Skip to main content

Ordinary Aristocrats: The Discursive Construction of Philanthropists as Ethical Leaders

Abstract

Philanthropic giving among leaders is often assumed to be an expression of ethical leadership in both academic and media discourses; however, this assumption can overlook the ways in which philanthropy produces and is underpinned by inequality. In order to extend current understandings of ethical leadership, this study employs a critical discourse analytic approach to examine how the link between philanthropy and ethical forms of leadership is verbally and visually constructed in the media. Based on the analysis, the article demonstrates how the construction of Australian philanthropists as ethical leaders is achieved through their representation via three paradoxical identities: Aristocratic Battlers; Caring Controllers; and Publicity-Shy Celebrities. These discourses are mediated by Australian cultural norms and serve to conceal yet ultimately reinforce social and economic inequality. The article proposes that a critical discursive approach to understanding leadership ethics can help to explore the hidden or adverse effects of ostensibly ethical practices.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Acott, K. (2013, October 15). $65 m gift. The West Australian, p. 1.

  • Adams, D. (2007, May 19). Private property. The Age.

  • Ailon-Souday, G., & Kunda, G. (2003). The local selves of global workers: The social construction of national identity in the face of organizational globalization. Organization Studies, 24(7), 1073–1096.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alvesson, M., & Kärreman, D. (2000a). Taking the linguistic turn in organizational research: Challenges, responses, consequences. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(2), 136–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alvesson, M., & Kärreman, D. (2000b). Varieties of discourse: On the study of organizations through discourse analysis. Human Relations, 53(9), 1125–1149.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alvesson, M., & Sveningsson, S. (2003). Good visions, bad micro-management and ugly ambiguity: Contradictions of (non-)leadership in a knowledge-intensive organization. Organization Studies, 24(6), 961–988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Auvinen, T. P., Lämsä, A.-M., Sintonen, T., & Takala, T. (2013). Leadership manipulation and ethics in storytelling. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 415–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker, C., & Liu, H. (2014, March 19). Will Andrew Forrest convince Australia’s billionaires to open their wallets? The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/mar/19/andrew-forrest-global-freedom-network-philanthropy. Accessed 16 April 2014.

  • Bell, A., & Garrett, P. (1998). Media and discourse: A critical overview. In A. Bell & P. Garrett (Eds.), Approaches to media discourse (pp. 1–20). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boland, M. (2011, July 1). A philanthropist’s review from Harold Mitchell. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/arts/a-philanthropists-review-from-harold-mitchell/story-e6frg8n6-1226085122345. Accessed 17 Dec 2013.

  • Bono, J. E., Shen, W., & Snyder, M. (2010). Fostering integrative community leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(2), 324–335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Bourdieu, P. (2001). Practical reason. Oxford: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Breit, E. (2010). On the (re)construction of corruption in the media: A critical discursive approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4), 619–635.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, M. E., & Mitchell, M. S. (2010). Ethical and unethical leadership: Exploring new avenues for future research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 583–616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595–616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Browne, R. (2013, April 20). No glamour but all heart. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 2.

  • Campbell, D., Moore, G., & Metzger, M. (2002). Corporate philanthropy in the UK 1985–2000: Some empirical findings. Journal of Business Ethics, 39(1/2), 29–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, S. (2010). The role of ethical leadership versus institutional constraints: A simulation study of financial misreporting by CEOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(1), 33–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, C. C., & Meindl, J. R. (1991). The construction of leadership images in the popular press: The case of Donald Burr and People Express. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(4), 521–551.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Childhood ordeal was a lesson in sharing. (2007, November 21). The Australian, p. 5.

  • Choi, J., & Wang, H. (2007). The promise of a managerial values approach to corporate philanthropy. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4), 345–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clegg, S., & Pharoah, C. (2006). International comparisons of charitable giving. Kent: Charities Aid Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connell, R. W. (2002). Moloch mutates: Global capitalism and the evolution of the Australian ruling class, 1977–2002. Overland, 167, 4–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Angelo Fisher, L. (2013, November 14). A gift out of giving. Business Review Weekly, p. 55.

  • Denison, D., R., Hooijberg, R., & Quinn, R. E. (1995). Paradox and performance: toward a theory of behavioural complexity in managerial leadership. Organization Science, 6(5), 524–540.

  • Dodd, T. (2013, November 15). Health centres get Poche treatment. Australian Financial Review, p. 3.

  • Eisenbeiss, S. A. (2012). Re-thinking ethical leadership: An interdisciplinary integrative approach. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 791–808.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. The Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairclough, N. (1992). Critical language awareness. London: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairclough, N. (1995). Media discourse. London: Edward Arnold.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairhurst, G. T., & Grant, D. (2010). The social construction of leadership: A sailing guide. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(2), 171–210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fairhurst, G. T., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2012). Organizational discourse analysis (ODA): Examining leadership as a relational process. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(6), 1043–1062.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, A. (2012, October 24). Rich Americans leave stingy Aussies in wake. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 8.

  • Fletcher, J. K. (2004). The paradox of postheroic leadership: An essay on gender, power, and transformational change. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(5), 647–661.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J. D., & Backoff, R. W. (1988). Organizational change in and out of dualities and paradox. In R. E. Quinn & K. S. Cameron (Eds.), Paradox and transformation: Toward a theory of change in organization and management (pp. 81–121). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forrests’ gesture should inspire others to follow. (2013, October 16). The West Australian, p. 26.

  • Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–727.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fry, L. W., & Cohen, M. P. (2009). Spiritual leadership as a paradigm for organizational transformation and recovery from extended work hours cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(2), 265–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fry, L. W., Vitucci, S., & Cedillo, M. (2005). Spiritual leadership and army transformation: Theory, measurement, and establishing a baseline. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 835–862.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 32–58.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M., & Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1120–1145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garner, S. (2007). Whiteness: An introduction. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garvey, P. (2013, May 9). Power behind Forrest’s legacy. The Australian, p. 17.

  • Gautier, A., & Pache, A.-C. (2013). Research on corporate philanthropy: A review and assessment. Journal of Business Ethics, 61, 29–44.

  • Generous Twiggy’s burden of billions. (2013, October 15). Australian Associated Press.

  • Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldberg, E. (2014, March 19). Bill Gates: It’s fulfilling to “take from the most wealthy and give to the least wealthy.” The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/19/bill-gates-ted2014_n_4993934.html. Accessed 16 April 2014.

  • Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. (Q. Hoare & G. N. Smith, Eds.). New York: International Publisher.

  • Grant, D., Hardy, C., Oswick, C., & Putnam, L. (2004). The Sage handbook of organizational discourse. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gunn, S. (2005). Translating Bourdieu: Cultural capital and the English middle class in historical perspective. The British Journal of Sociology, 56(1), 49–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guthey, E., & Jackson, B. (2005). CEO portraits and the authenticity paradox. Journal of Management Studies, 42(5), 1057–1082.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, C., Harley, B., & Phillips, N. (2004). Discourse analysis and content analysis: Two solitudes? Qualitative Methods, 2(1), 19–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hare, J., & Lane, B. (2013, March 13). The most influential in higher education. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/top50/2013/education. Accessed 17 April 2014.

  • Heathcote, A. (2013, February 14). How the Rich Invest: Graham Tuckwell. Business Review Weekly.

  • Hewett, J. (2010, January 30). Lowy espouses need for input to society. The Australian, p. 25.

  • Hewett, J. (2013a, October 14). Forrests’ $65 m giveaway to University of Western Australia. The Australian Financial Review. http://www.afr.com/p/forrests_giveaway_to_university_GNV5ri71bCuddGwbi7c70I. Accessed 19 Dec 2013.

  • Hewett, J. (2013b, October 15). Billionaire Andrew Forrest donates biggest ever grant to UWA. The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/business/billionaire-andrew-forrest-donates-biggest-ever-grant-to-uwa-20131015-2vjb8.html#ixzz2nthWwGyn. Accessed 17 Jan 2014.

  • Hill, R., & Doyle, L. (2011). Strategies for increasing high net worth and ultra high net worth giving. Commonwealth Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs.

  • Humphreys, M., & Brown, A. D. (2002). Dress and identity: A Turkish case study. Journal of Management Studies, 39(7), 927–952.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iedema, R. (2007). On the multi-modality, materially and contingency of organization discourse. Organization Studies, 28(6), 931–946.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jameson, J. (2010, September). Passing the bucks. The Sydney Magazine, 89, 48–54.

  • Jaworski, A., & Coupland, N. (1999). Introduction: Perspectives on discourse analysis. In A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (Eds.), The discourse reader (pp. 1–44). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jayasuriya, L., Walker, D., & Gothard, J. (Eds.). (2003). Legacies of White Australia: Race, culture and nation. Crawley, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jepson, D. (2009). Studying leadership at cross-country level: A critical analysis. Leadership, 5(1), 61–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, G. (2013, February 5). $50 million donation for Australian National University. Fundraising & Philanthropy Magazine. http://www.fpmagazine.com.au/50-million-donation-for-australian-national-university-316794/. Accessed 14 April 2014.

  • Johnston, C. (2009, August 21). Mitchell tells all about a life lived large. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/national/mitchell-tells-all-about-a-life-lived-large-20090820-es2f.html. Accessed 8 April 2014.

  • Jones, C. A. (2005). Wisdom paradigms for the enhancement of ethical and profitable business practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(4), 363–375.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Josephson, M. (2010). The Robber Barons: The great American capitalists, 1861–1901. New Jersey: Transaction Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1996). Ethical dimensions of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keenan, C. (2010, August 7). The art of giving needs to spread and get stronger, says Balnaves. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 12.

  • Kirkhaug, R. (2010). Charisma or group belonging as antecedents of employee work effort? Journal of Business Ethics, 96(4), 647–656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kitney, D. (2012, January 28). Family matters but Schwartz carves her own path. The Australian, p. 25.

  • Knights, D., & O’Leary, M. (2006). Leadership, ethics and responsibility to the Other. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(2), 125–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kress, G., Leite-García, R., & van Leeuwen, T. (1997). Discourse semiotics. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process. Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (Vols. 1–2, pp. 257–291). London: Sage.

  • Kriger, M., & Seng, Y. (2005). Leadership with inner meaning: A contingency theory of leadership based on the worldviews of five religions. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 771–806.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kwek, D. (2003). Decolonizing and re-presenting culture’s consequences: A postcolonial critique of cross- cultural studies in management. In A. Prasad (Ed.), Postcolonial theory and organizational analysis: A critical engagement (pp. 121–146). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liffman, M. (2004). A tradition of giving: Seventy-five years of Myer Family philanthropy. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liffman, M. (2007, May 16). Philanthropic paradox. The Australian, p. 26.

  • Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindsay, N., & Butler, B. (2008, September 27). Coast ebb and flow. Herald Sun, p. 3.

  • Liu, H. (2010). When leaders fail: A typology of failures and framing strategies. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(2), 232–259.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Livingstone, T. (2011, March 5). Portraits of power. The Australian Magazine, 22.

  • Livingstone, N. (2013). Capital’s charity. Capital & Class, 37(3), 347–353.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Macdonald, E. (2013a, February 5). I could have bought a yacht… but then how could I sit in church? The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/act-news/i-could-have-bought-a-yacht-but-then-how-could-i-sit-in-church-20130205-2dvg3.html. Accessed 21 Jan 2014.

  • Macdonald, E. (2013b, February 6). Gasps at ANU old boys $50 m for scholarships. The Canberra Times, p. A001.

  • Marszalek, J. (2013, February 6). $50 m giveaway: Hopes generous gesture will be inspiration for others. The Advertiser, p. 11.

  • McKenna, B., Rooney, D., & Boal, K. B. (2009). Wisdom principles as a meta-theoretical basis for evaluating leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 177–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meacham, S. (2008, March 1). The retiring philanthropist. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 31.

  • Mitchell, H. (2013, July 12). A half-century of hard work has been a gift, not a demand. The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/business/media-and-marketing/a-halfcentury-of-hard-work-has-been-a-gift-not-a-demand-20130712-2pu8c.html#ixzz2ntowj9Pd. Accessed 19 Dec 2013.

  • Morris, L. (2010, October 23). Feminism turns capitalist. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 19.

  • Morvaridi, B. (2012). Capitalist philanthropy and hegemonic partnerships. Third World Quarterly, 33(7), 1191–1210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nancarrow, K. (2007, July 2). Auction ear. The Age.

  • Narayan, U. (2000). Undoing the “package picture” of cultures. Signs, 25(4), 1083–1086.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Odendahl, T. (1989). Charitable giving patterns by elites in the United States. In V. A. Hodgkinson & R. W. Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector: Challenges, changes, and policy considerations (pp. 416–429). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ostrander, S. A. (1989). The problem of poverty and why philanthropy neglects it. In V. A. Hodgkinson & R. W. Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector: Challenges, changes, and policy considerations (pp. 219–236). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ostrander, S. A. (2007). The growth of donor control: Revisiting the social relations of philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(2), 356–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ostrower, F. (1995). Why the wealthy give: The culture of elite philanthropy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Our heroes philanthropic. (2013, March 25). Herald Sun, p. 43.

  • Parry, K. W., & Bryman, A. (2006). Leadership in organizations. In S. Clegg (Ed.), The sage handbook of organization studies (2nd ed., pp. 447–468). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peeters, B. (2004). Tall poppies and egalitarianism in Australian discourse: From key word to cultural value. English World-Wide, 25(1), 1–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perkin, C. (2007, June 9). Private passions. The Australian, p. 1.

  • Perkin, C. (2009, May 30). Every gift makes a difference. The Australian, p. 21.

  • Phillips, N., & Hardy, C. (2002). Discourse analysis: Investigating processes of social construction. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 56–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quinn, K. (2007, March 12). Sold on giving. The Age.

  • Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655–687.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richard Pratt: From refugee to corporate royalty. (2009, April 28). Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) News. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-04-28/richard-pratt-from-refugee-to-corporate-royalty/1666234. Accessed 14 April 2014.

  • Rochfort, S. (2010, May 31). Man with a past wins them over. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 2.

  • Salamon, L. M. (1992). America’s nonprofit sector: A primer. New York: Foundation Center.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarros, J. C., Densten, I. L., & Santora, J. C. (1999). Leadership and values: Australian executives and the balance of power, profits and people. Sydney: Harper Business.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schervish, P. G. (2007). Is today’s philanthropy failing beneficiaries? Always a risk, but not for the most part. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(2), 373–379.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shields, J., & Harvey, A. (2010). Succumbing to the burden of foreignness: A social constructionist analysis of Australian print media representations of Telstra CEO, Sol Trujillo. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(2), 288–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siltaoja, M. E., & Vehkaperä, M. J. (2010). Constructing illegitimacy? Cartels and cartel agreements in Finnish business media from critical discursive perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4), 493–511.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sinclair, A. (2012). Leading with body. In E. Jeanes, D. Knights, & P. Yancey Martin (Eds.), Handbook of Gender, Work and Organization (pp. 117–130). Chicester: Wiley.

  • Skeggs, B. (2004). Class, self, culture. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, S. (2013, July 18). Social agenda helped by iron ore wealth. The West Australian, p. 63.

  • Spangler, W. D., Gupta, A., Kim, D. H., & Nazarian, S. (2012). Developing and validating historiometric measures of leader individual differences by computerized content analysis of documents. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(6), 1152–1172.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steffens, M. (2011, June 4). Philanthropy is big business—Except in corporate Australia. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 8.

  • Stensholt, J. (2013, August 17). Change agent provocateur. Australian Financial Review, p. 48.

  • Stewart, C. (2007, October 6). Richard Pratt profile: A rich man’s world. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/richard-pratt-a-rich-mans-world/story-e6frg6z6-1225701033257. Accessed 15 Jan 2014.

  • Students could get $100,000 in new award. (2013, March 6). The Canberra Times, p. A003.

  • Takala, T., Tanttu, S., Lämsä, A.-M., & Virtanen, A. (2013). Discourses of charisma: Barack Obama’s first 6 months as the President of the USA. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(1), 149–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Talbot, M. (2007). Media discourse: Representation and interaction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thorup, M. (2013). Pro Bono? On philanthrocapitalism as ideological answer to inequality. Ephemera, 13(3), 555–576.

    Google Scholar 

  • Titscher, S., Meyer, M., Wodak, R., & Vetter, E. (2000). Methods of text and discourse analysis, (B. Jenner, Trans.). London: Sage.

  • Tracy, S. J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837–851.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trenoweth, S. (2008, May 2). Helping hands. Wish Magazine, p. 26.

  • Treviño, L. K., Brown, M. E., & Hartman, L. P. (2003). A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite. Human Relations, 56(1), 5–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treviño, L. K., Butterfield, K. D., & McCabe, D. L. (1998). The ethical context in organizations: Influences on employee attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3), 447–476.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treviño, L. K., Hartman, L. P., & Brown, M. E. (2000). Moral person and moral manager: How executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review, 42(4), 128–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Dijk, T. A. (1997). The study of discourse. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process. Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (Vols. 1–2, pp. 1–34). London: Sage.

  • Van Leeuwen, T. (2005). Introducing social semiotics. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker, D. (2003). Race building and the disciplining of White Australia. In L. Jayasuriya, D. Walker, & J. Gothard (Eds.), Legacies of White Australia: Race, culture and nation (pp. 33–50). Crawley, WA: University of Western Australia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, H., & Qian, C. (2011). Corporate philanthropy and corporate financial performance: The roles of stakeholder response and political access. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), 1159–1181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Westwood, M. (2012, September 25). Council’s new chief wants to lead from behind in support of cultural life. The Australian, p. 17.

  • Whitman, K. (2013). The “Aussie battler” and the hegemony of centralising working-class masculinity in Australia: Gender, class, mainstreaming and the axis of visibility in Kenny. Australian Feminist Studies, 28(75), 50–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, S. (2011, December 30). $750 m man sells joy of giving. The Australian, p. 15.

  • Winter, R. (2011). The principled legal firm: Insights into the professional ideals and ethical values of partners and lawyers. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(2), 297–306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2009). Critical discourse analysis: History, agenda, theory and methodology. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (2nd ed., pp. 1–33). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, S. (2011). Wisdom displayed through leadership: Exploring leadership-related wisdom. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(4), 616–632.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yates, S. (2013, July 25). Scholars have done Tuck-well. In Woroni. http://www.woroni.com.au/news/scholars-have-done-tuck-well/. Accessed 21 Jan 2014.

  • Young, L. (2013, May 27). Universities look to wealthy to open their wallets. The Age, p. 18.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Helena Liu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, H., Baker, C. Ordinary Aristocrats: The Discursive Construction of Philanthropists as Ethical Leaders. J Bus Ethics 133, 261–277 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2394-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2394-2

Keywords

  • Ethics
  • Discourse
  • Leadership
  • Media
  • Philanthropy
  • Spirituality
  • Wisdom