Using data collected from 280 full-time employees from a variety of organizations, this study examined the effects of employee perceptions of the behavioral integrity (BI) of their supervisors on job tension. The moderating effect of procedural justice (PJ) on this relationship also was examined. Substitutes for leadership theory (Kerr and Jermier, 1978) and psychological contract theory (Rousseau, Empl Responsib Rights J 2:121–139, 1989) were used as the theoretical foundations for the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated a negative relationship between BI and job tension. PJ moderated this relationship such that it was weakened under conditions of high PJ. Implications for research and managers are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Andrews, M. C., Kacmar, K. M., & Harris, K. J. (2009). Got political skill? The impact of justice on the importance of political skill for job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1427–1437.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012a). Retrieved July 17, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/occupation_age.htm.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012b). Retrieved July 17, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/tenure.t05.htm.
Carlson, D., Ferguson, M., Hunter, E., & Whitten, D. (2012). Abusive supervision and work-family conflict: The path through emotional labor and burnout. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 849–859.
Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 386–400.
Davis, A., & Rothstein, H. (2006). The effects of the perceived behavioral integrity of managers on employee attitudes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(4), 407–419.
Detert, J. R., Treviño, L. K., Burris, E. R., & Andiappan, M. (2007). Managerial modes of influence and counterproductivity in organizations: A longitudinal business-unit-level investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 993–1005.
Dineen, B. R., Lewicki, R. J., & Tomlinson, E. C. (2006). Supervisory guidance and behavioral Integrity: Relationships with employee citizenship and deviant behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 622–635.
Evans, M. G. (1985). A Monte-Carlo study of correlated error in moderated multiple regression analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36, 305–323.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 28, 39–50.
Grant, A. M., & Mayer, D. M. (2009). Good soldiers and good actors: Prosocial and impression management motives as interactive predictors of affiliative citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 900–912.
Greenberg, J. (1987). Reactions to procedural injustice in payment distributions: do the means justify the ends? Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(1), 55–61.
Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16, 399–432.
Harris, K., Andrews, M., & Kacmar, K. M. (2007). The moderating effects of justice on the relationship between organizational politics and workplace attitudes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22(2), 135–144.
Hochwarter, W., Meurs, J., Perrewe, P., Royle, T., & Matherly, T. (2007). Attention control as a neutralizer of the anxiety-provoking consequences of others’ perceived entitlement behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 506–528.
Hochwarter, W. A., Rogers, L. M., Summers, J. K., Meurs, J. A., Perrewé, P. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2009). Personal control antidotes to the strain consequences of generational conflict as a stressor: A two-study constructive replication and extension. The Career Development International, 14(5), 465–486.
House, R., & Rizzo, J. (1972). Toward a measurement of organizational practices: Scale development and validation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 388–396.
Howell, J. P., Bowen, D. E., Dorfman, P. W., Kerr, S., & Podsakoff, P. M. (1990). Substitutes for leadership: Effective alternatives to ineffective leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 19(1), 20–38.
Howell, J. P., Dorfman, P. W., & Kerr, S. (1986). Moderator variables in leadership research. The Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 88–102.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to under parameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 424–453.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structural analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International.
Kannan-Narasimhan, R., & Lawrence, B. (2012). Behavioral integrity: How leader referents and trust matter to workplace outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(2), 165–178.
Kerr, S. (1974). Discussant comments. In J.G. Hunt & L.L. Larson (Eds.), Contingency approaches to leadership (pp. 124–129). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22, 375–403.
Kim, W., & Brymer, R. A. (2011). The effects of ethical leadership on manager job satisfaction, commitment, behavioral outcomes, and firm performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 1020–1026.
Leroy, H., Palanski, M., & Simons, T. (2012). Authentic leadership and behavioral integrity as drivers of follower commitment and performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 255–264.
Lester, S. W., Turnley, W. H., Bloodgood, J. M., & Bolino, M. C. (2002). Not seeing eye to eye: Differences in supervisor and subordinate perceptions of and attributions for psychological contract breach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 39–56.
Lind, E., & Tyler, T. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Lind, E. A., & Van den Bos, K. (2002). When fairness works: Toward a general theory of uncertainty management. In B. M. Staw & R. M. Kramer (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 24, pp. 181–223). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 114–121.
Loi, R., Lam, L., & Chan, K. (2012). Coping with job insecurity: The role of procedural justice, ethical leadership and power distance orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(3), 361–372.
Loi, R., & Ngo, H. (2010). Mobility norms, risk aversion, and career satisfaction of Chinese employees. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 27(2), 237–255.
Lyons, T. F. (1971). Role clarity, need for clarity, satisfaction, tension, and withdrawal. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6, 99–110.
Michel, J. S., Kotrba, L. M., Mitchelson, J. K., Clark, M. A., & Baltes, B. B. (2011). Antecedents of work-family conflict: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(5), 689–725.
Morrison, E., & Robinson, S. L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 226–256.
Nowakowski, J. M., & Conlon, D. E. (2005). Organizational justice: Looking back, looking forward. International Journal of Conflict Management, 16(1), 4–29.
O’Connell, W., & Bligh, M. (2009). Emerging from ethical scandal: Can corruption really have a happy ending? Leadership, 5(2), 213–235.
Prottas, D. (2008). Perceived behavioral Integrity: relationships with employee attitudes, well-being, and absenteeism. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 313–322.
Prottas, D. (2013). Relationships among employee perception of their manager’s behavioral integrity, moral distress, and employee attitudes and well-being. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(1), 51–60.
Rafferty, A. E., Restubog, S. D., & Jimmieson, N. L. (2010). Losing sleep: Examining the cascading effects of supervisors experience of injustice on subordinates psychological health. Work and Stress, 24(1), 36–55.
Rosen, C. C., Harris, K. J., & Kacmar, K. (2011). LMX, Context Perceptions, and Performance: An Uncertainty Management Perspective. Journal of Management, 37(3), 819–838.
Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2(2), 121–139.
Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Simons, T. (2002). Behavioral integrity: The perceived alignment between managers’ words and deeds as a research focus. Organization Science, 13, 18–35.
Simons, T., Liu, L., Friedman, R., & Parks, J. (2007). Racial differences in sensitivity to behavioral integrity: Attitudinal consequences, in-group effects, and “trickle down” among black and non-black employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 650–665.
Simons, T., Tomlinson, E. C., & Leroy, H. (2012). Integrity. In K. S. Cameron & G. M. Spreitzer (Eds.), The oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship (pp. 325–339). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Turnley, W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Re-examining the effects of psychological contract violations: Unmet expectations and job. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(1), 25.
Williams, L. J., Hartman, N., & Cavazotte, F. (2010). Method variance and marker variables: A review and comprehensive CFA marker technique. Organizational Research Methods, 13, 477–514.
Zivnuska, S., Kacmar, K. M., Ferguson, M., & Carlson, D. (2013). Mindfulness at work: Employee impacts and organizational attitudes. Santa Fe, NM: Manuscript presented at Western Academy of Management.
About this article
Cite this article
Andrews, M.C., Kacmar, K.M. & Kacmar, C. The Interactive Effects of Behavioral Integrity and Procedural Justice on Employee Job Tension. J Bus Ethics 126, 371–379 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1951-4