Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 118, Issue 3, pp 589–605 | Cite as

Benchmarking Tendencies in Managerial Mindsets: Prioritizing Stockholders and Stakeholders in Peru, South Africa, and the United States

  • John A. Parnell
  • Gregory J. Scott
  • Georgios Angelopoulos


Managers in Peru, South Africa, and the United States were classified into four groups along Singhapakdi et al. (J Bus Ethics 15:1131–1140, 1996) Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility (PRESOR) scale. In Peru and the United States, individuals in the ethics and social responsibility first category reported greater satisfaction with organizational performance than did those in the profits first category. Moral capitalists—individuals who report high emphases on both social responsibility and profits—reported the highest satisfaction with performance in the United States. Managers in the United States are more likely than their counterparts in Peru and South Africa to reject the mutual exclusivity of prioritizing social responsibility and profits simultaneously. Directions for future research are outlined.


Emerging economies Performance PRESOR Peru Stakeholder South Africa 


  1. Ackers, B. (2009). Corporate social responsibility assurance: How do South African publicly listed companies compare? Meditari Accountancy Research, 17(2), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ADEX (Asociacion de Exportadores). (2005). TLC con Tailandia se suscribirá en mayo del 2006. PerúExporta, 324, 28–29.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. (2009, September 2). Peru’s economy has shrunk but it should escape recession (p. 23). The Economist, London.Google Scholar
  4. Anon. (2011). Mistura 2011. Perunotas., consulted 27 September 2011.
  5. Aquilar, F. J. (1994). Managing corporate ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Asher, C., Mahoney, J., & Mahoney, J. (2005). Towards a property rights foundation for a stakeholder theory of the firm. Journal of Management and Governance, 9(1), 5–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Axinn, C. N., Blair, M. E., Heorhiadi, A., & Thach, S. V. (2004). Comparing ethical ideologies across cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 54, 103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayadi, O. G., Dufrene, U. B., & Obi, C. P. (1996). Firm performance measurement: Temporal roadblock to innovation? Managerial Finance, 22, 18–22.Google Scholar
  9. Barchiesi, F. (2008). Wage labor, precarious employment, and social inclusion in the making of South Africa’s post-apartheid transition. African Studies Review, 51(2), 119–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnard, G., & Fourie, L. (2007). Exploring the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa against a multi-dimensional conceptual framework. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 33(2), 45–53.Google Scholar
  11. Belausteguigoitia, I., & Portilla, S. (2004). The family business in Chile and Mexico: Organizational climate as an antecedent of entrepreneurial orientation. In S. Tiffin (Ed.), Entrepreneurship in Latin America. London: Praeger.Google Scholar
  12. Boatright, J. (2000). Globalization and business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly, 10(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosch, A., Rossouw, J., Claassens, T., du Plessis, B. (2010). A second look at measuring inequality in South Africa: a modified Gini coefficient. Working Paper No 58. School of Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal.Google Scholar
  14. Bowen, H. R. (1953). Social responsibilities of the businessman. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  15. Boyacilligar, N., & Adler, N. J. (1991). The parochial dinosaur: Organizational science in a global context. Academy of Management Review, 16, 262–290.Google Scholar
  16. Buller, P. F., Kohls, J. J., & Anderson, K. S. (2000). When ethics collide: Managing conflict across cultures. Organizational Dynamics, 28(4), 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burton, B. K., & Goldsby, M. (2009). Corporate social responsibility orientation, goals, and behavior: A study of small business owners. Business and Society, 48, 88–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caravedo, B. (1998) La responsabilidad social de las empresas privadas en el Perú (SASE (Servicios para el desarrollo) y Perú 2021-Una nueva visión, Lima).Google Scholar
  19. Caravedo, B. (Ed.). (2009a). Responsabilidad social: Todos. La voz de las regiones: Piura. (PUND (Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo), Lima).Google Scholar
  20. Caravedo, B. (Ed.). (2009b). Responsabilidad social: Todos. La voz de las regiones: Arequipa. (PUND (Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo), Lima).Google Scholar
  21. Caravedo, B. (Ed.). (2009c). Responsabilidad social: Todos. La voz de las regiones: La Libertad. (PUND (Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo), Lima).Google Scholar
  22. Casanova, L. (2005). Latin America: Economic and business context. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(12), 2173–2188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clifton, D., & Amran, A. (2011). The stakeholder approach: A sustainability perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coldwell, D. A. L. (2010). A road to organizational perdition? Business, ethics and corporate social responsibility. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 13(2), 190–202.Google Scholar
  25. CONASEV(Comisión Nacional Supervisora de Empresas y Valores). (2011). ′Practicas de Buen Gobierno Corporativo: Regulación y Supervisión en el Mercado de Valores Peruano′, Presentation at the Seminario sobre Regulación y Supervisión del Gobierno Corporativo, 24/05/2011 (CONASEV, Lima., Accessed 08/24/2012.
  26. Crilly, D. (2011). Cognitive scope of the firm: Explaining stakeholder orientation from the inside-out. Business and Society, 50, 518–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. D′Alessio, F., Marquina, P. (2009). Evolución del concepto de responsabilidad social. Revista Brújula 9(16).Google Scholar
  28. de Althaus, J. (2007). La revolución capitalista en el Perú. Lima: Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
  29. De Soto, H. (1989). The other path: The invisible revolution in the third world. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  30. Delmestri, G. (2006). Streams of inconsistent institutional influences: Middle managers as carriers of multiple identities. Human Relations, 59(11), 1515–1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dube, R. (2011). Peru’s may GDP expands 7.1% versus year ago (p. 2). New York: Wall Street Journal.Google Scholar
  32. Eccles, N. S., Pillay, V., & de Jongh, D. (2009). Correlates of corporate accountability among South Africa’s largest listed companies. Southern African Business Review, 13(1), 21–38.Google Scholar
  33. Edwards, T. (2007). Ethical fitness for accountable public officials: An imperative for good governance. Journal of Public Administration, 42(5), 28–34.Google Scholar
  34. El-Amir, A., & Burt, S. (2008). Sainsbury’s in Egypt: The strategic case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde? International Journal of Retail Distribution Management, 36, 300–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elbanna, S. (2007). The nature and practice of strategic planning in Egypt. Strategic Change, 16(5), 227–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Erasmus, B. J., & Wordsworth, R. (2004). Aspects of business ethics in South Africa. South African Journal of Labour Relations, 28(2), 77–112.Google Scholar
  37. Etheredge, J. M. (1999). The perceived role of ethics and social responsibility: An alternative scale structure. Journal of Business Ethics, 18, 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flores, J., & Ickis, J. (2007). La responsabilidad social en Cementos Lima, y sus efectos en la creación de valor para el negocio y en la gestión de riesgo. In J. Flores, E. Ogliastri, E. Peinado-Vara, & I. Petry (Eds.), El argumento empresarial de la RSE: 9 casos de America Latina y el Caribe. Washington, DC: BID (Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo) y INCAE Business School.Google Scholar
  39. Friedman, M. (1993). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. In T. I. White (Ed.), Business ethics: A philosophical reader. New York: n.p., Macmillan.Google Scholar
  40. Garavito, C. (2008). Responsabilidad social empresarial y mercado de trabajo. Economía, XXXI, 61, 81–104.Google Scholar
  41. Garcia-Castro, R., Arino, M. A., & Canela, M. A. (2011). Over the long-run? Shurt-run impact and long-run consequences of stakeholder management. Business and Society, 50, 428–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gil, V. (2009). Aterrizaje Minera. Cultura, conflicto, negociaciones y lecciones para el desarrollo desde la minería en Ancash, Perú. (Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP), Lima).Google Scholar
  43. González Vigil, F. (2009). El TLC China-Perú: Una Negociación Exitosa. Punto de Equilibrio, 101, 30–31.Google Scholar
  44. Goodpaster, K. E. (1993). Business ethics and stakeholder analysis. In T. I. White (Ed.), Business ethics: A philosophical reader. New York: n.p., MacMillan.Google Scholar
  45. Goosen, X., & van Vuuren, L. J. (2005). Institutionalising ethics in organisations: The role of mentoring. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 3(3), 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamann, R., Sinha, P., Kapfudzaruwa, F., & Schild, C. (2009). Business and human rights in South Africa: An analysis of antecedents of human rights due diligence. Journal of Business Ethics, 87, 453–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Handy, C. (2002). What’s a business for? Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 49–56.Google Scholar
  48. Hausmann, R., & Klinger, B. (2008). Growth Diagnostics in Peru’, Faculty research working paper series #08-062. Cambridge: Harvard Kennedy School.Google Scholar
  49. Hojman, D., & Pérez, G. (2005). Cultura Nacional Y Cultura Organizacional En Tiempos De Cambio: La Experiencia Chilena. Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 35, 87–105.Google Scholar
  50. Husted, B. W., & Allen, D. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the multinational enterprise: Strategic and institutional approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 838–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hutchings, K., Metcalfe, B. D., & Cooper, B. (2010). Exploring Arab Middle Eastern women’s perceptions of barriers to, and facilitators of international management opportunities. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. IBGC (Indice de Buen Gobierno Corporativo). (2010). No date, Sobre el Indice de Buen Gobierno Corporativo, Suplemento especial. IBGC, Lima. Accessed on August 21, 2012.
  53. IOD (Institute of Directors). (2009). King report on corporate governance. Johannesburg: IOD.Google Scholar
  54. Jacoby, S. M. (2005). The embedded corporation. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Jain, A., & Pisani, M. J. (2008). Small- and microenterprise business development in Costa Rica: An examination of domestic and foreign born entrepreneurs. Latin American Business Review, 9(2), 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jamali, D., & Neville, B. (2011). Convergence versus divergence of CSR in developing countries: An embedded multi-layered institutional lens. Journal of Business Ethics, 102, 599–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jaramillo, F. C., Silva-Jáuregui, C. (Eds.). (2011). Perú en el umbral de una nueva era. Lecciones y desafíos para consolidar el crecimiento económico y un desarrollo más incluyente. Notas de política (Vol. 1). Lima: Banco Mundial.Google Scholar
  58. Johnston, A. (2011). A matter of ethics. Without Prejudice, 11(6), 62–64.Google Scholar
  59. Jones, T. M., & Wicks, A. C. (1999). Convergent stakeholder theory. Academy of Management Review, 24, 206–211.Google Scholar
  60. JSE. (2011). Introduction to SRI index. Accessed on October 11, 2011).
  61. Karnani, A. (2011). Doing well by doing good: The grand illusion. California Management Review, 53(2), 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kay, S., & Popkin, S. J. (1998). Integrating ethics into the strategic management process: Doing well by doing good. Management Decision, 36(5), 331–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kliksberg, B. (2009). Una agenda renovada de responsabilidad empresarial para América Latina en la era de la crisis. in Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social. RSE y trabajo decente en la Argentina. Contexto, desafíos y oportunidades. Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social, Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  64. Kumar, S., & Chase, C. (2006). Barriers and success factors in the management of international operations: Mexico and china overview. International Journal of Management and Decision-Making, 7(5), 525–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Los Angeles Times. (2002). Enron foundation falls short of 2002 pledges. Los Angeles Times, Available at Accessed on August 25, 2012.
  66. Lenartowicz, T., & Johnson, J. P. (2003). A cross-national assessment of the values of Latin American managers: Contrasting hues or shades of gray. Journal of International Business Studies, 34, 266–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lloyd, H. R., Mey, M. R. (2010). An ethics model to develop an ethical organisation. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA TydskrifvirMenslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1), Art. #218. doi: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.218.
