Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Does Bad Company Corrupt Good Morals? Social Bonding and Academic Cheating among French and Chinese Teens

  • Published:
Journal of Business Ethics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

A well-known common wisdom asserts that strong social bonds undermine delinquency. However, there is little empirical evidence to substantiate this assertion regarding adolescence academic cheating across cultures. In this study, we adopt social bonding theory and develop a theoretical model involving four social bonds (parental attachment, academic commitment, peer involvement, and moral values) and adolescence self-reported academic cheating behavior and cheating perception. Based on 913 adolescents (average age = 15.88) in France (n = 429) and China (n = 484), we show that parental attachment, academic commitment, and moral values curb academic cheating; counterintuitively, peer involvement contributes to cheating. We test our theoretical model across culture and gender, separately, using multi-group analyses. For French teens, peer involvement encourages and moral values undermine cheating; for Chinese adolescents, all four social bonds contribute to cheating, similar to the whole sample. For girls, parental attachment deters, but peer involvement enhances cheating. For boys, parental attachment is the only social bond that does not affect cheating. We treat social integration (popularity) as a mediator of the relationship between peer involvement and social bonds that construct, in turn, is related to cheating and ask: Considering popularity, who are likely to cheat? Our answers provide an interesting paradox: Popularity matters, yet popular French girls and unpopular Chinese boys are likely to cheat. Social sharing is a positive pro-social behavior in consumer behavior. However, academic cheating and rule breaking, reflecting self-serving altruism and the red sneakers effect, at a very young age may have the potential to grow into the Enron Effect later in their lives as executives in organizations. We shed new lights on both the bright and dark sides of social bonds on cheating, demonstrate bad company corrupts good morals, differently, across culture and gender, and provide practical implications to social bonding, business ethics, and cheating.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1 Corinthians 15: 33.

  2. We used the terms social bonding theory and social bonds in our search, using Web of Science.

  3. According to People, Accessed on October 2, 2015. (http://www.people.com/article/oregon-shooting-gunman-had-obsession-satan?utm_source=zergnet.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=zergnet_715737&xid=partner_zergnet).

  4. Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it. But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it (Matthew 7: 13–14).

  5. Shi (giving) can be linked up with different nouns, including giving goods (shi shan) and giving medicine (shi-yi), but much more often with giving teaching/education (shi jiao). It is more blessed to give than to receive (Acts 20: 35). God loves a cheerful giver (2 Coriinthians 9: 7). Give and gifts will be given to you (Luke 6: 38).

  6. The 10 most shared objects were “class notes,” “electronics,” “books,” “chat sessions” (SKYPE, MSN), “music or game files,” “a T-shirt,” “a drink,” “clothing accessories” (belt, scarf, hat, …), “a snack,” and “sports equipment (racquets, balls).”

  7. Several methods exist to construct a confidence interval based on the “bootstrap.” The “Bias-Corrected Bootstrap” adjusts the bias in the distribution (MacKinnon et al. 2004).

  8. The indirect effect is obtained by multiplying the two direct paths: Path 1 * Path 2.

  9. On the surface, results of two positive paths ((+) * (+) = (+)) and two negative paths ((−) * (−) = (+)) are the same.

  10. Some elite private universities and high schools practice these principles and create an honest student body.

  11. Flight attendant Debra Neil told the cockpit crew: “We have a problem.” David Burke shot the flight attendant, announced “I’m the problem,” and killed the pilots and the PSA’s Chief Pilot in LA. David Burke had seven children by different women, but was never married. Some described him as a violent man. An episode of the Canadian TV series, Mayday, featured this incident, entitled: “I’m the problem.” “Murder on board” was the title for the UK version of Air Crash Investigation.

  12. The Parable of the Lost Sheep (Matthew 18: 10–14; Luke 15: 1–7). The Parable of the Lost Son (Luke 15: 11–31). For he makes his sun rise on the bad and the good and causes rain to fall on the just and the unjust (Matthew 4: 43–44). Jesus calls Matthew: Matthew 9: 12; Mark 2: 17.

References

  • Agnew, R. (1993). Why do they do it? An examination of the intervening mechanisms between “social control” variables and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30(3), 245–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2002). Identity and schooling: Some lessons for the economics of education. Journal of Economic Literature, 40(4), 1167–1201.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akers, R. L., & Cochran, J. K. (1985). Adolescent marijuana use: A test of three theories of deviant behavior. Deviant Behavior, 6(4), 323–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akers, R. L., & Lee, G. (1999). Age, social learning, and social bonding in adolescent substance use. Deviant Behavior, 20(1), 1–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allmon, D. E., Page, D., & Roberts, R. (2000). Determinants of perception of cheating: Ethical orientation, personality, and demographics. Journal of Business Ethics, 23(4), 411–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderman, E. M., & Midgley, C. (2004). Changes in self-reported academic cheating across the transition from middle school to high school. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(4), 499–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderman, E. M., & Murdock, T. B. (2007). The psychology of academic cheating. New York, NY: Academic Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (1998). The psychology of criminal conduct (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andrews, K., Smith, L., Henzi, D., & Demps, E. (2007). Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity at U.S. and Canadian dental school. Journal of Dental Education, 71(8), 1027–1039.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ang, S., & Leong, S. (2000). Out of the mouths of babes: Business ethics and youths in Asia. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(2), 129–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arbuckle, J., & Wothke, W. (1999). AMOS 4 user’s reference guide. Chicago: Smallwaters Corp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ariely, D. (2008). How honest people cheat. Harvard Business Review, 86(2), 24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: relationships to well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), 427–454.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bakan, D. (1996). The duality of human existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New-York, NY: Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 323–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumeister, R. F., Sparks, E. A., Stillman, T. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2008). Free will in consumer behavior: Self-control, ego depletion, and choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18(1), 4–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belk, R. W. (1984). Cultural and historical differences in concepts of self and their effects on attitudes toward having and giving. In T. C. Kinnear (Ed.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 11, pp. 754–763). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belk, R. W. (2007). Why not share rather than own? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 611(1), 126–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belk, R. W. (2009). Sharing. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(5), 715–734.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belk, R. W., Groves, R., & Ostergaard, P. (2000). Aboriginal consumer culture. Research in Consumer Behavior, 9, 1–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belk, R. W., & Llamas, L. (2011). The nature and effects of sharing in consumer behaviour. In D. G. Mick, S. Pettigrew, C. Pechmann, & J. L. Ozanne (Eds.), Transformative consumer research for personal and collective well-being: Reviews and frontiers. London: Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bellezza, S., Gino, F., & Keinan, A. (2014). The red sneakers effect: Inferring status and competence from signals of nonconformity. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(1), 35–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bernardi, R. A., Metzger, R. L., Bruno, R. G. S., Hoogkamp, M. A. W., Reyes, L. E., & Barnaby, G. H. (2004). Examining the decision process of students’ cheating behavior: An empirical study. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(4), 397–414.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Betz, M., O’Connell, L., & Shepard, J. M. (1989). Gender differences proclivity for unethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 8(5), 321–324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blake, P. R., Piovesan, M., Montinari, N., Warneken, F., & Gino, F. (2015). Prosocial norms in the classroom: The role of self-regulation in following norms of giving. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 115, 18–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bloodgood, J. M., Turnley, W. H., & Mudrack, P. E. (2008). The influence of ethics instruction, religiosity, and intelligence on cheating behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 557–571.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bloodgood, J. M., Turnley, W. H., & Mudrack, P. E. (2010). Ethics instruction and the perceived acceptability of cheating. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(1), 23–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blos, P. (1979). The adolescent passage: developmental issues. New York, NY: International Universities Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bogenschneider, K., Wu, M. Y., Raffaelli, M., & Tsay, J. C. (1998). Parent influences on adolescent peer orientation and substance use: The interface of parenting practices and values. Child Development, 69(6), 1672–1688.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bond, M., & Hofstede, G. (1989). The cash value of Confucian values. Human System Management, 8, 195–200.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cameron, L., Erkal, N., Gangadharan, L., & Meng, X. (2013). Little emperors: Behavioral impacts of China’s one-child policy. Science, 339(6122), 953–957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Casciaro, T., Gino, F., & Kouchaki, M. (2014). The contaminating effects of building instrumental ties: How networking can make us feel dirty. Administrative Science Quarterly, 59(4), 705–735.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chemers, M. M., Hu, L., & Garcia, B. F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first-year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 55–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, Y. J., & Tang, T. L. P. (2013). The bright and dark sides of religiosity among university students: Do gender, college major, and income matter? Journal of Business Ethics, 115(3), 531–553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, J. Q., Tang, T. L. P., & Tang, N. Y. (2014). Temptation, monetary intelligence (love of money), and environmental context on unethical intentions and cheating. Journal of Business Ethics, 123(2), 197–219.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chodorow, N. J. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R. K., Cooper, M. L., & Bouvrette, A. (2003). Contingencies of self-worth in college students: Theory and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(5), 894–908.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crown, D. F., & Spiller, M. S. (1998). Learning from the literature on collegiate cheating: A review of empirical research. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(6), 683–700.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ding, X. P., Omrin, D. S., Evans, A. D., Fu, G., Chen, G., & Lee, K. (2014). Elementary school children’s cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 121(May), 85–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Donleavy, G. (2008). No man’s land: Exploring the space between Gilligan and Kohlberg. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(4), 807–822.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dunn, E. W., Aknin, L. B., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science, 319(5870), 1687–1788.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durkheim, E. (1897/1951). Suicide. (John A. Spaulding & George Simpson, Trans.). New York: The Press.

