2014a). Company benchmarking scorecard 2014: Ford Motor Co. http://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability-report-2014-15/doc/sr14-robecosam-djsi-scorecard.pdf.
  130. RobecoSAM. (2015c). RobecoSAM’s corporate sustainability assessment companion. http://www.sustainability-indices.com/images/RobecoSAM-Corporate-Sustainability-Assessment-Companion.pdf.
  131. Rose, P. (2010). Regulating risk by “strengthening corporate governance”. Connecticut Insurance Law Journal, 17(1), 1–26.Google Scholar
  132. Sarfaty, G. (2013). Regulating by numbers: A case study of corporate sustainability reporting. Virginia Journal of International Law, 53, 575–621.Google Scholar
  133. Sauer, D. A. (1997). The impact of social-responsibility screens on investment performance: Evidence from the domini 400 social index and domini equity mutual fund. Review of Financial Economics, 6(2), 137–149.Google Scholar
  134. Scheffer, D. (2013). The ethical imperative of curbing corporate tax avoidance. Ethics and International Affairs, 27(4), 361–369.Google Scholar
  135. Scholz, J. T. (2003). Contractual compliance and the federal income tax system. Washington University Journal of Law and Policy, 13, 139–203.Google Scholar
  136. Schumacher, S. A. (2008). Macniven v. Westmoreland and tax advice: Using “purposive textualism” to deal with tax shelters and promote legitimate tax advice. Marquette Law Review, 92(33), 33–102.Google Scholar
  137. Scott, C. (2014). Fair tax mark to reward tax justice. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/fair-tax-mark-to-reward-tax-justice.
  138. Shaffer, G. C., & Pollack, M. A. (2010). Hard versus soft law: Alternatives, complements, and antagonists in international governance. Minnesota Law Review, 94, 706–799.Google Scholar
  139. Shankleman, J. (2014). Siemens, Unilever and Swiss Re named world's most sustainable companies. BusinessGreen. http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/2364720/siemens-unilever-and-swiss-re-named-worlds-most-sustainable-companies.
  140. Sheffer, D. (2013). The ethical imperative of curbing corporate tax avoidance. Ethics & International Affairs, 27(4), 361–369.Google Scholar
  141. Sheppard, B. (2014). Norm supercompliance and the status of soft law. Buffalo Law Review, 62(4), 797–879.Google Scholar
  142. Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1997). A survey of corporate governance. Journal of Finance, 52(2), 737–783.Google Scholar
  143. Sikka, P. (2010). Smoke and mirrors: Corporate social responsibility and tax avoidance. Accounting Forum, 34, 153–168.Google Scholar
  144. Simon, K. W. (1991). Congress and taxes: A separation of powers analysis. University of Miami Law Review, 45, 1005–1049.Google Scholar
  145. Singer, T. (2012). Linking executive compensation to sustainability performance. The Conference Board. https://www.conference-board.org/retrievefile.cfm?filename=TCB-DN-V4N11-12.pdf&type=subsite.
  146. Sison, A. J. G. (2008). Corporate governance and ethics: An Aristotelian perspective. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  147. Spence, D. (2011). Corporate social responsibility in the oil and gas industry: The importance of reputational risk. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 86(1), 59–85.Google Scholar
  148. Stark, R. C. (2001, April 2). A principled approach to collection and accuracy-related penalties. Tax Notes, pp. 115–149.Google Scholar
  149. Stewart, J. (2015). The corporate tax regime and industrial policy in Ireland. IIIS discussion paper no. 469.Google Scholar
  150. Stout, J. H., & Li, R. (2004). Corporate governance and organizational integrity. University of St. Thomas Law Journal, 1(2), 925–950.Google Scholar
  151. Surowiecki, J. (2016). Why firms are fleeing. The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/01/11/why-firms-are-fleeing.
  152. Swank, D. (1998). Funding the welfare state: Globalization and the taxation of business in advanced market economies. Political Studies, 66, 671–692.Google Scholar
  153. Thompson, M. (2012, December 3). UK targets Google, Amazon, Starbucks on taxes. CNN. http://money.cnn.com/2012/12/03/news/uk-tax-avoidance/.
  154. Thompson, L. D. (2015). The responsible corporation: Its historical roots and continuing promise. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, 29(1), 199–230.Google Scholar
  155. Tolan, P. E. (2012). It’s about time: Registration and regulation will boost competence and accountability of paid tax preparers. Virginia Tax Review, 31(3), 471–544.Google Scholar
  156. Torgler, B. (2002). Speaking to theorists and searching for facts: Tax morale and tax compliance in experiments. Journal of Economic Survey, 16, 663.Google Scholar
  157. Torgler, B. (2005). Tax morale and direct democracy. European Journal of Political Economy, 21(2), 531.Google Scholar
  158. Torgler, B. (2006). The importance of faith: Tax morale and religiosity. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 61(1), 81–109.Google Scholar
  159. Torgler, B., & Schneider, F. (2007, June). What shapes attitudes toward paying taxes? Evidence from multicultural European countries. Social Science Quarterly, 88(2), 443–470.Google Scholar
  160. Trivedi, V. U., Shehata, M., & Lynn, B. (2003). Impact of personal and situational factors on taxpayer compliance: An experimental analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 47, 179.Google Scholar
  161. Tsoukala, P. (2013). Narratives of the European crisis and the future of (social) Europe. Texas International Law Journal, 48, 241–267.Google Scholar
  162. United Nations Association in Canada. (2013). The human rights approach to sustainable development: Environmental rights, public participation, and human security. http://unac.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/HRandSD-EN-PDF.pdf.
  163. United Nations Development Programme. (2011). Human development report 2011: Sustainability and equality. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/271/hdr_2011_en_complete.pdf.
  164. Urdangarin, J., & Vanderbeek, B. (2015). 6 Reasons to respond to the Dow Jones sustainability index survey. GreenBiz. http://www.greenbiz.com/article/six-reasons-respond-dow-jones-sustainability-index-survey.
  165. United States General Assembly. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights. http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/.
  166. van Marrewijk, M. (2003). Concepts and definitions of CSR and corporate sustainability: Between agency and communion. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2/3), 95–105.Google Scholar
  167. Verlarde, A. (2015, July 13). Will Wal-Mart’s short-term loan plan drive change? Tax Notes Today. TNT 133-1.Google Scholar
  168. Vina, G. (2012, November 12). UK lawmakers accuse Starbucks, Amazon, Google of tax avoidance. Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-11-13/u-k-lawmakers-accuse-starbucks-amazon-google-of-tax-avoidance.
  169. Vogel, D. (2005). The market for virtue: The potential and limits of corporate social responsibility. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  170. Wade, C. L. (2006). Transforming discriminatory corporate cultures: This is not just women’s work. Maryland Law Review, 65(2), 346–379.Google Scholar
  171. Watson, L. (2015). Corporate social responsibility, tax avoidance, and earnings performance. Journal of the American Taxation Association, 37(2), 1–21.Google Scholar
  172. Weisbach, D. A. (2002). An economic analysis of anti-tax-avoidance doctrines. American Law and Economics Review, 4(1), 88–115.Google Scholar
  173. Williams, R. (2011). The numbers: How does federal government spend its money? Tax Policy Center. http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/background/numbers/expenses.cfm.
  174. Wood, R. W. (2012). Facebook mirrors Google’s offshore tax scheme. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/robertwood/2012/12/27/facebook-mirrors-googles-offshore-tax-scheme/.
  175. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf.
  176. Yin, G. K. (2012). Principles and practices to enhance compliance and enforcement of the personal income tax. Virginia Tax Review, 31(3), 381–411.Google Scholar
  177. Zarya, V. (2015). Etsy’s Dublin HQ isn’t a secret—And neither is Ireland’s tax rate. Fortune. http://fortune.com/2015/08/14/etsy-ireland-tax-home/.
  178. Zolt, E. (2014). Politics and taxation: An introduction. Tax Law Review, 67, 453–469.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of BusinessUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Georgia Institute of TechnologyScheller College of BusinessAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations