Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 140, Issue 3, pp 585–606 | Cite as

Internal Drivers and Performance Consequences of Small Firm Green Business Strategy: The Moderating Role of External Forces

  • Leonidas C. Leonidou
  • Paul Christodoulides
  • Lida P. Kyrgidou
  • Daydanda Palihawadana
Article

Abstract

Growing detrimental effects on the bio-physical environment have been responsible for a large number of small firms to adopt a more strategic stance toward exploiting green-related opportunities. This article aims to shed light on how internal company factors help to formulate a green business strategy among small manufacturing firms, and how this, in turn, influences their competitive advantage and performance. Based on data received from 153 small Cypriot manufacturers, we propose and test a conceptual model anchored on the Resource-based View of the firm. The findings underscore the critical role of both organizational resources and capabilities in pursuing a green business strategy. The adoption of this strategy was more evident in the case of firms operating in more harmful, as opposed to less harmful, industries. The implementation of a green business strategy was found to generate a positional competitive advantage, with this association becoming stronger under conditions of high regulatory intensity, high market dynamism, high public concern, and high competitive intensity. It was also revealed that this competitive advantage is conducive to gaining heightened market and financial performance. Our study makes a fivefold contribution: it injects a theoretical perspective into a relatively atheoretic field, underlines the role of organizational resources/capabilities as drivers of eco-friendly initiatives, highlights the often neglected strategic aspects of small firms’ ecological business activities, stresses the contingent role of external forces in moderating the positive impact of small firm green business strategy on competitive advantage, and focuses on the performance implications of the small firm’s engagement in environmental operations.

Keywords

Environmental strategy Business performance Resources Capabilities Resource-based view SMEs 

References

  1. Achrol, R. S., & Stern, L. W. (1988). Environmental determinants of decision-making uncertainty in marketing channels. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(1), 36–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez, S., & Busuenitz, L. W. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. Journal of Management, 27, 755–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amit, R., & Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1993). Strategic assets and organizational rent. Strategic Management Journal, 14(1), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ammenberg, J., & Hjelm, O. (2003). Tracing business and environmental effects of environmental management systems—a study of networking small and medium-sized enterprises using a joint environmental system. Business Strategy and the Environment, 12, 163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural modelling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aragón-Correa, J. A., Hurtado-Torres, N., Sharma, S., & García-Morales, V. J. (2008). environmental strategy and performance in small firms: A resource-based perspective. Journal of Environmental Management, 86(1), 88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aragón-Correa, J. A., & Sharma, S. (2003). A contingent resource-based view of proactive corporate environmental strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 28(1), 71–88.Google Scholar
  8. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating non-response bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3), 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avram, D. O., & Kühne, S. (2008). Implementing responsible business behavior from a strategic management perspective: Developing a framework for Austrian SMEs. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 463–475.Google Scholar
  10. Aykol, B., & Leonidou, L. C. (2014). Researching the green practices of smaller service firms: A theoretical, methodological, and empirical assessment. Journal of Small Business Management. doi:10.1111/jsbm.12118.
  11. Azzone, G., & Bartelè, U. (1994). Exploiting green strategies for competitive advantage. Long Range Planning, 27(6), 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Azzone, G., & Noci, G. (1998). Identifying effective PMSs for the deployment of ‘Green Manufacturing Strategies’. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 18(4), 308–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baker, W. E., & Sinkula, J. M. (2005). Environmental marketing strategy and firm performance: Effect on new product performance and market share. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(4), 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Banerjee, S. B. (2001). Managerial perceptions of corporate environmentalism: Interpretations from industry and strategic implications for organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 38(4), 489–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Banerjee, S. B., Iyer, E. S., & Kashyap, R. K. (2003). Corporate environmentalism: Antecedents and influence of industry type. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), 106–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baylis, R., Connell, L., & Flynn, A. (1998). Company size environmental regulation and ecological modernization: further analysis at the level of the firm. Business Strategy and the Environment, 7, 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bharadwaj, S. G., Varadarajan, R. P., & Fahy, J. (1993). sustainable competitive advantage in service industries: A conceptual model and research propositions. Journal of Marketing, 57(4), 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bianchi, R., & Noci, G. (1998). “Greening” SMEs’ competitiveness. Small Business Economics, 11, 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blackman, A., & Bannister, G. J. (1998). Community pressure and clean technology in the informal sector: An econometric analysis of the adoption of propane by traditional mexican brickmakers. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 35, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brio, J., & Junquera, B. (2003). A review of the literature on environmental innovation management in SMEs: Implications for public policies. Technovation, 23(12), 939–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buysse, K., & Verbeke, A. (2003). Proactive environmental strategies: a stakeholder management perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 453–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cadogan, J. W., Cui, C. C., & Li, E. K. Y. (2003). Export market oriented behavior and export performance: The moderating roles of competitive intensity and technological turbulence. International Marketing Review, 20(5), 493–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carmona-Moreno, E., Cespedes-Lorente, J., & de Burgos-Jimenez, J. (2004). Environmental strategies in Spanish hotels: Contextual factors and performance. Services Industries Journal, 23(3), 101–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cater, T., Prasnikar, J., & Cater, B. (2009). Environmental strategies and their motives and results in slovenian business practice. Economics and Business Review, 11(1), 55–74.Google Scholar
  27. CCCI. (2011). Directory of manufacturers. Nicosia: Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry.Google Scholar
  28. Christmann, P. (2000). Effects of ‘Best Practices’ of environmental management on cost advantage: The role of complementary assets. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 663–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen, B., & Winn, M. (2007). Market imperfections, opportunity, and sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cordano, M., Marschall, R. S., & Silverman, M. (2010). How do small and medium enterprises Go ‘Green’? A study of environmental management programs in the U.S. Wine Industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 92, 463–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Curcio, R. J., & Wolf, F. M. (1996). Corporate environmental strategy: Impact upon firm value. Journal of Financial and Strategic Decisions, 9(2), 21–31.Google Scholar
  32. Day, G. S. (1994). The capabilities of market-driven organizations. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dean, T. J., & McMullen, J. S. (2007). Toward a theory of sustainable entrepreneurship: Reducing environmental degradation through entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 50–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dechant, K., & Altman, B. (1994). Environmental leadership: From compliance to competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 8(2), 7–20.Google Scholar
  35. Dilts, J. D., & Prough, G. E. (1989). Strategic options for environmental management: A comparative study of small vs. large firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 27(3), 31–38.Google Scholar
  36. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. F. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: What are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21(10–11), 1105–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. European Commission. (2003). Observatory of European SMEs: Report 2003, SMEs in Europe 2003. Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  38. Fiorino, D. J. (1996). Environmental policy and the participation gap. In W. Lafferty & J. Meadowcroft (Eds.), Democracy and the environment: Problems and prospects, by. Brookfield VT: Edward Elgar Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  39. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gadenne, D. L., Kennedy, J., & McKeiver, C. (2009). An empirical study of environmental awareness and practices in SMEs. Journal of Business Ethics, 84, 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Geiser, K., & Crul, M. (1996). Greening of small and medium-sized firms: Government, industry, and NGO initiatives. In P. Groenwegan, K. Kischer, F. Jenkins, & J. Schot (Eds.), The greening of industry resource guide and bibliography (pp. 213–244). Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  42. Grant, R. M. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implications for strategy formulation. California Management Review, 33(3), 114–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guber, D. L. (2003). The grassroots of a green revolution: Polling america on the environment. Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  44. Hadjimanolis, A., & Dickson, K. (2000). Innovation strategies of SMEs in Cyprus, a small developing country. International Small Business Journal, 18(4), 62–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2011). Multivariate data analysis. Englwood Cliffs: Pearson, Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  46. Halila, F. (2007). Networks as a means of supporting the adoption of organizational innovations in SMEs: The Case of Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) Based on ISO 14001. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 14, 167–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hart, S. L. (1995). A natural resource-based view of the firm. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 986–1014.Google Scholar
  48. Hillary, R. (2000). Small and medium-sized enterprises and the environment: Business imperatives. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  49. Hillary, R. (2003). Environmental management systems and the smaller enterprise. Journal of Cleaner Production, 12, 561–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Issak, R. (2002). The making of the Ecopreneur. Greener Management International, 38, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jaworski, B. J., & Kohli, A. K. (1993). Market orientation: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, 57(3), 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jaworski, B. J., & Kohli, A. K. (1996). Market orientation: Review, refinement and roadmap. Journal of Market Focused Management, 1, 119–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Judge, W. Q., & Douglas, T. J. (1998). Performance implications of incorporating natural environmental issues into the strategic planning process: An empirical assessment. Journal of Management Studies, 35(2), 241–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaleka, A. (2011). When exporting manufacturers compete on the basis of services: Resources and marketing capabilities driving service advantage and performance. Journal of International Marketing, 19(1), 40–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kassinis, G., & Vafeas, N. (2006). Stakeholder pressures and environmental performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. King, A. A., & Lenox, M. J. (2001). Lean and green? An empirical examination of the relationship between lean production and environmental performance. Production and Operations Management, 10(3), 244–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. King, A. A., & Lenox, M. J. (2002). Exploring the locus of profitable pollution reduction. Management Science, 48(2), 289–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Klassen, R. D., & McLaughlin, C. P. (1996). The impact of environmental management on firm performance. Management Science, 42(8), 1199–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Klassen, R. D., & Whybark, D. C. (1999). The impact of environmental technologies on manufacturing performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(6), 599–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Knudsen, T., & Madsen, T. K. (2001). Improving the firm’s environmental conduct: A source of competitive advantage? Journal of Strategic Marketing, 9, 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Krasnikov, A., & Jayachandran, S. (2008). The relative impact of marketing, research-and-development and operations capabilities on firm performance. Journal of Marketing, 72(3), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kumar, M., Antony, J., & Tiwari, M. K. (2011). Six sigma implementation framework for SMEs—A roadmap to manage and sustain the change. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5449–5467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Langerak, F., Peelen, E., & van der Veen, M. (1998). Exploratory results on the antecedents and consequences of green marketing. Journal of the Market Research Society, 40(4), 323–335.Google Scholar
  64. Lee, K. H. (2009). Why and how to adopt green management into business organizations? The case study of Korean SMEs in manufacturing industry. Management Decision, 47(7), 1101–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lee, S.-Y., & Klassen, R. D. (2008). Drivers and enablers that foster environmental management capabilities in small- and medium-sized suppliers in supply chains. Production and Operations Management, 17(6), 573–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leonidou, C. N., & Leonidou, L. C. (2011). Research into environmental marketing/management: A bibliographic analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 45(1/2), 68–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leonidou, L. C., Leonidou, C. N., Fotiades, T., & Zeriti, A. (2013). Resources and capabilities as drivers of hotel green marketing strategy: Implications on competitive advantage and performance. Tourism Management, 35(2), 94–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leonidou, L. C., Leonidou, C. N., & Kvasova, O. (2010). Antecedents and outcomes of consumer environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavior. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(13–14), 1319–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lieberman, M. B., & Asaba, S. (2006). Why do firms imitate each other? Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 366–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lockett, A., Thompson, S., & Morgenstern, U. (2009). The development of the resource-based view of the firm: A critical appraisal. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(1), 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. López-Gamero, M. D., Claver-Cortés, E., & Molina-Azorin, J. F. (2008). Complementary resources and capabilities for an ethical and environmental management. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 701–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marcus, A. A., & Geffen, D. (1998). The dialectics of competency acquisition: Pollution prevention in eclectic generation. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 1133–1156.Google Scholar
  74. Martin-Tapia, I., Aragon-Correa, J. A., & Senise-Barrio, M. A. (2008). Being green and export intensity of SMEs: The moderating influence of perceived uncertainty. Ecological Economics, 68, 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Masurel, E. (2007). Why SMEs invest in environmental measures: Sustainability evidence from small and medium-sized printing firms. Business Strategy and the Environment, 16, 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McKeiver, C., & Gadenne, D. (2005). Environmental management systems in small and medium businesses. International Small Business Journal, 23(5), 513–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Menguc, B., & Ozanne, L. K. (2005). Challenges of the ‘Green Imperative’: A natural resource-based approach to the environmental orientation-business performance relationship. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 430–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Menon, A., & Menon, A. (1997). Enviropreunerial marketing strategy: The emergence of corporate environmentalism as marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing, 61(1), 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Menon, A., Menon, A., Chowdhury, J., & Jankovich, J. (1999). Evolving paradigm for environmental sensitivity in marketing programs: A synthesis of theory and practice. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(2), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Miles, M. P., & Covin, J. G. (2000). Environmental marketing: a source of reputational competitive, and financial advantage. Journal of Business Ethics, 23, 299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Miles, R. E., & Snow, S. S. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure and process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  82. Mir, D., & Feitelson, E. (2007). Factors affecting environmental behavior in micro-enterprises: Laundry and motor repair firms in Jerusalem. International Small Business Journal, 25, 383–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mirvis, P. H. (1994). Environmentalism in progressive businesses. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 7(4), 82–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morgan, N. A., Kaleka, A., & Katsikeas, C. S. (2004). Antecedents of export venture performance: A theoretical model and empirical assessment. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 90–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Newbert, S. L. (2008). Value, rareness, competitive advantage, and performance: A conceptual-level empirical investigation of the resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 29(7), 745–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nidomolu, R., Prahalad, C. K., & Rangaswami, M. R. (2009). Why sustainability is now the key driver of innovation. Harvard Business Review, 87(9), 3–10.Google Scholar
  87. Niehm, L. S., Swinney, J., & Miller, N. J. (2008). Community social responsibility and its consequences for family business performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(3), 331–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Noci, G., & Verganti, R. (1999). Managing ‘Green Product Innovation in Small firms. R&D Management, 29(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Orlitzky, M. (2001). Does firm size confound the relationship between corporate social performance and firm financial performance? Journal of Business Ethics, 33(2), 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F. L., & Rynes, S. L. (2003). Corporate social and financial performance: A meta-analysis. Organization Studies, 24(3), 403–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Orsato, R. J. (2006). Competitive environmental strategies: When does it pay to be green. California Management Review, 48(2), 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ottman, J. A., Stafford, E. R., & Hartman, C. L. (2006). Avoiding green marketing Myopia: Ways to improve customer appeal for environmentally preferable products. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 48(5), 22–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Parry, S. (2012). Going Green: The evolution of micro-business environmental practices. Business Ethics, 21(2), 220–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Patton, D., Elliott, D., & Lenaghan, C. (1994). The environmental responsibility of small firms: investigating current awareness and practice. Small Business and Enterprise Development, 1(2), 22–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Patzelt, H., & Shepherd, D. A. (2011). Recognizing opportunities for sustainable development. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 35(4), 631–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peteraf, M. A. (1993). The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resource-based view. Strategic Management Journal, 14(3), 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Podsakoff, M. P., MacKenzie, B. S., Jeong-Yeon, L., & Podsakoff, P. N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Polonsky, M. J., & Rosenberger, P. J. (2001). Re-evaluating green marketing: A strategic approach. Business Horizons, 44(5), 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Porter, M., & Kramer, M. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 89(1/2), 62–77.Google Scholar
  101. Porter, M. E., & van der Linde, C. (1995). Green and competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review, 73(5), 120–133.Google Scholar
  102. Pujari, D., Peattie, K., & Wright, G. (2004). Organizational antecedents of environmental responsiveness in industrial new product development. Industrial Marketing Management, 33, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rahbar, E., & Wahid, A. N. (2011). Investigation of green marketing tools ‘Effect on Consumers’ purchase behavior. Business Strategy Series, 12(2), 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ramus, C. A. (2001). Organizational support for employees: Encouraging creative ideas for environmental sustainability. California Management Review, 43(3), 85–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Revell, A., & Blacburn, R. (2007). ‘The Business Case for Sustainability? An examination of small firms in the UK’s construction and restaurant sectors. Business Strategy and the Environment, 16, 404–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Revell, A., Stokes, D., & Chen, H. (2010). small business and the environment: Turning over a new leaf? Business Strategy and the Environment, 19, 273–288.Google Scholar
  107. Rowe, J., & Hollingsworth, D. (1996). Improving the environmental performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises: A study in avon. Eco-Management and Auditing, 3, 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rugman, A. M. (1995). Environmental regulations and international competitiveness: Strategies for Canada’s west coast forest products industry. The International Executive, 37(5), 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. (1998). Corporate strategies and environmental regulations: An organizing framework. Strategic Management Journal, 19, 363–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Russo, M. V., & Fouts, P. A. (1997). A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 534–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rutherfoord, R., Blackburn, R. A., & Spence, L. J. (2000). Environmental management and the small firm: An international comparison. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 6(6), 310–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sarin, S., & Mahajan, V. (2001). The effect of reward structures on the performance of cross-functional product development teams. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schapper, M. (2002). Small firms and entrepreneurial management predictors of green purchasing in Western Australian pharmacies. International Small Business Journal, 20, 235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sharma, S., Aragón-Correa, J. A., and Rueda, A. (2004). A contingent resource-based analysis of environmental strategy in the Ski industry, ASAC, 1–26.Google Scholar
  115. Sharma, S., Aragón-Correa, J. A., & Rueda-Manzanares, A. (2007). The contingent influence of organizational capabilities on proactive environmental strategy in the service sector: An analysis of North American and European Ski Resorts. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 24(4), 268–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sharma, S., & Vredenburg, H. (1998). Proactive environmental responsiveness strategy and the development of competitively valuable organizational capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 19(8), 729–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shrivastava, P. (1995). The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 936–960.Google Scholar
  118. Simpson, M., Taylor, N., & Barker, K. (2004). Environmental responsibility in SMEs: Does it deliver competitive advantage? Business Strategy and the Environment, 13, 156–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Surroca, J., Tribó, A., & Waddock, S. (2010). Corporate responsibility and financial performance: The Role of intangible resources. Strategic Management Journal, 31, 463–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Talbot, S., Lefebre, E., & Lefebre, L.-A. (2007). Closed-loop supply chain activities and derived benefits in manufacturing SMEs. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 18(6), 627–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tichy, N. (1983). The essentials of strategic change management. Journal of Business Strategy, 3(4), 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tilley, F. (1999). The gap between the environmental attitudes and the environmental behavior of small firms. Business Strategy and the Environment, 8, 238–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tilley, F. J. (2000). Small firm environmental ethics: How deep do they go? Business Ethics, 9, 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Uhlaner, L. M., Berent-Braun, M. M., Jeurissen, R. J. M., & de Wit, G. (2012). Beyond size: Predicting engagement in environmental management practices of Dutch SMEs. Journal of Business Ethics, 109, 411–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Van de Velde, V. E. W., & Corten, F. (2005). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Corporate Governance, 5(3), 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Verheul, H. (1999). How social networks influence the dissemination of cleaner technologies to SMEs. Journal of Cleaner Production, 7, 213–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. S. (2006). Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Williamson, D., & Lynch-Wood, G. (2001). A new paradigm for SME environmental practice. The TQM Magazine, 13(6), 424–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Williamson, D., Lynch-Wood, G., & Ramsay, J. (2006). drivers of environmental behavior in manufacturing SMEs and the implications for CSR. Journal of Business Ethics, 67, 317–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. World Bank: 2014, World Development Report, The World Bank.Google Scholar
  133. Worthington, I., & Patton, D. (2005). Strategic intent in the management of the green environment within SMEs: An analysis of the UK Screen-printing Sector. Long Range Planning, 38, 197–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wright, G. (2001). Strategic decision making; A best practice blueprint. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  135. Yalcinkaya, G., Calantone, R. J., & Griffith, D. A. (2007). An examination of exploration and exploitation capabilities: Implications for product innovation and market performance. Journal of International Marketing, 15(4), 63–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yang, M. A., Hong, P., & Modi, S. B. (2011). Impact of lean manufacturing and environmental management on business performance: An empirical study of manufacturing firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(2), 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonidas C. Leonidou
    • 1
  • Paul Christodoulides
    • 2
  • Lida P. Kyrgidou
    • 3
  • Daydanda Palihawadana
    • 4
  1. 1.University of CyprusNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Cyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  3. 3.International Hellenic UniversityKentriki MakedoniaGreece
  4. 4.Leeds University Business SchoolWest YorkshireUK

Personalised recommendations