Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 141, Issue 1, pp 163–178 | Cite as

Mutual Recognition Respect Between Leaders and Followers: Its Relationship to Follower Job Performance and Well-Being

  • Nicholas ClarkeEmail author
  • Nomahaza Mahadi


There has been limited research investigating the effects of the recognition form of respect between leaders and their followers within the organisation literature. We investigated whether mutual recognition respect was associated with follower job performance and well-being after controlling for measures of liking and appraisal respect. Based on data we collected from 203 matched leader–follower dyads in the Insurance industry in Malaysia, we found mutual recognition respect predicted both follower job performance and well-being. Significantly, appraisal respect was only found to be positively associated with job performance. Our findings suggest mutual recognition respect is an important form of respect in workplace relationships that can bring benefits to both the individual and the organisation.


Mutual recognition respect Job performance Follower well-being 


  1. Augsberger, A., Shudrich, W., McGowan, B. G., & Auerbach, C. (2012). Respect in the workplace: A mixed methods study of retention and turnover in the voluntary child welfare sector. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(7), 1222–1229. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.02.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldwin, M. W., Carrell, S. E., & Lopez, D. E. (1990). Priming relationship schemas: My advisor and the Pope are watching me from the back of my mind. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 435–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin, M. W., & Sinclair, L. (1996). Self-esteem and “if…then” contingencies of interpersonal acceptance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1130–1141. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartel, C. A., Wrzesniewski, A., & Wiesenfeld, B. M. (2012). Knowing where you stand: Physical isolation, perceived respect, and organizational identification among virtual employees. Organization Science, 23, 743–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batson, C. D., Chang, J., Orr, J. R., & Rowland, J. (2002). Empathy, attitudes, and action: Can feeling for a member of a stigmatized group motivate one to help the group? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1656–1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumeister, R. E., & Tice, D. M. (1990). Anxiety and social exclusion. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 165–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benditt, T. M. (2008). Why respect matters. The Journal of Value Inquiry, 42, 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biemann, T., Cole, M. S., & Voelpel, S. (2012). Within-group agreement: On the use (and misuse) of rWG and rWG (J) in leadership research and some best practice guidelines. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 66–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and Analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations (pp. 349–381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Boeckmann, R. J., & Tyler, T. R. (2002). Trust, respect and the psychology of political engagement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 2067–2088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Branscombe, N. R., Spears, R., Ellemers, N., & Doojse, B. (2002). Intra-group and intergroup evaluation effects on group behaviour. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 744–753. doi: 10.1177/0146167202289004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brickson, S. (2000). The impact of identity orientation on individual and organizational outcomes in demographically diverse settings. Academy of Management Review, 25, 82–101. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2000.2791604.Google Scholar
  14. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 389–444). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, J. D., & Dutton, K. A. (1995). The thrill of victory, the complexity of defeat: Self-esteem and people’s emotional reactions to success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 712–722. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang, C. H., & Johnson, R. E. (2010). Not all leader-member exchanges are created equal: Importance of leader relational identity. Leadership Quarterly, 21, 796–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke, N. (2011). An integrated conceptual model of respect in leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 316–327. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.02.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coan, J. A., Kasle, S., Jackson, A., Schaefer, H. S., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding. Attachment and Human Development, 15, 303–315. doi: 10.1080/14616734.2013.782656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Schocken.Google Scholar
  20. Coyne, J. C., & Bolger, N. (1990). Doing without social support as an explanatory concept. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9(1), 148–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cranor, C. (1975). Toward a theory of respect for persons. American Philosophical Quarterly, 12, 309–319.Google Scholar
