Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 133, Issue 4, pp 659–675 | Cite as

From Caring Entrepreneur to Caring Enterprise: Addressing the Ethical Challenges of Scaling up Social Enterprises

  • Kevin André
  • Anne-Claire Pache
Article

Abstract

This paper advances the conception of social entrepreneurs as caring entrepreneurs. We argue that the care ethics of social entrepreneurs, implying the pursuit of caring goals through caring processes, can be challenged when they engage in the process of scaling up their ventures. We propose that social entrepreneurs can sustain their care ethics as the essential dimension of their venture only if they are able to build a caring enterprise. Organizational care designates the set of organizing principles that facilitate the embedding of care ethics at an organizational level, beyond the imprinting induced by social entrepreneurs’ personal ethics.

Keywords

Ethics of care Social entrepreneurship Scaling up Organizational care 

References

  1. Allen, D. (2003). Mentoring others: A dispositional and motivational approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(1), 134–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. André, K. (2013). The ethics of care as a determinant for stakeholder inclusion and CSR perception in business education. Society and Business Review, 8(1), 32–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 30(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  4. Battilana, J., Pache, A. C., Sengul, M., & Model, J. (2013). Keeping a foot in both camps: understanding the determinants of social performance in hybrid organizations, Working paper.Google Scholar
  5. Bentham, J. (1815/1983). A table of the springs of action. Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhave, M. P. (1994). A process model of entrepreneurial venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 9, 223–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloom, P. N., & Chatterji, A. K. (2009). Scaling social entrepreneurial impact. California Management Review, 51(3), 114–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloom, P. N., & Skloot, E. (2010). Scaling social impact: New thinking. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bloom, P. N., & Smith, B. R. (2010). Identifying the drivers of social entrepreneurial impact: Theoretical development and an exploratory empirical test of SCALERS. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 126–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradach, J.-L. (2003). Going to scale: The challenge of replicating social programs. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2010.Google Scholar
  11. Bradach, (2010). From scaling organizations to scaling impact. In P. N. Bloom & E. Skloot (Eds.), Scaling social impact: New thinking (pp. 29–44). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Brady, F. N. (1999). A systematic approach to teaching ethics in business. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(3), 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buber, M. (2000). I and Thou. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  14. Burton, B. K., & Dunn, C. P. (1996). Feminist ethics as moral grounding for stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 6(2), 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Casson, M. (1982). The entrepreneur: An economic theory. Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books.Google Scholar
  16. Chell, E. (2007). Social enterprise and entrepreneurship. International Small Business Journal, 25(1), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chowdhury, I., & Santos, F. (2010). Scaling social innovations: The case of Gram Vikas. In P. N. Bloom & E. Skloot (Eds.), Scaling social impact: New thinking (pp. 147–168). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  18. Dacin, P. A., Dacin, M. T., & Matear, M. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: Why we don’t need a new theory and how we move forward from here. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(3), 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dacin, M. T., Dacin, P. A., & Tracey, P. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization Science, 22(5), 1203–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Datar, S. M., Epstein, M. J., & Yuthas, K. (2010). Enamored with scale: Scaling with limited impact in the microfinance industry. In P. N. Bloom & E. Skloot (Eds.), Scaling social impact: New thinking. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Dees, J. G. (1998). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Comments and suggestions contributed from the Social Entrepreneurship Funders Working Group.Google Scholar
  22. Dees, G. J. (2001). Mobilizing resources. In G. J. Dees, J. Emerson, & P. Economy (Eds.), Enterprising nonprofits (pp. 63–102). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Dees, J. G. (2007). Taking social entrepreneurship seriously. Society, 44(3), 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dees, J. G., Anderson, B. B., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2004). Scaling social impact. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1(4), 24–33.Google Scholar
  25. DeMoss, M. A., & McCann, G. K. (1997). Without a care in the world: The business ethics course and its exclusion of a care perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(4), 435–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duflo, E. (2010). Lutter contre la pauvreté : Le développement humain. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  27. Dutton, J. E., Worline, M. C., Frost, P. J., & Lilius, J. (2006). Explaining compassion organizing. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(1), 59.Google Scholar
  28. Ebrahim, A., & Rangan, V. K. (2011). The limits of non profit impact: A contingency framework for measuring social performance, HBS Working Paper Series: p 52, Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  29. Elkington, J., & Hartigan, P. (2008). The power of unreasonable people: How social entrepreneurs create markets that change the world. Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  30. Emmanuelli, X. (2012). S’en fout la mort. Editions Les Echappés.Google Scholar
  31. Fischer, B., & Tronto, J. (1991). Towards a feminist theory of care. In E. Abel & M. Nelson (Eds.), Circles of care: Work and identity in women’s lives. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  32. Foote, D. (2001). The question of ethical hypocrisy in human resource management in the U.K. and Irish charity sectors. Journal of Business Ethics, 34(1), 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fowler, A. (2000). NGDOs as a moment in history: Beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation? Third World Quarterly, 21(4), 637–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Freeman, R. E., & Liedtka, J. (1991). Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach. Business Horizons, 34(4), 92–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. French, W., & Weis, A. (2000). An ethics of care or an ethics of justice. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(1/2), 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gaylin, W. (1976). Caring. New York: Alfred A.Google Scholar
  37. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gilligan, C. (1995). Hearing the difference: Theorizing connection. Hypatia, 10(2), 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gittell, J. H., & Douglass, A. (2012). Relational bureaucracy: Structuring reciprocal relationships into roles. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 709–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goetz, J. L., Keltner, D., & Simon-Thomas, E. (2010). Compassion: An evolutionary analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grant, A. M. (2012). Giving time, time after time: Work design and sustained employee participation in corporate volunteering. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 589–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamington, M. (2006). Socializing care: Feminist ethics and public issues. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.Google Scholar
  43. Hamington, M., & Sander-Staudt, M. (2011). Applying care ethics to business (1st ed.). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harris, J. D., Sapienza, H. J., & Bowie, N. E. (2009). Ethics and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holt, S., & Marques, J. (2011). Empathy in leadership: Appropriate or misplaced? An empirical study on a topic that is asking for attention. Journal of Business Ethics, 105, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Joyner, B. E., Payne, D., & Raiborn, C. A. (2002). Building values, business ethics and corporate social responsibility into the developing organization. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(1), 113.Google Scholar
  47. Kahn, W. A. (1993). Caring for the caregivers: Patterns of organizational caregiving. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 539–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kittay, E. F. (2001). When caring is just and justice is caring: Justice and mental retardation. Public Culture, 13(3), 557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kohlberg, L. (1981). The philosophy of moral development: Moral stages and the idea of justice. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  50. Kolvereid, L. (1996). Organizational employment versus self-employment: Reasons for career choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20, 23–32.Google Scholar
  51. Kopp, W. (2003). One day, all children: The unlikely triumph of Teach for America and what I learnt along the way. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  52. Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. (1967). Differentiation and integration in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12, 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lawrence, T. B., & Maitlis, S. (2012). Care and possibility: Enacting an ethic of care through narrative practice. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 641–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liedtka, J. M. (1996). Feminist morality and competitive reality: A role for an ethic of care? Business Ethics Quarterly, 6(2), 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lilius, J. M. (2012). Recovery at work: Understanding the restorative side of “depleting” client interactions. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 569–588.Google Scholar
  56. MacIntyre, A. C. (1984). After virtue. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  57. Madden, L. T., Duchon, D., Madden, T. M., & Plowman, D. A. (2012). Emergent organizational capacity for compassion. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 689–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McAllister, D. J., & Bigley, G. A. (2002). Work context and the definition of self: How organizational care influences organization-based self-esteem. The Academy of Management Journal, 45(5), 894–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meyerson, D. E., Berger, A., & Quinn, R. (2010). Playing the field: Implications of scale in the California charter school movement. In P. N. Bloom & E. Skloot (Eds.), Scaling social impact: New thinking (pp. 29–44). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  61. Miller, T. L., Grimes, M. G., McMullen, J. S., & Vogus, T. J. (2012). Venturing for others with heart and head: How compassion encourages social entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 616–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Molinier, P., Laugier, S. & Paperman, P. (2009). Qu’est-ce que le care ?: Souci des autres, sensibilité, responsabilité. Payot.Google Scholar
  63. Morris, M. H., Schindehutte, M., Walton, J., & Allen, J. (2002). The ethical context of entrepreneurship: Proposing and testing a developmental framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(4), 331–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mulgan, G. (2010). Measuring social value. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 8, 38.Google Scholar
  65. Noddings, N. (1984). Caring, a feminine approach to ethics & moral education. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  66. Noddings, N. (2002). Educating moral people: A caring alternative to character education. Williston: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  67. Ocasio, W. (1997). Towards an attention-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 18(S1), 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pache, A. C., & Chalencon, G. (2007). Changer d’échelle: Vers une typologie des stratégies d’expansion géographique des entreprises sociales. Mutualistes et Associatives (RECMA): Revue Internationale des Etudes Coopératives.Google Scholar
  69. Pache, A. C., & Chowdhury, I. (2012). Social entrepreneurs as institutionally embedded entrepreneurs: Toward a new model of social entrepreneurship education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3), 494–510.Google Scholar
  70. Pache, A. C. & Hansen, M. T. (2006). Scaling social enterprises: the case of ENVIE and ACTIF in France, INSEAD teaching case.Google Scholar
  71. Pache, A.-C., & Santos, F. (2010). When worlds collide: The internal dynamics of organizational responses to conflicting institutional demands. Academy of Management Review, 35(3), 455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Palmer, D. E., & Stoll, M. L. (2011). Moving toward a more caring stakeholder theory: Global business ethics in dialogue with the feminist ethics of care. Applying Care Ethics to Business, 34, 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Paperman, P., & Laugier-Rabaté, S. (2006). Le souci des autres: Ethique et politique du Care. Paris: Editions de l’Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales.Google Scholar
  74. Perrini, F., Vurro, C., & Costanzo, L. A. (2010). A process-based view of social entrepreneurship: From opportunity identification to scaling-up social change in the case of San Patrignano. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 22(6), 515–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. New York, NY: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  76. Pratt, M., Skoe, E., & Arnold, M. L. (2004). Care reasoning development and family socialisation patterns in later adolescence: A longitudinal analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(2), 140–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Puka, B. (2011). Taking care of business: Caring in competitive corporate structures. In M. Hamington & M. Sander-Staudt (Eds.), Applying care ethics to business (pp. 175–199). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 335–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sarason, S. B. (1977). Caring and compassion in clinical practice: Issues in the selection, training, and behavior of helping professionals. Northvale: Jason Aronson Incorporated.Google Scholar
  80. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest and the business cycle (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Sezgi, F., & Mair, J. (2010). To control or not control: a coordination perspective to scaling. In P. Bloom & E. Skloot (Eds.), Scaling social impact: New thinking (pp. 29–44). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  82. Shane, S., Locke, E. A., & Collins, C. J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  84. Simola, S. (2005). Concepts of care in organizational crisis prevention. Journal of Business Ethics, 62(4), 341–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Skoe, E. E. (2010). The relationship between empathy-related constructs and care-based moral development in young adulthood. Journal of Moral Education, 39(2), 191–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Skoe, E. E., Pratt, M. W., Matthews, M., & Curror, S. E. (1996). The ethic of care: Stability over time, gender differences, and correlates in mid-to late adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 11(2), 280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Slote, M. A. (2007). The ethics of care and empathy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Stievenart, E., Pache, A.C.(2013) Evaluer l’impact social d’une entreprise sociale : points de repères, working paper, ESSEC Business SchoolGoogle Scholar
  89. Stinchcombe, A. (1965). Social structure and organizations. In J. G. March (Ed.), The handbook of organizations. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company.Google Scholar
  90. Tracey, P., & Phillips, N. (2007). The distinctive challenge of educating social entrepreneurs: A postscript and rejoinder to the special issue on entrepreneurship education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(2), 264–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tronto, J. C. (1993). Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  92. Trougakos, J. P., & Hideg, I. (2009). Momentary work recovery: The role of within-day work breaks. In S. Sonnentag, P. L. Perrewe, & D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Current perspectives in job-stress recovery (pp. 37–84). Bingley: Emerald Publishing.Google Scholar
  93. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (2001). The focus of entrepreneurial research: Contextual and process issues. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 57–80.Google Scholar
  94. Valéau, P. (2003). Différentes manières de gérer les associations. Revue Française de Gestion, 29(146), 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weber, M. (1997). The theory of social and economic organization. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  96. Wei-Skillern, J. & Battle Anderson, B. “Social Enterprise Series no. 27: Nonprofit Geographic Expansion: Branches, Affiliates, or Both?” Harvard Business School Working Paper Series, No. 04-011, 2003.Google Scholar
  97. Wicks, A. C., Gilbert, D. R., & Freeman, R. E. (1994). A feminist reinterpretation of the stakeholder concept. Business Ethics Quarterly, 4(4), 475–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ESSEC Business SchoolCergy-PontoiseFrance

Personalised recommendations