Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 143, Issue 1, pp 35–51 | Cite as

Congruence in Corporate Social Responsibility: Connecting the Identity and Behavior of Employers and Employees

  • Debbie Haski-LeventhalEmail author
  • Lonneke Roza
  • Lucas C. P. M. Meijs


The multi-disciplinary interest in social responsibility on the part of individuals and organizations over the past 30 years has generated several descriptors of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employee social responsibility (ESR). These descriptors focus largely on socially responsible behavior and, in some cases, on socially responsible identity. Very few authors have combined the two concepts in researching social responsibility. This situation can lead to an oversimplification of the concept of CSR, thereby impeding the examination of congruence between employees and organizations with regard to social responsibility. In this article, we connect two dimensions of social responsibility—identity and behavior—to build a Social Responsibility Matrix consisting of four patterns for classifying the social responsibility of employees and employers: Low Social Responsibility, Identity-based Social Responsibility, Behavior-based Social Responsibility, and Entwined Social Responsibility. The positioning of employers and employees on the same matrix (as determined by internal, relational, and/or external factors) is vital for assessing the level of congruence between employers and employees with regard to social responsibility and for discussing the possible outcomes for both parties. These identity and behavior-based patterns, determinants, and levels of congruence connecting employees and employers form the foundation for the multi-dimensional, dynamic ESR–CSR Congruence Model, as exemplified in a case study. This contribution enhances the existing literature and models of CSR, in addition to improving the understanding of employee–employer congruence, thereby broadening the array of possibilities for achieving positive organizational outcomes based on CSR.


Congruence CSR CSR determinants CSR identity Employees 



Corporate social responsibility


Employee social responsibility

P–E fit

Person–environment fit

P–O fit

Person–organization fit



We would like to express our profound gratitude to Professor Femida Handy and Professor Katharina Spraul for their very helpful comments on an earlier version of this article. We would also like to thank the section editor, Professor Adam Lindgreen and the two anonymous Journal of Business Ethics reviewers for their thorough reviews and useful comments which helped us improve the article. Finally, we would like to thank Dr. Linda Bridges-Karr and Dr. Constance Ellwood, for their excellent copy-editing.


  1. Aaronson, S. A. (2003). Corporate responsibility in the global village: The British role model and the American laggard. Business and Society Review, 108(3), 309–338. doi: 10.1111/1467-8594.00167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836–863. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.25275678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility. A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968. doi: 10.1177/0149206311436079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albareda, L., Lozano, J. M., Tencati, A., Midttun, A., & Perrini, F. (2008). The changing role of governments in corporate social responsibility: Drivers and responses. Business Ethics: A European Review, 17(4), 347–363. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8608.2008.00539.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aquino, K., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1423–1440. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.83.6.1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argyris, C. (1957). Personality and organization; the conflict between system and the individual. Oxford, England: Harpers.Google Scholar
  7. Austin, J. E., & Leonard, D. (2008). Can the virtuous mouse and the wealthy elephant live happily ever after? California Management Review, 51(1), 77–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austin, J. E., & Quinn, J. (2005). Ben & Jerry’s: Preserving mission & brand within unilever. Cambridge: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  9. Balmer, J. M. T., Fukukawa, K., & Gray, E. R. (2007). The nature and management of ethical corporate identity: A commentary on corporate identity, corporate social responsibility and ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(1), 7–15. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9278-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Balmer, J. M. T., & Greyser, S. A. (2002). Managing the multiple identities of the corporation. California Management Review, 44(3), 72–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Basu, K., & Palazzo, G. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: A process model of sensemaking. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 122–136. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2008.27745504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker-Olsen, K. L., Cudmore, B. A., & Hill, R. P. (2006). The impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 59(1), 46–53. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beddewela, E., & Fairbrass, J. (2015). Seeking legitimacy through CSR: Institutional pressures and corporate responses of multinationals in Sri Lanka. Journal of Business Ethics,. doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2478-z.Google Scholar
  14. Benabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2010). Individual and corporate social responsibility. Economica, 77, 1–19. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0335.2009.00843.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhattacharaya, C. B., Sen, S., & Korschun, D. (2008). Using corporate social responsibility to win the war for talent. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(2), 37–44.Google Scholar
  16. Brammer, S., & Millington, A. I. (2003). The effect of stakeholder preferences, organizational structure and industry type on corporate community involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 45(3), 213–226. doi: 10.1023/A:1024151528646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brammer, S., & Millington, A. I. (2004). Stakeholder pressure, organizational size, and the allocation of departmental responsibility for the management of corporate charitable giving. Business and Society, 43(3), 268–295. doi: 10.1177/0007650304267536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brammer, S., & Millington, A. (2005). Corporate reputation and philanthropy: An empirical analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 61(1), 29–44. doi: 10.1007/s10551-005-7443-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701–1719. doi: 10.1080/09585190701570866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bratton, W. W., & Levitin, A. J. (2013). A transactional genealogy of scandal: From Michael Milken to Enron to Goldman Sachs. Southern California Law Review, 86, 783–921.Google Scholar
  21. Cable, D. M., & Parsons, C. K. (2001). Socialization tactics and person-organization fit. Personnel Psychology, 54(1), 1–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00083.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caligiuri, P. (2013). Cultural agility: Building a pipeline of successful global professionals. San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  23. Campbell, J. D., Assanand, S., & Paula, A. D. (2003). The structure of the self-concept and its relation to psychological adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71(1), 115–140. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.t01-1-00002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carrington, L. (2012). Global vision. Business Reporter, July 2012, 11–12.Google Scholar
  25. Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1979.4498296.Google Scholar
  26. Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34(4), 39–48. doi: 10.1016/0007-6813(91)90005-G.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carter, J. (2013). Corporate social responsibility: Ben & Jerry’s. Munich: GRIN Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2014). Mergers and acquisitions: The human factor. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  29. Castka, P., Balzarova, M. A., Bamber, C. J., & Sharp, J. M. (2004). How can SMEs effectively implement the CSR agenda? A UK case study perspective. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 11(3), 140–149. doi: 10.1002/csr.62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cave, A. (2015). Sweet dreams of men on a mission: Jerry Greenfield is more enthusiastic than ever for ice cream with a conscience, he tells Andrew Cave. The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved from
  31. Christensen, L. T., Mackey, A., & Whetten, D. (2014). Taking responsibility for corporate responsibility: The role of leaders in creating, implementing, sustaining, or avoiding socially responsible firm behaviors. Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(2), 164–178. doi: 10.5465/amp.2012.0047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review Psychology, 55, 591–621. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cornelius, N., Todres, M., Janjuha-Jivraj, S., Woods, A., & Wallace, J. (2008). Corporate social responsibility and the social enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 355–370. doi: 10.1007/s10551-007-9500-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Du, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Sen, S. (2010). Maximizing business returns to corporate social responsibility (CSR): The role of CSR communication. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), 8–19. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00276.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duarte, F. (2010). Working with corporate social responsibility in Brazilian companies: The role of managers’ values in the maintenance of CSR cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(3), 355–368. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0470-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eccles, R. G., Miller Perkins, K., & Serafeim, A. G. E. (2012). How to become a sustainable company? MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved from
  37. Fobrum, C. J. (2005). A world of reputation research, analysis and thinking—building corporate reputation through CSR initiatives: Evolving standards. Corporate Reputation Review, 8(1), 7–12. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.crr.1540235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Stakeholder management: Framework and philosophy. Mansfield, MA: Pitman.Google Scholar
  39. Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine, Sep 13, 1–6. Retrieved from
  40. Grant, A. M. (2007). Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference. Academy of Management Review, 32, 393–417. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.24351328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grant, A. M., Dutton, J. E., & Rosso, B. D. (2008). Giving commitment: Employee support programs and the prosocial sensemaking process. Academy of Management Journal, 51(5), 898–918. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2008.34789652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gray, E. R., & Balmer, J. M. T. (1998). Managing corporate image and corporate reputation. Long Range Planning, 31(5), 695–702. doi: 10.1016/S0024-6301(98)00074-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greening, D. W., & Gray, B. (1994). Testing a model of organizational response to social and political issues. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 467–498. doi: 10.2307/256697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greening, D. W., & Turban, D. B. (2000). Corporate social performance as a competitive advantage in attracting a quality workforce. Business and Society, 39(3), 254–280. doi: 10.1177/000765030003900302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Greenleaf, R. K. (1970). The servant as a leader. Indianapolis, IN: Greenleaf Center.Google Scholar
  46. Gulati, R., & Sytch, M. (2007). Dependence asymmetry and joint dependence in interorganizational relationships: Effects of embeddedness on a manufacturer’s performance in procurement relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), 32–69. doi: 10.2189/asqu.52.1.32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gully, S. M., Phillips, J. M., Castellano, W. G., Han, K., & Kim, A. (2013). A mediated moderation model of recruiting socially and environmentally responsible job applicants. Personnel Psychology, 66(4), 935–973. doi: 10.1111/peps.12033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hansen, S. D., Dunford, B. B., Boss, A. D., Boss, R. W., & Angermeier, I. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and the benefits of employee trust: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(1), 29–45. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0903-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haski-Leventhal, D. (2013). Employee engagement in CSR: The case of payroll giving in Australia. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 20(2), 113–128. doi: 10.1002/csr.1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Helmig, B., Spraul, K., & Ingenhoff, D. (2013). Under positive pressure: How stakeholder pressure affects corporate social responsibility implementation. Business and Society,. doi: 10.1177/0007650313477841.Google Scholar
  51. Hemingway, C. A. (2005). Personal values as a catalyst for corporate social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 60(3), 233–249. doi: 10.1007/s10551-005-0132-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3(1), 51–76. doi: 10.1521/soco.1985.3.1.51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hill, R. P. (2004). The socially-responsible University: Talking the talk while walking the walk in the college of business. Journal of Academic Ethics, 2(1), 89–100. doi: 10.1023/B:JAET.0000039009.48115.3d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. I. (2000). Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 121–140. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2000.2791606.Google Scholar
  55. Husted, B. W., & de Jesus Salazar, J. (2006). Taking Friedman seriously: Maximizing profits and social performance. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1), 75–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00583.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jain, A., & Com, M. (2014). The mandatory CSR in India: A boon or bane. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 4(1), 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones, D. A. (2010). Does serving the community also serve the company? Using organizational identification and social exchange theories to understand employee responses to a volunteerism program. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(4), 857–878. doi: 10.1348/096317909X477495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kallio, T. J. (2007). Taboos in corporate social responsibility discourse. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(2), 165–175. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9227-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kaye, L. (2012). Ben & Jerry’s, now certified B Corp. Retrieved Feb 15, 2015 from
  60. Kim, H. R., Lee, M., Lee, H. T., & Kim, N. M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and employee–company identification. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(4), 557–569. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0440-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Knox, S., & Maklan, S. (2004). Corporate social responsibility: Moving beyond investment towards measuring outcomes. European Management Journal, 22(5), 508–516. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2004.09.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kotler, P. (2011). Reinventing marketing to manage the environmental imperative. Journal of Marketing, 75(4), 132–135. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.75.4.132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1–49. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb01790.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kristof-Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals’ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job, person-group, person-organization and person-supervisor fit. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 281–342. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00672.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lamberti, L., & Lettieri, E. (2009). CSR practices and corporate strategy: Evidence from a longitudinal case study. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(2), 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lancaster, L. C., & Stillman, D. (2002). When generations collide: Who they are. Why they clash. How to solve the generational puzzle at work. New York: Harper Business.Google Scholar
  67. Lange, D., & Washburn, N. T. (2012). Understanding attributions of corporate social irresponsibility. Academy of Management Review, 37(2), 300–326. doi: 10.5465/amr.2010.0522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161–177. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liu, G., Eng, T. Y., & Ko, W. W. (2013). Strategic directions of corporate community involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(3), 469–487. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1418z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lyon, T. P., & Maxwell, J. W. (2011). Greenwash: Corporate environmental disclosure under threat of audit. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 20(1), 3–41. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-9134.2010.00282.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2007.0002.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marin, L., & Ruiz, S. (2007). “I Need You Too!” Corporate identity attractiveness for consumers and the role of social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 71(3), 245–260. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9137-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marin, L., Ruiz, S., & Rubio, A. (2009). The role of identity salience in the effects of corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(1), 65–78. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9673-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Markus, H., & Wurf, E. (1987). The dynamic self-concept: A social psychological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 38(1), 299–338. doi: 10.1146/ Scholar
  75. Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). “Implicit” and “explicit” CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 404–424. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2008.31193458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McShane, L., & Cunningham, P. (2012). To thine own self be true? Employees’ judgments of the authenticity of their organization’s corporate social responsibility program. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(1), 81–100. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-1064-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. S. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117–127. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2001.4011987.Google Scholar
  78. Meglino, B. M., Ravlin, E. C., & Adkins, C. L. (1989). A work values approach to corporate culture: A field test of the value congruence process and its relationship to individual outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(3), 424–432. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morris, S. A. (1997). Internal effects of stakeholder management devices. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(4), 413–424. doi: 10.1023/A:1017900209031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morsing, M., & Schultz, M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility communication: Stakeholder information, response and involvement strategies. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(4), 323–338. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8608.2006.00460.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Murray, J. (2014). Ben & Jerry’s struggles with corporate social responsibility in an international context. Retrieved Feb 15, 2015 from
  82. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  83. Osuji, O. (2011). Fluidity of regulation-CSR nexus: The multinational corporate corruption example. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(1), 31–57. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0840-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Page, A., & Katz, R. A. (2012). The truth about Ben and Jerry’s. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Pearce, C. L., & Manz, C. C. (2011). Leadership centrality and corporate social irresponsibility (CSIR): The potential ameliorating effects of self and shared leadership on CSIR. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(4), 563–579. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0828-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Penner, L. A., Dovidio, J. F., Piliavin, J. A., & Schroeder, D. A. (2005). Prosocial behavior: Multilevel perspectives. In S. T. Fiske, D. L. Schacter, & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology, 56 (pp. 365–392). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
  87. Pérez, A., & Rodriques del Bosque, I. R. (2012). The role of CSR in the corporate identity of banking service providers. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 145–166. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-1067-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pervin, L. A. (1989). Persons, situations, interactions: The history of a controversy and a discussion of theoretical models. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 350–360. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1989.4279066.Google Scholar
  89. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 89(1/2), 62–77.Google Scholar
  90. Potter, V., & Scales, J. (2008). Review of payroll giving. London: Strategy Complete.Google Scholar
  91. Rodrigo, P., & Arenas, D. (2008). Do employees care about CSR programs? A typology of employees according to their attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), 265–283. doi: 10.1007/s10551-007-9618-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rolland, D., & Bazzoni, J. O. K. (2009). Greening corporate identity: CSR online corporate identity reporting. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 14(3), 249–263. doi: 10.1108/13563280910980041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Romney-Alexander, D. (2002). Payroll giving in the UK: Donor incentives and influences on giving behavior. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7(1), 84–92. doi: 10.1002/nvsm.169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rupp, D. E., Shao, R., Thornton, M. A., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2013). Applicants’ and employees’ reactions to corporate social responsibility: The moderating effects of first-party justice perceptions and moral identity. Personnel Psychology, 66(4), 895–933. doi: 10.1111/peps.12030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schein, E. H. (1967). Organizational socialization and the profession of management. MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved from
  97. Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40(3), 437–453. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00609.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schneider, B., Goldstein, H., & Smith, D. B. (1995). The ASA framework: An update. Personnel Psychology, 48(4), 747–773. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01780.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4(4), 577–594. doi: 10.1287/orsc.4.4.577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Slack, R. E., Corlett, S., & Morris, R. (2014). Exploring employee engagement with (corporate) social responsibility: A social exchange perspective on organisational participation. Journal of Business Ethics,. doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2057-3.Google Scholar
  102. Struch, N., Schwartz, S. H., & Van Der Kloot, W. A. (2002). Meanings of basic values for women and men: A cross-cultural analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(1), 16–28. doi: 10.1177/0146167202281002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tschirhart, M., & St. Clair, L. (2005). Corporate community service programs: Enhancing community capacity? In A. C. Brooks (Ed.), Gifts of time and money: The role of charity in America’s communities (pp. 59–75). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  104. Unilever. (2013). Annual report and accounts 2013: Making sustainable living commonplace. Retrieved Feb 15, 2015 from
  105. Utting, P. (2005). Corporate responsibility and the movement of business. Development in Practice, 15(3–4), 375–388. doi: 10.1080/09614520500075797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Van der Voort, J. M., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. C. P. M. (2009). “Managing” corporate community involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(3), 311–329. doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0051-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 765–802. doi: 10.2307/256600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Veage, S., Ciarrochi, J., Deane, F. P., Andresen, R., Oades, L. G., & Crowe, T. P. (2014). Value congruence, importance and success and in the workplace: Links with well-being and burnout amongst mental health practitioners. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(4), 258–264. doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Verquer, M. L., Beehr, T. A., & Wagner, S. H. (2003). A meta-analysis of relations between person-organization fit and work attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 473–489. doi: 10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00036-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Weaver, G. R., & Trevino, L. K. (1999). Compliance and value orientated ethics programs: Influences on employees’ attitudes and behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly, 9(2), 315–335. doi: 10.2307/3857477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Weaver, G. R., Trevino, L. K., & Cochran, P. L. (1999). Corporate ethics programs as control systems: Influence of executive commitment and environmental factors. Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 41–57. doi: 10.2307/256873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Werther, W. B, Jr, & Chandler, D. (2011). Strategic corporate social responsibility: Stakeholders in a global environment. United Kingdom: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  113. Werther, W. B., & Chandler, D. (2014). Strategic CSR (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  114. West, N. (2010). Eco hero Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, ice-cream evangelists. The Daily Telegraph, 75. Retrieved Feb 15, 2015 from Lexis Nexis.Google Scholar
  115. Wymer, W. W., & Samu, S. (2003). Dimensions of business and nonprofit collaborative relationships. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 11(1), 3–22. doi: 10.1300/J054v11n01_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yang, S. B., & Guy, M. E. (2006). Genxers versus Boomers: Work motivators and management implications. Public Performance and Management Review, 29(3), 267–284. doi: 10.2753/PMR1530-9576290302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zadek, S. (2004). The path to corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 82(12), 125–132. Retrieved from
  118. Zadek, S. (2007). The civil corporation. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  119. Zhang, R., Zhu, J., Yue, H., & Zhu, C. (2010). Corporate philanthropic giving, advertising intensity, and industry competition level. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), 39–52. doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0248-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Debbie Haski-Leventhal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lonneke Roza
    • 2
  • Lucas C. P. M. Meijs
    • 2
  1. 1.Macquarie Graduate School of ManagementMacquarie UniversityNorth RydeAustralia
  2. 2.Rotterdam School of ManagementRotterdamNetherlands

Personalised recommendations