  22. Dabos, G. E., & Rousseau, D. M. (2004). Mutuality and reciprocity in the psychological contracts of employees and employers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 52–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dansereau, F., & Yammarino, F. J. (2006). Is more discussion about levels of analysis really necessary? When is such discussion sufficient? Leadership Quarterly, 17, 537–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dansereau, F., Yammarino, F. J., & Markham, S. E. (1995). Leadership: The multiple-level approaches. The Leadership Quarterly, 6, 97–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Darwall, S. (1977). Two kinds of respect. Ethics, 88, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Cremer, D. (2002). Respect and cooperation in social dilemmas: The importance of feeling included. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1335–1341. doi: 10.1177/014616702236830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Cremer, D. (2003). Noneconomic motives predicting cooperation in public good dilemmas: The effect of received respect on contributions. Social Justice Research, 16, 367–377. doi: 10.1023/A:1026361632114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human agency: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31–50). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  29. Dilman, D. A. (1991). The design and administration of mail surveys. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 225–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellemers, N., Doojse, B., & Spears, R. (2004). Sources of respect: The effects of being liked by ingroups and outgroups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 155–172. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Emmott, M., & Worman, D. (2008). The steady rise of CSR and Diversity in the workplace. Strategic HR Review, 7(5), 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Faulkner, J., & Laschinger, H. (2008). The effects of structural and psychological empowerment on perceived respect in acute care nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 214–221. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2007.00781.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fraser, N., & Honneth, A. (2003). Redistribution or recognition? A political-philosophical exchange. London: Verso. doi: 10.3366/per.2005.1.2.215.Google Scholar
  34. Genero, N. P., Miller, J. B., Surrey, J., & Baldwin, L. M. (1992). Measuring perceived mutuality in close relationships: Validation of the mutual psychological development questionnaire. Journal of Family Psychology, 6, 36–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton, D. L., & Fallot, R. D. (1974). Information salience as a weighting factor in impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 444–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., & Carlson, D. S. (2006). An examination of temporal variables and relationship quality on promotability ratings. Group and Organization Management, 31, 677–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Honneth, A. (1995). The struggle for recognition: The moral grammar of social conflicts. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huo, Y. J., Binning, K. R., & Molina, I. E. (2010). Testing an integrative model of respect: Implications for social engagement and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 200–212. doi: 10.1177/0146167209356787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huo, Y. J., & Molina, I. E. (2006). Is pluralism a viable model of diversity? The benefits and limits of subgroup respect. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9, 359–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. James, R. L., Demaree, R. G., & Wolf, G. (1984). Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jordan, J. (1986). The meaning of mutuality (Work in Progress, No. 23). Wellesley, MA: Stone Center, Wellesley College.Google Scholar
  44. Jordan, P. J., & Lawrence, S. A. (2009). Emotional intelligence in teams: Development and initial validation of the short version of the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP-S). Journal of Management and Organization, 15, 452–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jung, D. I., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 949–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kant, I. (1964). Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals, (H.J. Paton, Ed., Translated and analysed). New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  47. Kaplan, K., Mestel, P., & Feldman, D. L. (2010). Creating a culture of respect. Association of Periperative Registered Nurses Journal, 91, 495–510. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2009.09.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kasle, S., Wilhelm, M. S., & Zautra, A. J. (2008). Rheumatoid arthritis patients’ perceptions of mutuality in conversations with spouses/partners and their links with psychological and physical health. Arthritis and Rhuematology, 59, 921–928. doi: 10.1002/art.23821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kellenberger, J. (1995). Relationship morality. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Kelley, H. H., & Thibaut, J. W. (1978). Interpersonal relations: A theory of interdependence. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Laham, S. M., Tam, T., Lalljee, T. M., Hewstone, M., & Voci, A. (2010). Respect for persons in the intergroup context: Self-other overlap and intergroup emotions are mediators of the impact of respect on action tendencies. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 13, 301–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leary, M. R., Tambor, E. S., Terdal, S. K., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 518–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: an empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24, 43–73.Google Scholar
  54. Lopes, H., & Calapez, T. (2012). The relational dimension of identity: Theoretical and empirical exploration. Review of Social Economy, 70, 81–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lutgen-Sandrik, P., Tracy, J. J., & Alberts, J. K. (2007). Burned by bullying in the American workplace: Prevalence, perception, degree and impact. Journal of Management Studies, 44, 839–862.Google Scholar
  56. Lyugomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markham, S. E., & Halverson, R. R. (2002). Within- and between-entity analyses in multilevel research:: A leadership example using single level analyses and boundary conditions (MRA). The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 35–52.Google Scholar
  58. Markham, S. E., Yammarino, F. J., Murry, W. D., & Palanski, M. E. (2010). Leader-member exchange, shared values, and performance: Agreement and levels of analysis do matter. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Martini, C., Sprenger, J., & Colyvan, M. (2013). Resolving disagreement through mutual respect. Erkenntnis, 78, 881–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McColl-Kennedy, J. R., & Anderson, R. D. (2005). Subordinate-manager gender combination and perceived leadership style influence on emotions, self-esteem, and organizational commitment. Journal of Business Research, 58, 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  62. Murray, S. L., & Holmes, J. G. (2009). The architecture of interdependent minds: A motivation-management theory of mutual responsiveness. Psychological Review, 116, 908–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Oore, D. G., LeBlanc, D., Day, A., Leiter, M. P., Laschinger, H. K. S., Price, S. I., & Latimer, M. (2010). When respect deteriorates: incivility as a moderator of the stressor–strain relationship among hospital workers. Journal of Nursing Management, 18, 878–888. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01139.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Prestwich, A., & Lalljee, M. (2009). The determinants and consequences of intragroup respect: An examination within a sporting context. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 1229–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.Google Scholar
  66. Renger, D., & Simon, B. (2011). Social recognition as an equal: The role of equality-based respect in group life. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 501–507. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: a study of a science, vol III. Formulations of the person and the social context (pp. 184–256). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  68. Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2003). Interdependence, interaction, and relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 351–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Safran, J. D. (1990). Towards a refinement of cognitive therapy in light of interpersonal theory: I. Theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sagie, A., Elizur, D., & Koslowsky, M. (1996). Work values: A theoretical overview and a model of their effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 503–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sallquist, J., DiDonato, M. D., Hanish, L. D., Martin, C. L., & Fabes, R. A. (2012). The importance of mutual positive expressivity in social adjustment: Understanding the role of peers and gender. Emotion, 12(2), 304–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sanftner, J. L., Tantillo, M., & Seidlitz, C. S. L. (2004). A pilot investigation of the relation of perceived mutuality to eating disorders in women. Women and Health, 39, 85–100. doi: 10.1300/j013v39n0105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schumacher, K. L., Stewart, B. J., Archbold, P. G., Caparro, M., Mutale, F., & Agrawal, S. (2008). Effects of caregiving demand, mutuality and preparedness on family caregiver outcomes during cancer treatment. Oncology Nursing Forum, 35, 49–56. doi: 10.1188/08.onf.49-56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shapiro, D. L. (2010). Relational identity theory: A systematic approach for transforming the emotional dimension of conflict. American Psychologist, 65(7), 634–645. doi: 10.1037/a0020004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shotter, J., & Gergen, K. J. (Eds.). (1989). Texts of identity. Inquiries in social construction series, vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  76. Sluss, D. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (2007). Relational identity and identification: Defining ourselves through work relationships. Academy of Management Review, 32, 9–32. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.23463672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith, H. J., Tyler, T. R., & Huo, Y. J. (2003). Interpersonal treatment, social identity and organizational behaviour. In S. A. Haslam, D. van Knippenberg, M. J. Platow, & N. Ellemers (Eds.), Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice (pp. 155–171). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  78. Smith, H., Tyler, T. R., Huo, Y. J., Ortiz, D. J., & Lind, E. A. (1988). The self-relevant implications of the group-value model. Group membership, self-worth and treatment quality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 470–493. doi: 10.1006/jesp.1998.1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Spears, R., Ellemers, N., Doojse, B., & Branscombe, N. (2006). The individual within the group: Respect!. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  81. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior’. In S. Worchel & L. W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  82. Tantillo, M., & Sanfter, J. (2003). The relationship between perceived mutuality and bulimic symptoms, depression and therapeutic change in groups. Eating Behaviors, 3, 349–364. doi: 10.1016/s1471-0153(02)00077-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Turban, D. B., & Jones, A. P. (1988). Supervisor-subordinate similarity: Types, effects and Mechanisms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 228–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tyler, T. R., & Lind, E. E. (1992). A relational model of authority in groups. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 115–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yammarino, F. J., & Dubinsky, A. J. (1992). Superior-subordinate relationships: A multiple levels of analysis approach. Human Relations, 45, 575–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yammarino, F. J., Dubinsky, A. J., Comer, L. B., & Jolson, M. A. (1997). Women and transformational and contingent reward leadership: A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 205–222.Google Scholar
  88. Zayas, L. H., Hausmann-Stabile, C., & Kuhlberg, J. (2011). Can better mother-daughter relationships reduce the chance of suicide attempt among Latinas? Depression Research and Treatment, 201, 1–7. doi: 10.1155/2011/403602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ManagementUniversity of Southampton, HighfieldSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.International Business School (IBS)UTM International CampusKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations