Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 129, Issue 4, pp 811–822 | Cite as

Discourses of Collective Spirituality and Turkish Islamic Ethics: An Inquiry into Transcendence, Connectedness, and Virtuousness in Anatolian Tigers

Article

Abstract

Based on case studies and qualitative interviews conducted with 40 stakeholders in five SMEs, or so called Anatolian tigers, in Turkey, this article has explored what collective spirituality and Turkish Islamic business ethics entail and how they shape organizational values using diverse stakeholder perspectives. The study has revealed six emergent discourses around collective spirituality and Islamic business ethics: Flying with both wings; striving to transcend egos; being devoted to each other; treating people as whole persons; upholding an ethics of compassion; and leaving a legacy for future generations. These discourses are organized around three themes of collective spirituality, respectively: Transcendence, connectedness, and virtuousness.

Keywords

Spirituality at work Islam Turkey Anatolian tigers Ethical discourses 

References

  1. Abdallah, C., Denis, J., & Langley, A. (2011). Having your cake and eating it too: Discourses of transcendence and their role in organizational change dynamics. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24(3), 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Mutawa, F. S. (2013). Consumer-generated representations: Muslim women recreating western luxury fashion brand meaning through consumption. Psychology & Marketing, 30(3), 236–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arslan, M. (2001). The work ethic values of protestant British, Catholic Irish and muslim Turkish managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 31, 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bateman, C. L., & Porath, T. (2003). Transcendent behaviors at work. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  5. Beekun, R., & Badawi, J. (2005). Balancing ethical responsibility among multiple organization stakeholders: The Islamic perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 60, 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bilefsky, D., (2006, August 27). Turks knock on Europe’s door with evidence that Islam and capitalism can coexist. New York Times.Google Scholar
  7. Bilici, M. (2006). The Fethullah Gülen movement and its politics of representation in Turkey. The Muslim World, 96(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cokgezen, M. (2000). New fragmentation and new cooperation in the Turkish bourgeoisie. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 18, 525–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collins, D. (2010). Designing ethical organizations for spiritual growth and superior performance: An organization systems approach. Journal of Management, Spirituality, and Religion, 7(2), 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Comer, P. D. (2008). Workplace spirituality and business ethics: Insights from an Eastern spiritual tradition. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 377–389.Google Scholar
  11. Demir, O., Acar, M., & Toprak, M. (2004). Anatolian tigers or Islamic capital: Prospects and challenges. Middle Eastern Studies, 40(6), 166–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duran, B., & Yildirim, E. (2005). Islamism, trade unionism and civil society: The case of Hak-Is labour confederation in Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 41(2), 227–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dutton, J. E. (2003). Energize your workplace: How to create and sustain high quality connections at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Dutton, J. E., & Heaphy, E. D. (2003). The power of high quality connections. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 263–278). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  15. ESI. (2005). ‘Islamic calvinists. Change and conservatism in Central Anatolia. Istanbul, Brussels, Berlin: European stability initiative’. http://www.esiweb.org/pdf/esi_document_id_69.pdf.
  16. Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  17. Gökariksel, B., & McLarney, E. (2010). Muslim women, consumer capitalism, and the Islamic culture industry. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 6(3), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gulay, E. N. (2007). The Gülen phenomenon: A neo-sufi challenge to Turkey’s rival elite? Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, 16(1), 37–61.Google Scholar
  19. Gulen, F. (1991). ‘Those were the days (Hey gidi günler)’, Sermon at Hisar Mosque, Izmir. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMnEa1lQXxE.
  20. Henderson, J. C. (2010). Sharia-compliant hotels. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(3), 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hendrick, J. (2012). Islam, ambiguity, and social change in Turkey: The organizational practices of the Fethullah Gulen Movement’, in the Second ISA Forum of Sociology, Isaconf, August 1–4, 2012.Google Scholar
  22. Hoşgör, E. (2011). Islamic capital/Anatolian tigers: Past and present. Middle Eastern Studies, 47(2), 343–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Izak, M. (2012). Spiritual episteme: Sensemaking in the framework of organizational spirituality. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(1), 24–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jafari, A., & Süerdem, A. (2012). An analysis of material consumption culture in the Muslim world. Marketing Theory, 12(1), 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Judson, D. (2005, September 30). Islamic calvinism’ a paradoxical engine for change in conservative Central Anatolia. Turkish Daily News.Google Scholar
  26. Karakas, F. (2008). Reflections on zero and zero-centered spirituality in organizations. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal Incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness, 18(4), 367–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keyman, E. F., & Koyuncu, B. (2006). Globalization, alternative modernities and the political economy of Turkey. Review of International Political Economy, 12(1), 105–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kosebalan, H. (2007). The rise of Anatolian cities and the failure of the modernization paradigm. Middle East Critique, 16(3), 229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewis, R. (2010). Marketing Muslim lifestyle: A new media genre. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 6(3), 58–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu, C. H., & Robertson, P. J. (2011). Spirituality in the workplace: Theory and measurement. Journal of Management Inquiry, 20, 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Long, B. S., & Mills, J. H. (2010). Workplace spirituality, contested meaning, and the culture of organization: A critical sensemaking account. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 23(3), 325–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Metcalfe, B. D., & Syed, J. (2014). Globalization, development and Islamic business ethics: Call for papers for a special issue of Journal of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics. Google Scholar
  33. Miles, M., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  34. Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A. J., & Ferguson, J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 426–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999). A spiritual audit of corporate America: A hard look at spirituality, religion, and values in the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Özcan, Z. (2005). Akla ve paraya ihtiyacı olmayan sehir. Aksiyon, 64–75.Google Scholar
  37. Özcan, G. B., & Çokgezen, M. (2003). Limits to alternative forms of capitalization: The case of anatolian holding companies. World Development, 31(12), 2061–2084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pandya, S., & Gallagher, N. (2012). The Gülen Hizmet movement and its transnational activities: Case studies of altruistic activism in contemporary Islam. Boca Raton: Brown Walker Press.Google Scholar
  39. Park, N., & Peterson, C. M. (2003). Virtues and organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 33–47). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  40. Pavlovich, K., & Corner, P. D. (2009). Spiritual organizations and connectedness: The living nature experience. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 6(3), 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Provis, C. (2010). Virtuous decision making for business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sandikci, O., & Ger, G. (2007). Constructing and representing the Islamic consumer in Turkey. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, 11(2–3), 189–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sehlikoglu, S. (2013). Modern, feminine and Islamic: Female customers of “veiled” hotels in Turkey’, Working paper.Google Scholar
  44. Syed, J., & Ali, A. (2010). Principles of employment relations in Islam: A normative view. Employee Relations, 32(5), 454–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Turgut, P., (2007, April 22). Anatolian tigers. Financial Times.Google Scholar
  46. Uyar, H. (2012). The effects of akhism principles on today’s business life: A case in the Western Mediterranean region. In 3rd International Symposium on Sustainable Development, May 31–June 01 2012, Sarajevo.Google Scholar
  47. Uygur, S. (2009). The Islamic Work Ethic and the Emergence of Turkish SME Owner-Managers, Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 211–225.Google Scholar
  48. Williams, G., & Zinkin, J. (2010). Islam and CSR: A study of the compatibility between the tenets of Islam and the UN Global Compact. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(4), 519–533.Google Scholar
  49. Yavuz, M. H. (2004). Is there a Turkish Islam? The emergence of convergence and consensus. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 24(2), 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yavuz, M. H. (2013). Toward an Islamic enlightenment: The Gülen Movement. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwich Business SchoolUEANorwichEngland
  2. 2.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.School of BusinessQueen UniveristyKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations