Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 131, Issue 3, pp 625–648 | Cite as

Defining CSR: Problems and Solutions

  • Benedict Sheehy
Article

Abstract

The ubiquity of the term CSR threatens its carrying any distinctive meaning. Despite its long history no consensus has been developed among the industry participants, academics or other interested parties. After a careful review of the complications and complexities of the CSR debate and distinct disciplinary definitions, the article turns to approach the problem of definition using the philosophy of science. It applies a scientific definitional approach of genus, differentia and species to arrive at a definition of CSR as international private business self-regulation. The article provides an overview of the implications of this definition on CSR as a field of study, a management practice and an approach to improving the dialogue concerning the social contribution of business.

Keywords

CSR Regulation Self-regulation Private law Private politics Definitions Philosophy of knowledge 

References

  1. Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amstutz, M. (2011). The double movement in global law: The case of European corporate social responsibility. In C. Joerges & J. Falke (Eds.), Karl Polanyi, globalisation and the potential of law in transnational markets. Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Aristotle. (1989). Topica (E. S. Forster, Trans.) (Loeb Classical Library. Ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Auld, G., Bernstein, S., & Cashore, B. (2008). The new corporate social responsibility. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 33, 413–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avetisyan, E., & Ferrary, M. (2013). Dynamics of stakeholders’ implications in the institutionalization of CSR field in France and in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics, 115, 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, R., & Cave, M. (1999). Understanding regulation: Theory, strategy, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ballinger, J. (2011). How civil society can help: Sweatship workers as globalization’s consequence. Harvard International Review, Summer, 33(2), 54–59.Google Scholar
  8. Basiago, A. D. (1995). Methods of defining ‘sustainability’. Sustainable Development, 3(3), 109–119. doi: 10.1002/sd.3460030302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bessire, D., & Mazuyer, E. (2012). Norms of corporate social responsibility: Densification or degeneration? In A. Guler & D. Crowther (Eds.), Business strategy and sustainability (developments in corporate governance and responsibility (Vol. 3, pp. 67–95). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  10. Bismuth, R. (2010). Mapping a responsibility of corporations for violations of international humanitarian law sailing between international and domestic legal orders. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 38(2), 203–226.Google Scholar
  11. Black, J. (2005). Regulatory innovation: A comparative analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blowfield, M. (2009). Business, corporate responsibility and poverty reduction. In J. C. Marques & P. Utting (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility and regulatory governance: Towards inclusive development?. Palgrave: Basingstoke.Google Scholar
  13. Brammer, S., Jackson, G., & Matten, D. (2012). Corporate social responsibility and institutional theory: New perspectives on private governance. Socio-Economic Review, 10(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler, H., & McChesney, F. (2010). Why they give at the office: Shareholder welfare and corporate philanthropy in the contractual theory of the corporation. In T. W. Joo & U.-I. Chu (Eds.), Corporate governance: Law, theory and policy (pp. 4–9). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Carr, A. (1968). Is business bluffing ethical? Harvard Business Review, 46, 145–153.Google Scholar
  16. Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional model of corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 4, 497–505.Google Scholar
  17. Carroll, AB. (1999). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business & Society, 38 doi: 10.1177/000765039903800303.
  18. Carroll, A. B. (2008). A history of corporate social responsibility: Concepts and practices. In A. Crane, A. McWilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon, & D. Siegel (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility (pp. 19–46). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Carson, T. (1993). Second thoughts about bluffing. Business Ethics Quarterly, 3(4), 317–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chua, W. (2006a). Extended performance reporting: A review of empirical studies. Sydney: Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia.Google Scholar
  21. Chua, W. (2006b). Extended performance reporting: An overview of techniques. Sydney: Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia.Google Scholar
  22. Coase, R. (1960). The problem of social cost. Journal of Law and Economics, 3(1), 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Copi, I. (1982). Introduction to logic. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. Crane, A., McWilliams, A., Matten, D., Moon, J., & Siegel, D. S. (2008a). The corporate social responsibility agenda. In A. Crane, A. McWilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon, & D. S. Siegel (Eds.), Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility (pp. 3–18). Oxford and NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crane, A., McWilliams, A., Matten, D., Moon, J., & Siegel, D. S. (Eds.). (2008b). Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility. Oxford and NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Crane, A., Palazzo, G., Spence, L. J., & Matten, D. (2014). Contesting the value of the shared value concept. California Management Review, 56(2), 130–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crifo, P., & Forge, V. D. (2012). The economics of corporate social responsibility: A survey. Ecole Polytechnique: Centre national de la Recherched Scientifique, Paris. Retrieved from http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/72/06/40/PDF/cahier_de_recherche_2012-21.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2013.
  28. Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(1), 1–13. doi: 10.1002/csr.132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Daly, H., & Cobb, J., Jr. (1989). For the common good: Redirecting the economy toward community, the environment, and a sustainable future. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, K. (1960). Can business afford to ignore social responsibilities? California Management Review, 2, 70–76. Spring.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, K. (1973). The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Academy of Management Journal, 16, 312–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Delmas, M. A., & Montiel, I. (2007). The diffusion of voluntary international management standards:responsible care, ISO 9000 and ISO 14001 in the chemical industry. Santa Barbara, CA: ISBER Publications, Institute for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research, UC Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  33. Dentchev, N. A. (2009). To what extent is business and society literature idealistic? Business and Society, 48, 10–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Detomasi, D. A. (2008). The political roots of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(4), 807–819. doi: 10.1007/s10551-007-9594-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Devinney, T. M., Auger, P., & Eckhardt, G. (2010). The myth of the ethical consumer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Djelic, M., & Sahlin-Andersson, K. (Eds.). (2006). Transnational governance: Institutional dynamics of regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Doane, D. (2005). The myth of CSR: The problem with assuming that companies can do well while also doing good is that markets don’t really work that way. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Fall, 23–29.Google Scholar
  38. Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implication. Academy of Management Review, 20, 65–91.Google Scholar
  39. Eabrasu, M. (2012). A moral pluralist perspective on corporate social responsibility: From good to controversial practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(4), 429–439. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1491-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eilbirt, H., & Parket, R. I. (1973). The practice of business: The current status of corporate social responsibility. Business Horizons, 16, 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Elkington, J. (1997). Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st century business. Oxford: Capstone.Google Scholar
  42. Esty, D. C. (2005). On Portney’s complaint: Reconceptualizing corporate social responsibility. In B. L. Hay, R. N. Stavins, & R. Veitor (Eds.), Environmental protection and the social responsibility of firms (pp. 137–144). Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  43. Feaver, D., & Sheehy, B. (2011). Designing effective regulation: A normative theory. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1954256.
  44. Fleming, P., & Jones, M. T. (2013). The end of corporate social responsibility: Crisis and critique. London, UK: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  45. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  46. Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine, 32–33, 122–126.Google Scholar
  47. Gallie, W. B. (1956). Essentially contested concepts. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 56, 167–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Garriga, E., & Melé, D. (2004). Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1/2), 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gjolberg, M. (2010). Varieties of corporate social responsibility (CSR): CSR meets the “Nordic Model”. Regulation & Governance, 4(2), 203–229. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5991.2010.01080.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Göbbels, M. (2002). Reframing corporate social responsibility: The contemporary conception of a fuzzy notion. Journal of Business Ethics, 44, 95–105.Google Scholar
  51. Gond, J.-P., Kang, N., & Moon, J. (2011). The government of self-regulation: On the comparative dynamics of corporate social responsibility. Economy and Society, 40(4), 640–671. doi: 10.1080/03085147.2011.607364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gond, J.-P., & Moon, J. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in retrospect and prospect: Exploring the life-cycle of an essentially contested concept. Nottingham, UK: University of Nottingham, International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility.Google Scholar
  53. Greer, J., & Bruno, K. (1996). Greenwash: Reality behind corporate environmentalism. New York: Apex Press.Google Scholar
  54. Gunningham, N. (1995). Environment, self-regulation, and the chemical industry: Assessing reponsible care. Law & Policy, 17(1), 57–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Haufler, V. (2009). The Kimberley process certification scheme: An innovation in global governance and conflict prevention. Journal of Business Ethics, 89, 403–416. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0401-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hausmann, D. (1992). The inexact and separate science of economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hay, B. L., Stavins, R. N., & Vietor, R. H. K. (Eds.). (2005). Environmental protection and the social responsibility of firms. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  58. Heal, G. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: An economic and financial framework. Geneva Papers Risk Insurance, 30, 387–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Horrigan, B. (2002). Fault lines in the intersection between corporate governance and social responsibility. University of New South Wales Law Journal, 25, 515–555.Google Scholar
  60. Horrigan, B. (2007). 21st century corporate social responsibility trends: An emerging comparative body of law and regulation on corporate responsibility, governance, and sustainability. Macquarie Journal of Business Law, 4, 85.Google Scholar
  61. Horrigan, B. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in the 21st century: Debates, models and practices across government, law and business. Cheltenham. UK; North Hampton, USA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  62. Howard-Grenville, J., Nash, J., & Coglianese, C. (2008). Constructing the license to operate: Internal factors and their influence on corporate environmental decisions. Law & Policy, 30(1), 73–107. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9930.2008.00270.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Huimin, G., & Ryan, C. (2011). Ethics and corporate social responsibility: An analysis of the views of Chinese hotel managers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 875–885. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ireland, P., & Pillay, R. (2009). Corporate social responsibility in a Neoliberal age. In P. Utting & J. C. Marques (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility and regulatory governance: Towards inclusive development? (pp. 77–104). New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. Kang, N., & Moon, J. (2012). Institutional complementarity between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility: A comparative institutional analysis of three capitalisms. Socio-Economic Review, 10(1), 85–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. King, A., & Lennox, M. (2000). Industry self-regulation without sanctions: The chemical industry’s responsible care program. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kirkton, J. J., & Trebilcock, M. (Eds.). (2004). Hard choices, soft law: Voluntary standards in global trade, environment and social governance. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  68. KPMG. (2013). Corporate responsibility reporting has become de facto law for business KPMG International Corporate Responsibility Reporting Survey 2011: KPMG International Cooperative.Google Scholar
  69. KPMG, & UNEP, (2006). Carrrots and sticks for starters: Current trends and approaches in voluntary and mandatory standards for sustainability reporting. South Africa: UNEP.Google Scholar
  70. Krugman, P. (2007). Who was Milton Friedman? New York Review of Books, 54(2), 340–342.Google Scholar
  71. Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lee, M.-D.P. (2008). A review of the theories of corporate social responsibility: Its evolutionary path and the road ahead. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(1), 53–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2007.00226.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Levy, D., & Kaplan, R. (2008). Corporate social responsibility and theories of global governance: Strategic contestation in global issue arenas. In A. Crane, A. McWilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon, & D. S. Siegel (Eds.), Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility (pp. 432–451). Oxford and NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lockett, A., Moon, J., & Visser, W. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in management research: Focus, nature, salience and sources of influence. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1), 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Margolis, J. D., Elfenbein, H. A., & Walsh, J. P. (2009). Does it pay to be good—and does it matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between corporate social and financial performance. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1866371.
  76. Mark-Ungericht, B., & Weiskopf, R. (2007). Filling the empty shell. The public debate on CSR in Austria as a paradigmatic example of a political discourse. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(3), 285–297. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9111-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Matten, D., & Crane, A. (2005). Corporate citizenship: Toward an extended theoretical conceptualization. The Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 166–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Matten, D., Crane, A., & Chapple, W. (2003). Behind the mask: Revealing the true face of corporate citizenship. Journal of Business Ethics, 45(1), 109–120. doi: 10.1023/a:1024128730308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). ‘Implicit’ and ‘Explicit’ CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117–127. doi: 10.2307/259398.Google Scholar
  81. Mil-Homens, J. L. (2011). Labeling Schemes or Labeling Scams? Auditors’ Perspectives on ISO 14001 Certification. (Doctor of Philosophy), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.Google Scholar
  82. Moon, J. (2004). Government as a driver of corporate social responsibility. Nottingham, UK: International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility, University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
  83. Moon, J., & Vogel, D. (2008). Corporate social responsibility, government and civil society. In A. Crane, A. McWilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon, & D. S. Siegel (Eds.), Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility (pp. 303–326). Oxford and NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Muhle, U. (2011). The politics of corporate social responsibility: The rise of a global business norm. Frankfurt New York: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  85. Nelson, J. (2008). CSR and public policy: New forms of engagement between business and government. Cambridge, MA: John F Kennedy School of Government, Havard University.Google Scholar
  86. Nicholls, A., & Opal, C. (2005). Fair trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  87. O’Dwyer, B. (2003). Conceptions of corporate social responsibility: the nature of managerial capture. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 16, 523–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Obe, R. M. (2004). Still vague and imprecise notion of corporate social responsibility. International Business Lawyer, 32, 236–237.Google Scholar
  89. OECD. (1999). Voluntary approaches for environmental policy: An assessment. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  90. OECD. (2003). Voluntary approaches for environmental policy: Effectiveness, efficicency and usage in policy mixes. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  91. Okoye, A. (2010). Theorising corporate social responsibility as an essentially contested concept: Is a definition necessary? Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 613–627. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-0021-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Osuji, O. (2011). Fluidity of regulation-CSR nexus: The multinational corporate corruption example. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(1), 31–57. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0840-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Palazzo, G., & Richter, U. (2005). CSR business as usual? the case of the tobacco industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 61(4), 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Parsons, T. (1961). An outline of the social system. In T. Parsons, E. Shils, K. Naegle, & J. Pitts (Eds.), Theories of society. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  95. Peters, A., & Ros, D. (2010). the role of governments in promoting corporate responsibility and private sector engagement in development. http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/news_events/8.1/UNGC_Bertelsmannn.pdf. Retrieved 10 Oct 2012.
  96. Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (Eds.). (2009). Health and inequality major themes in health and social welfare. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  97. Pitts, J. (2009a). Corporate social responsibility: Current status and future evolution. Rutgers Journal of Law and Public Policy, 6(2), 334–433.Google Scholar
  98. Pitts, J. (Ed.). (2009b). Corporate social responsibility: A legal analysis. Toronto: LexisNexis.Google Scholar
  99. Porter, M., & Kramer, M. (2006). Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84, 78–92.Google Scholar
  100. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 89, 62–77.Google Scholar
  101. Portney, P. R. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: An economic and public policy perspective. In B. L. Hay, R. N. Stavins, & R. Veitor (Eds.), Environmental protection and the social responsibility of firms (pp. 107–132). Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  102. Portney, P. R. (2008). The (Not So) new corporate social responsibility: An empirical perspective. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 2(2), 261–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pratap, S. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and the political agenda of the corporate CSR Research Paper Series No 3. Hong Kong: Asia Monitor Resource Centre.Google Scholar
  104. PRI Association. Principles for Responsible Investment. Retrieved 20 May 2013, from www. unpri.org.Google Scholar
  105. Ratner, S. (2001). Corporations and human rights: A theory of legal responsibility? Yale Law Journal, 111(2), 443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Redmond, P. (2012). Directors’ duties and corporate social responsiveness. UNSW Law Journal, 35(1), 170.Google Scholar
  107. Reinhardt, F. L., Stavins, R. N., & Vietor, R. H. K. (2008). Corporate social responsibility through an economic lens. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 2(2), 219–239. doi: 10.1093/reep/ren008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sahlin-Andersson, K. (2006). Corporate social responsibility: A trend and a movement, but of what and for what? Corporate Governance, 6(5), 595–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Scherer, A. G., & Palazzo, G. (2011). The new political role of business in a globalized World: A review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm, governance, and democracy. Journal of Management Studies, 48(4), 899–931. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00950.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Segon, M. J., & Booth, C. (2009). Business ethics and CSR as part of MBA curricula: An analysis of student preference. Journal of Business and Policy Research, 5(3), 72–81.Google Scholar
  111. Selznick, P. (1969). Law, society and industrial justice. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  112. Sethi, S. P. (2011). Self-regluation through voluntary codes. In S. P. Sethi (Ed.), Globalization and self-regulation: The crucial role that corporate codes of conduct play in global business (pp. 3–16). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sethi, S. P., & Emelianova, O. (2006). A failed strategy of using voluntary codes of conduct by the global mining industry. Corporate Governance, 6(3), 226–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shamir, R. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: A case of hegemony and counter-hegemony. In B. De Sousa Santos & C. A. Rodríguez-Garavito (Eds.), Law and globalization from below: Towards a cosmopolitan legality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Shamir, R. (2011). Socially responsible private regulation: World-culture or World-capitalism? Law & Society Review, 45(2), 313–336. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5893.2011.00439.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sheehy, B. (2004). Corporations and social costs: The Wal-Mart case study. Journal of Law & Commerce, 24, 1–55.Google Scholar
  117. Sheehy, B. (2005). Scrooge: The reluctant stakeholder: Theoretical problems in the shareholder-stakeholder debate. University of Miami Business Law Review, 14(1), 193–241.Google Scholar
  118. Sheehy, B. (2006). The frightening inadequacy of economics as a worldview. Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 17(4), 445–464.Google Scholar
  119. Sheehy, B. (2007). Reconsidering the corporation and the lateral obligations of the social contract. The ICFAI Journal of Corporate and Securities law, 4(2), 7–31.Google Scholar
  120. Sheehy, B. (2010). Regulating the University: Examining the Regulatory Framework of Australian University Corporations. (PhD), Australian National University.Google Scholar
  121. Sheehy, B. (2012a). CSR and law: Alternative regulatory systems: SSRN Working Papers.Google Scholar
  122. Sheehy, B. (2012b). Interfaces between CSR, corporate law and the problem of social costs: SSRN Working Paper.Google Scholar
  123. Sheehy, B. (2012c). Understanding CSR: An empirical study of private self-regulation. Monash University Law Review, 38(2), 103–127.Google Scholar
  124. Sheehy, B. (2013). The role of government in making CSR effective: a model regulatory governance agency. http://ssrn.com/abstract=2315929. Accessed 25 Jan 2013.
  125. Sheehy, B., & Feaver, D. (2011). Designing effective regulation: A normative theory. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1954254.
  126. Sheehy, B., & Feaver, D. P. (2014). Directors’ legal duties and CSR: Prohibited, permitted or prescribed? Dalhousie Law Journal, 37(1), 148.Google Scholar
  127. Sommer, A. A., Jr. (1991). Whom should the corporation serve?: The Berle-Dodd debate revisited sixty years later. Delaware Journal of Corporate Law, 16, 33–56.Google Scholar
  128. Soule, S. (2009). Contention and corporate social responsibility. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Steurer, R. (2010). The role of governments in corporate social responsibility: Characterising public policies on CSR in Europe. Policy Sciences, 43(1), 49–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tallontire, A. (2007). CSR and regulation: Towards a framework for understanding private standards initiatives in the agri-food chain. Third World Quarterly, 28(4), 775–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. UNEP. (2000). Voluntary initiatives: Current status, lessons learnt and next steps. Paris: UNEP.Google Scholar
  132. United Nations Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights. (2003). Norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights. 2003/16, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/L.l 1, at 52 (2003).Google Scholar
  133. Utting, P., & Marques, J. C. (2009). Introduction: The intellectual crisis of CSR. In P. Utting & J. C. Marques (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility and regulatory governance: Towards inclusive development?. UK: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. van Marrewijk, M. (2003). Concepts and definitions of CSR and corporate sustainability: Between agency and communion. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2), 95–105. doi: 10.1023/a:1023331212247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Varadarajan, P. R., & Menon, A. (1988). Cause-related marketing: A coalignment of marketing strategy and corporate philanthropy. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Vogel, D. (2008). Private global business regulation. Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 261–282. doi: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.11.053106.141706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Vogel, D. (2010). The private regulation of global corporate conduct: Achievements and limitations. Business Society, 49(1), 68–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wartick, S. L., & Cochran, P. L. (1985). The evolution of the corporate social performance model. The Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 758–769.Google Scholar
  139. Webb, K. (Ed.). (2004). Voluntary codes: Private governance, the public interest and innovation. Ottawa: Carleton Research Unit for Innovation, Science and Environment, Carleton University.Google Scholar
  140. Wells, C.A. H. (2002–2003). The cycles of corporate social responsibility: An historical retrospective for the twenty-first century. University of Kansas Law Review, 51, 77–140.Google Scholar
  141. Wells, C. A. H. (2013). ‘Corporations Law is Dead’: Heroic managerialism, the cold war, and the puzzle of corporation law at the height of the American Century. University of Pennsylvania Journal Business Law Review, 15, 2.Google Scholar
  142. Whitehouse, L. (2005). Corporate social responsibility as regulation: The argument from democracy. In J. O’Brien (Ed.), Governing the corporation (pp. 141–162). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  143. Wilkinson, R. G. (1996). Unhealthy societies: The affliction of inequality. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Witt, M. A., & Redding, Gordon. (2012). The spirits of corporate social responsibility: Senior executive perceptions of the role of the firm in society in Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and the USA. Socio-Economic Review, 10(1), 109–134. doi: 10.1093/ser/mwr026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wood, D. J. (1991). Corporate social performance revisited. Academy of Management Review, 16, 691–718.Google Scholar
  146. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Yang, J. S., & Malone, R. E. (2008). “Working to shape what society’s expectations of us should be”: Philip Morris’ societal alignment strategy. Tobacco Control, 17(6), 391–398. doi: 10.1136/tc.2008.026476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Young, S., & Marais, M. (2012). A multi-level perspective of CSR reporting: The implications of national institutions and industry risk characteristics. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 20(5), 432–450. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8683.2012.00926.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zerk, J. (2006). Multinationals and corporate responsibility: Limitations and opportunities in international law. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Business and LawRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations