Managing Biodiversity Through Stakeholder Involvement: Why, Who, and for What Initiatives?
- 685 Downloads
The increasing pressures to conserve biodiversity—particularly for industries based on the exploitation of natural resources—have reinforced the need to implement specific measures in this area. Corporate commitment to preserving biodiversity is increasingly scrutinized by stakeholders and now represents an important aspect of business ethics. Although stakeholder involvement is often essential to the management of biodiversity, very few studies in the literature have focused on the details of this involvement. The objective of this paper is to analyze how mining and forestry companies can manage biodiversity issues through stakeholder involvement based on a content analysis of 430 sustainability reports using the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework. The paper elucidates the reasons for such involvement, the nature of stakeholders involved, and the types of measures employed to manage biodiversity. Stakeholders’ motives for becoming involved revolve around four main issues: complexity and knowledge management; self-regulation and relationships with public authorities; legitimacy and social responsiveness; and commercial and strategic objectives. The stakeholders involved in biodiversity initiatives are essentially non-governmental organizations, experts and universities, public authorities, and coalitions of companies. In the end, the initiatives identified can be grouped into three categories: management practices, socio-political actions, and research and conservation measures. The paper provides various examples of these initiatives and shows how they can be implemented in collaboration with different stakeholders depending on the company’s objectives. The contributions the study makes to the literature on biodiversity management and the managerial implications of the study are analyzed in the discussion section.
KeywordsBiodiversity management Forestry Inter-organizational collaboration Mining Stakeholder theory Sustain ability
- Bonini, S. & Oppenheim, J. (2010). The next environmental issue for business: McKinsey Global Survey results, McKinsey & Company. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/sustainability/the_next_environmental_issue_for_business_mckinsey_global_survey_results (Consulted in June 2013).
- Butchart, S. H., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J. P., Almond, R. E.,… & Watson, R. (2010). Global biodiversity: Indicators of recent declines. Science, 328(5982), 1164–1168.Google Scholar
- Campbell, J. L., Quincy, C., Osserman, J., & Pedersen, O. K. (2013). Coding in-depth semistructured interviews problems of unitization and intercoder reliability and agreement. Sociological Methods & Research, 42(3), 294–320.Google Scholar
- CERES. (2014). Gaining ground: corporate progress on the CERES roadmap for sustainability. Accessed June 2013 from http://www.sustainalytics.com/sites/default/files/ceres_gainingground_fullreport_043014_map2.pdf.
- Chieh-Wen, S., & Ming-Chia, C. (2011). Is moral intensity applicable to natural environment issues? African Journal of Business Management, 5(17), 7533–7541.Google Scholar
- Convention on Biological Diversity. (1992). http://www.cbd.int/convention/text/ (Consulted in February 2014).
- Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 65–91.Google Scholar
- Fraser, E. D., Dougill, A. J., Mabee, W. E., Reed, M., & McAlpine, P. (2006). Bottom up and top down: Analysis of participatory processes for sustainability indicator identification as a pathway to community empowerment and sustainable environmental management. Journal of Environmental Management, 78(2), 114–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- GRI (Global Reporting Initiative). (2006). Sustainability reporting guidelines. Amsterdam: GRI.Google Scholar
- GRI (Global Reporting Initiative). (2007). Biodiversity: A GRI reporting resource. Amsterdam: GRI.Google Scholar
- GRI (Global Reporting Initiative). (2014). G4 sustainability reporting guidelines: Frequently asked questions. Amsterdam: GRI.Google Scholar
- ICMM (International Council on Mining & Metals). (2003). 10 sustainable development principles. https://www.icmm.com/our-work/sustainable-development-framework/10-principles (Consulted in February 2014).
- ICMM (International Council on Mining & Metals). (2006). Mining and biodiversity good practice guidance. https://www.icmm.com/page/1182/good-practice-guidance-for-mining-and-biodiversity (Consulted in February 2014).
- ICMM (International Council on Mining & Metals). (2010). Mining and biodiversity: A collection of case studies. https://www.icmm.com/biodiversity-case-studies (Consulted in February 2014).
- Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issue-contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 366–395.Google Scholar
- Jones, T. M. (1995). Instrumental stakeholder theory: A synthesis of ethics and economics. Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 404–437.Google Scholar
- Kohlbacher, F. (2005).The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. 7. Accessed June 2013. http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/75.
- KPMG. (2013). International survey of corporate responsibility reporting 2013. Zurich: KPMG International.Google Scholar
- Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–886.Google Scholar
- Salafsky, N., Cauley, H., Balachander, G., Cordes, B., Parks, J., Margoluis, C.,… & Margoluis, R. (2001). A Systematic Test of an Enterprise Strategy for Community‐Based Biodiversity Conservation. ConservationBiology, 15(6), 1585-1595.Google Scholar
- SCBD (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity). (2010). Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. http://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/gbo/gbo3-final-en.pdf (Consulted in February 2014).
- Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Unerman, J., Bebington, J., & O’Dwyer, B. (2007). Sustainability, Accounting and accountability. New York: Routhledge.Google Scholar
- WWF. (2014). Living Planet Report 2014, http://www.d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/wwf_lpr2014_low_res_full_report.pdf (Consulted in September 2014).