  • Eaton, M. J., & Dembo, M. H. (1997). Differences in the motivation beliefs of Asian American and non-Asian students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 440–443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, J. (2004). To cheat or not to cheat: Effects of moral perspective and situational variables on students’ attitudes. Journal of Moral Education, 33(2), 163–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, R. Z. (2009). The impact of anti-intellectualism attitudes and academic self-efficacy on business students’ perceptions of cheating. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 199–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Festinger, L., Schachter, S., & Back, K. (1950). Social pressures in informal groups: A study of a housing community. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gentina, E. (2014). Understanding the effects of adolescent girls’ social positions within peer groups on exchange practices. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 13(1), 73–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gentina, E., & Bonsu, S. (2013). Peer social network influences on teens’ shopping behavior. Journal of Retailing and Customer Services, 20(1), 87–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gentina, E., & Chandon, J. L. (2013). Adolescent shopping behaviour: Different assimilation and individuation needs in France and the United States. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(6), 609–616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gentina, E., Rose, G. M., & Vitell, S. (2015). Ethics during adolescence: A social networks perspective. Journal of Business Ethics. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2577-5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gino, F., Ayal, S., & Ariely, D. (2013). Self-serving altruism? The lure of unethical actions that benefit others. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 93, 285–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gino, F., & Wiltermuth, S. S. (2014). Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity. Psychological Science, 25(4), 973–981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gomez-Mejia, L., Wiseman, R. M., & Dykes, B. J. (2005). Agency problems in diverse contexts: A global perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 42(7), 1507–1517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gu, Q. X., Tang, T. L. P., & Jiang, W. (2015). Does moral leadership enhance employee creativity? Employee identification with leader and leader-member exchange (LMX) in the Chinese context. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(3), 513–529.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gudeman, S. (2001). The anthropology of economy: Community, market, and culture. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawdon, J. (1999). Daily routines and crime: Using routine activities as measures of Hirschi’s involvement. Youth and Society, 30(4), 395–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkley, CA: University of California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organization Dynamics, 16(4), 5–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howard, L. W., Tang, T. L. P., & Austin, M. J. (2015). Teaching critical thinking skills: Ability, motivation, intervention, and the Pygmalion effect. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(1), 133–147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hwang, K. K. (1987). Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92(4), 944–974.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Isaken, K. J., & Roper, S. (2012). The commodification of self-esteem: Branding and British teenagers. Psychology & Marketing, 29(4), 117–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • John, D. R. (1999). Consumer socialization of children: A retrospective look at twenty-five years of research. Journal of Consumer Research, 26(3), 183–213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joy, A. (2001). Gift giving in Hong Kong and the continuum of social ties. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(2), 239–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking: Fast and slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kempf, K. L. (1993). The empirical status of Hirschi’s control theory. In F. Adler & W. S. Laufer (Eds.), New directions in criminological theory: Advances in criminological theory (Vol. 4, pp. 143–185). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kercheval, N. (2004, May 21). Full-time MBA students required to visit federal prisons and interview white-collar criminals. The Daily Record, Baltimore, MD, 1.

  • Khan, K. (2012, October 9). Kublai Khan: China’s favourite barbarian. BBC News.

  • Kirland, K. D. (2009). Academic honesty: Is what students believe different from what they do? (Order No. 3370997, Bowling Green State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 270-n/a. Retrieved from http://0-search.proquest.com.lib.hksyu.edu.hk/docview/304846031?accountid=169 64. (304846031).

  • Kish-Gephart, J. J., Harrison, D. A., & Treviño, L. K. (2010). Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: Meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 1–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kitayama, S., & Markus, H. R. (1992). Construal of the self as cultural frame: Implications for internationalizing psychology. Paper presented at the Symposium on Internationalization and Higher Education. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  • Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., Matsumoto, H., & Norasakkunkit, V. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(6), 1245–1268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Klein, H. A., Levenburg, N. M., McKendall, M., & Mothersell, W. (2007). Cheating during the college years: How do business school students compare? Journal of Business Ethics, 72(2), 197–206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kobayashi, E. (2011). Social bonds and academic cheating: An application of Hirschi’s social control theory. Studies of Language and Culture, 15, 159–181.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kobayashi, E., & Fukushima, M. (2012). Gender, social bond, and academic cheating in Japan. Sociological Inquiry, 82(2), 282–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kramer, A. D. I., Guillory, J. E., & Hancock, J. T. (2014). Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(24), 8788–8790.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kratzer, J., & Lettl, C. (2009). Distinctive roles of lead users and opinion leaders in the social networks of school children. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(4), 646–659.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Labouvie, E. (1996). Maturing out of substance use: Selection and self-correction. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2), 457–476.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • LaGrange, R. L., & White, H. R. (1985). Age differences in delinquency: A test of theory. Criminology, 23(1), 19–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lancaster, L. L., & Tang, T. L. P. (1989). Outplacement offers safety net for displaced workers. The Personal Administrator, 34(4), 60–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawson, R. A. (2004). Is classroom cheating related to business students’ propensity to cheat in the “real world”? Journal of Business Ethics, 49(2), 189–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ledbeater, C. (2009). We think: Mass innovation, not mass production. London: Profile Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ledwith, A., & Risquez, A. (2008). Using anti-plagiarism software to promote academic honesty in the context of peer reviewed assignments. Studies in Higher Education, 33(4), 371–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, S. H. M. (2013). Ethics and expertise: A social networks perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(3), 607–621.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lemrová, S., Reiterová, E., Fatěnová, R., Lemr, K., & Tang, T. L. P. (2014). Money is power: Monetary intelligence—love of money and temptation of materialism among Czech university students. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(2), 329–348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu, L. C., Rose, G. M., & Blodgett, J. C. (1999). The effects of cultural dimensions on ethical decision making in marketing: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Ethics, 18(1), 91–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lucifora, C., & Tonello, M. (2015). Cheating and social interactions. Evidence from a randomized experiment in a national evaluation program. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 115(July), 45–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ma, Y., McCabe, D. L., & Liu, R. (2013). Students’ academic cheating in Chinese universities: Prevalence, influencing factors, and proposed action. Journal of Academic Ethics, 11(3), 169–184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malhotra, D., & Gino, F. (2011). The pursuit of power corrupts: How investing in outside options motivates opportunism in relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 56(4), 559–592.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. (2008). The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 633–644.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Michaels, J. W., & Miethe, T. D. (1989). Applying theories of deviance to academic cheating. Social Science Quarterly, 70(4), 870–885.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, T. B., Hale, N. M., & Weber, M. J. (2001). Predictors of cheating among early adolescents: Academic and social motivations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(1), 96–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, T. B., Miller, A., & Kohlhardt, J. (2014). Effects of classroom context variables on high school students’ judgments of the acceptability and likelihood of cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 765–777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • NBC News (2012, Apirl 29). Why do kids cheat? Facts about cheating. http://insidedateline.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/04/29/11412162-why-do-kids-cheat-facts-about-cheating.

  • Niiya, Y., Ballantyne, R., North, M. S., & Crocker, J. (2008). Gender, contingencies of self-worth, and achievement goals as predictors of academic cheating in a controlled laboratory setting. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30(1), 76–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Fallon, M. J., & Butterfield, K. D. (2011). Moral differentiation: exploring boundaries of the “monkey see, monkey do” perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(3), 379–399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Fallon, M. J., & Butterfield, K. D. (2012). The influence of unethical peer behavior on observers’ unethical behavior: A social cognitive perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 117–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oettingen, G., & Zosuls, K. (2006). Culture and self-efficacy in adolescents. In F. P. Urdan (Ed.), Self efficacy beliefs in adolescents. Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orosz, G., Farkas, D., & Roland-Lévy, C. (2013). Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating? Frontiers Psychology, 4, 87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Özbay, O., & Özcan, Y. Z. (2006). A test of Hirschi’s social bonding theory juvenile delinquency in the high schools of Ankara. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6), 711–726.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Özbek, M. F., Yoldash, M. A., & Tang, T. L. P. (2015). Theory of justice, OCB, and individualism: Kyrgyz citizens. Journal of Business Ethics,. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2553-0.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, E., Park, S., & Jang, I. (2013). Academic cheating among nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 33(4), 346–352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pascual-Ezama, D., Fosgaard, T. R., Cardenas, J. C., Kujal, P., Veszteg, R., Gil-Gomez de Liano, B., & Branas-Garza, P. (2015). Context-dependent cheating: Experimental evidence from 16 countries. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 116, 379–386.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 2(1), 185–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Premeaux, S. (2010). Undergraduate student perception regarding Tier 1 versus Tier 2 AACSB accredited business schools. Journal of Business Ethics, 62(4), 407–418.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richins, M. L., & Dawson, S. (1992). A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3), 303–316.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ritter, B. A. (2006). Can business ethics be trained? A study of the ethical decision-making process in business students. Journal of Business Ethics, 68(2), 153–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rose, R. A., Bearden, W. O., & Teel, J. E. (1992). An attributional analysis of resistance to group pressure regarding illicit drug and alcohol consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(1), 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salter, S., Guffey, D. M., & McMillan, J. (2001). Truth, consequences and culture: A comparative examination of cheating and attitudes about cheating among U.S. and U.K. students. Journal of Business Ethics, 31(1), 37–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schab, F. (1991). Schooling without learning: Thirty years of cheating in high school. Adolescence, 26(104), 839–847.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schunk, D. H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26(3–4), 207–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2002). The development of academic self-efficacy. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 15–31). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Shafer, W., Fukukawa, K., & Lee, G. (2007). Values and the perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility: The U.S. versus China. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(3), 265–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shoemaker, D. J. (2000). Theories of delinquency. An examination of explanation of delinquent behavior (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendation. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sims, R. L. (2002). Ethical rule breaking by employees: A test of social bonding theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(2), 101–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, K. J., Davy, J. A., & Easterling, D. S. (2004). An examination cheating and its antecedents among marketing and management majors. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(1), 63–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 221–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Su, C., Sirgy, J. M., & Littlefield, J. E. (2003). Is Guanxi orientation bad, ethically speaking? A study of Chinese enterprises. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(4), 303–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P. (1990). Factors affecting intrinsic motivation among university students in Taiwan. Journal of Social Psychology, 130(2), 219–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P. (2012). Detecting honest people’s lies in handwriting: The power of the Ten Commandments and internalized ethical values. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(4), 389–400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P. (2014). Theory of monetary intelligence: Money attitudes—religious values, making money, making ethical decisions, and making the grade. Journal of Business Ethics,. doi:10.1007/s10551-014-2411-5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., & Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Effects of personal values, perceived surveillance, and task labels on task preference: The ideology of turning play into work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(1), 99–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., & Chen, Y. J. (2008). Intelligence versus wisdom: The love of money, Machiavellianism, and unethical behavior across college major and gender. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(1), 1–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., & Chiu, R. K. (2003). Income, money ethic, pay satisfaction, commitment, and unethical behavior: Is the love of money the root of evil for Hong Kong managers? Journal of Business Ethics, 46(1), 13–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., & Liu, H. (2012). Love of money and unethical behavior intention: Does an authentic supervisor’s personal integrity and character (ASPIRE) make a difference? Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 295–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., & Sutarso, T. (2013). Falling or not falling into temptation? Multiple faces of temptation, monetary intelligence, and unethical intentions across gender. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(3), 529–552.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., & Tang, T. L. N. (2010). Finding the lost sheep: A panel study of business students’ intrinsic religiosity, Machiavellianism, and unethical behavior intention in a public institution. Ethics and Behavior, 20(5), 352–379.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, S., & Zuo, J. (1997). Profile of college examination cheaters. College Student Journal, 31, 340–346.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., Luna-Arocas, R., Quintanilla Pardo, I., & Tang, T. L. N. (2014). Materialism and the bright and dark sides of the financial dream in Spain: The positive role of money attitudes—The Matthew Effect. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 63(3), 480–508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, T. L. P., Sutarso, T., Ansari, M. A., Lim, V. K. G., Teo, T. S. H., Arias-Galicai, F. et al. (2011). The love of money is the root of all evil: Pay satisfaction and CPI as moderators. Paper presented at Academy of Management Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX. In L. A. Toombs (Ed.), Best paper proceedings of the 2011 Academy of Management.

  • Tang, T. L. P., Sutarso, T., Ansari, M. A., Lim, V. K. G., Teo, T. S. H., Arias-Galicai, F. et al. (2015). Monetary intelligence and behavioral economics: The enron effect—love of money, corporate ethical values, Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), and dishonesty across 31 countries. Journal of Business Ethics. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2942-4.

  • Tang, T. L. P., Sutarso, T., Davis, G. M. T., Dolinski, D., Ibrahim, A. H. S., & Wagner, S. L. (2008). To help or not to help? The Good Samaritan Effect and the love of money on helping behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(4), 865–887.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tom, G., & Borin, N. (1988). Cheating in academe. Journal of Education for Business, 63(4), 153–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treviño, L. K. (1986). Ethical decision-making in organizations: A person-situation interactionist model. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 601–617.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tynan, C., McKechnie, S., & Chhuon, C. (2010). Co-creating value for luxury brands. Journal of Business Research, 63(11), 1156–1163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1), 4–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. (2006). The psychological consequences of money. Science, 314(5802), 1154–1156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vowell, R., & Chen, J. (2004). Predicting academic misconduct: A comparative test of four sociological explanations. Sociological Inquiry, 74(2), 226–249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, D. (2004). Family background factors and mathematics success: A comparison of Chinese and US students. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(1), 40–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weiss, J., Gilbert, K., Giordano, P., & Davis, S. (1993). Academic dishonesty, Type A behavior and classroom orientation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31(2), 101–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • West, T., Ravenscroft, S. P., & Shrader, C. (2004). Cheating and moral judgment in the college classroom: A natural experiment. Journal of Business Ethics, 54(2), 173–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whitcomb, L. L., Erdener, C. B., & Li, C. (1998). Business ethical values in China and the U.S. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(8), 839–852.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Widelman, M. (2009). Caring or collusion? Academic dishonesty in a school of nursing. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 41(2), 28–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woodbine, G. F. (2004). Moral choice and the declining influence of traditional value orientations within the financial sector of a rapidly developing region of the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Business Ethics, 55(1), 43–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, Z. Y., & Laroche, M. (2011). Parental responsiveness and adolescent susceptibility to peer influence: A cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Business Research, 64(9), 979–987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovation Research Team (PCSIRT) in University, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. IRT 13030) awarded to the third author for financial support and Joshua Pentecost for his assistance.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thomas Li-Ping Tang.

Appendix: Items and Constructs of Our Major Measures

Appendix: Items and Constructs of Our Major Measures

Social Bonds*

Parental attachment

  1. 1.

    My parents put a lot of time and energy into helping me.

  2. 2.

    My parents find time to talk to me.

  3. 3.

    My parents spend a lot of time with me.

Academic commitment

  1. 4.

    I know how to study to perform well on tests.

  2. 5.

    I am a very good student.

  3. 6.

    I usually do very well in school and at academic tasks.

Peer involvement

  1. 7.

    I share class notes with my classmates.

  2. 8.

    I share electronics” (chargers and cables, USBs, calculators) with my classmates.

  3. 9.

    I share books with my classmates.

Moral values

  1. 10.

    Doing something I know is wrong makes me lose my self-respect.

  2. 11.

    I couldn’t respect myself if I didn’t live up to a moral code.

  3. 12.

    My self-esteem would suffer if I did something unethical.

Academic Cheating

Cheating behavior**

  1. 13.

    Looking at or copying from someone else’s exam during a test.

  2. 14.

    Allowed someone else to copy from your exam during a test.

  3. 15.

    Gave answers to someone during an exam.

Cheating perception***

  1. 16.

    I believe cheating on an exam is _____.

  2. 17.

    I believe not reporting a classmate for cheating on an exam is _____.

  3. 18.

    I believe copying a published article and turning it in as my term paper is _____.

Social Integration*

  1. 19.

    I feel socially accepted by peers in my school class.

  2. 20.

    I feel popular in my school class.

  3. 21.

    I do not feel excluded from others.

All items were measured using a 5-point scale with different scale anchors.

*Scale anchors ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).

**Scale anchors ranging from never to very often.

***Scale anchors ranging from always acceptable to always unacceptable.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gentina, E., Tang, T.LP. & Gu, Q. Does Bad Company Corrupt Good Morals? Social Bonding and Academic Cheating among French and Chinese Teens. J Bus Ethics 146, 639–667 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2939-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2939-z

Keywords

Navigation