  68. Lopez-Claros, A., Porter, M. E., Sala-i-Martin, X., & Schwab, K. (2006). The global competitiveness report 2006–2007. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  69. Lopez-Claros, A., Porter, M. E., & Schwab, K. (2005). The global competitiveness report 2005–2006. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  70. Lunsche, S. (2011). Economic review: Where are we heading? Professional Accountant, pp. 14–16.Google Scholar
  71. Malan, D., Rossouw, G. J., & van der Watt, A. (2002). Corporate governance in South Africa. Journal of Business Ethics, 37(3), 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Malhotra, N. K., Agarwal, J., & Peterson, M. (1996). Methodological issues in cross-cultural marketing research: A state-of-the-art review. International Marketing Review, 13(5), 7–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marquina, P., Goñi, N., Rizo-Patrón, C., Castelo, L., Castro, R., Morice, J., Velasquez, I., Villaseca, M. (2011). Diagnóstico de la Reponsabilidad Social en Organizaciones Peruanas.Una Aproximación Interinstitucional y Multidisciplinaria. CENTRUM Centro de Negocios de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  74. Marta, J. M., Singhapakdi, A., & Higgs-Kleyn, N. (2001). Corporate ethical values in South Africa. Thunderbird International Business Review, 43(6), 755–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mbeki, T. M. (2010). Reflections on African challenges and prospects. Pretoria: The Thabo Mbeki Foundation.Google Scholar
  76. McDonald, G. (2010). Ethical relativism vs. absolutism: Research implications. European Business Review, 22(4), 446–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Moore, R. S., & Radloff, S. E. (1996). Attitudes toward business ethics held by South African students. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(8), 863–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Murakami, Y.: 2007, Perú en la Era del Chino. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and the Center for Integrated Area Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto.Google Scholar
  79. Murove, M. F. (2005). The voice from the periphery: Towards an African business ethics beyond the western heritage. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 8(3), 339–347.Google Scholar
  80. Olson, J. F. (2010). South Africa moves to a global model of corporate governance but with important national variations: Corporate governance and mergers and takeovers: Part II’, ActaJuridica, 219–247.Google Scholar
  81. Orlitzky, M., Siegel, D. S., & Waldman, D. A. (2011). Strategic corporate social responsibility and environmental sustainability. Business and Society, 50, 6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palmer, D. S. (1992). The shining path of Peru. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  83. Parnell, J. (2008). Strategy execution in emerging economies: Assessing strategic diffusion in Mexico and Peru. Management Decision, 46, 1277–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Parnell, J. A., & Dent, E. L. (2009). Philosophy ethics and capitalism: An interview with BB&T CEO John Allison. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 8, 587–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parnell, J. A., & Hatem, T. (1999). Cultural antecedents of behavioral differences between American and Egyptian managers. Journal of Management Studies, 36, 399–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Parnell, J. A., O’Regan, N., & Ghobadian, A. (2006). Measuring performance in competitive strategy research. International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 7, 408–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Perú 2021. (2010). Indicadores ETHOS-Perú 2021 de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial. Perú 2021, Lima.Google Scholar
  88. Pienaar, Y., & Roodt, G. (2001). Die teenwoordige en toekomstigerolle van bedryfsielkundiges in Suid-Afrika (The Present and Future Roles of Industrial Psychology in South Africa). Journal of Industrial Psychology, 27(4), 25–33.Google Scholar
  89. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 56–69.Google Scholar
  90. Porter, M., & Sala-i-Martin, K. (2007). The global competitiveness report 2007–2008. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  91. Portocarrero, F. S., Sanborn, C. A., Camacho, L. A. (Eds.). (2007a). Moviendo montañas: Empresas, comunidades y ONG en las industrias extractivas. CIUP (Centro de Investigación de la Universidad del Pacífico), Lima.Google Scholar
  92. Portocarrero, F. S., Sanborn, C. A., Del Castillo, E., Chávez, M. (2007b). Moviendo montañas: El caso de la Compañia Minera Antamina. Social Enterprise Knowledge Network. Case #SKS-086. Universidad del Pacifíco, Lima.Google Scholar
  93. Punnett, B. J., & Shenkar, O. (1994). International management research: Toward a contingency approach. Advances in International Comparative Management, 9, 39–55.Google Scholar
  94. Quinn, R. E., & Rohrbaugh, J. (1983). A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: Towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis. Management Science, 29, 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Quiroz, A. (2008). Corrupt circles: A history of unbound graft in Peru. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center.Google Scholar
  96. Ramanujam, V., & Venkatraman, N. (1987). Planning system characteristics and planning effectiveness. Strategic Management Journal, 8, 453–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Reficco, E., & Ogliastri, E. (2009). Empresa Y Sociedad en America Latina: Una Introducción. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 43, 1–25.Google Scholar
  98. Robertson, C. J., Olson, B. J., Gilley, K. M., & Bao, Y. (2007). A cross-cultural comparison of ethical orientations and willingness to sacrifice ethical standards: China versus Peru. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 413–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Robles, F., Simon, F., & Haar, J. (2003). Winning strategies for the new Latin markets. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times.Google Scholar
  100. Rossouw, G. J. (2005). Business ethics and corporate governance in Africa. Business and Society, 44, 94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rossouw, G. J., & van Vuuren, L. J. (2003). The business case for business ethics. Management Dynamics, 12(1), 2–11.Google Scholar
  102. Sams, D., Khan, M. A., & Ospina, M. (2011). Across the great divide: Management, culture, and sustainability across NAFTA region. Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 4(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  103. Sanborn, C., Del Castillo, E., Chávez, M. (2006). Cementos Lima: Construyendo los cimientos de una visión de responsabilidad social. Social Enterprise Knowledge Network. Case #SKS-069. Universidad del Pacifico, Lima.Google Scholar
  104. Scherer, A. G., Palazzo, G., & Matten, D. (2009). Introduction to the special issue: Globalization as a challenge for business responsibilities. Business Ethics Quarterly, 19, 327–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schoonraad, N. (2000). Stockholders or stakeholders? The role of financial communication. Communication, 26(2), 73–80.Google Scholar
  106. Schwalb, M. M. (Ed). (2010). Experiencias exitosas de responsabilidad social empresarial, Apuntes de estudio 72. Lima: CIUP.Google Scholar
  107. Schwalb, M. M., García, E., and Soldevilla, V. (Eds). (2006). Buenas practícas peruanas de responsabilidad empresarial: colleción 2005. Apuntes de estudio 63. Lima: CIUP.Google Scholar
  108. Schwalb, M. M., Ortega, C., and García, E., and Soldevilla, V. (Eds). (2004). Casos de Responsabilidad Social. Apuntes de estudio 53. Lima: CIUP.Google Scholar
  109. Scott, G. (2011). Plants, people, and the conservation of biodiversity of potatoes in Peru. Natureza & Conservação, 9(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sen, A. (2009). El papel de la éticaempresarial en el mundocontemporáneo. Selected extracts of a speech delivered at Harvard University August 24, 2009 at the opening of the II Program for Trainers in Corporate Social Responsibility in Latin America.Google Scholar
  111. Shafer, W. E., Fukukawa, K., & Lee, G. M. (2007). Values and the perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility: The U.S. versus China. Journal of Business Ethics, 70, 265–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sims, R. L., & Gegez, A. E. (2004). Attitudes towards business ethics: A five nation comparative study. Journal of Business Ethics, 50, 253–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Singhapakdi, A., Kraft, K. L., Vitell, S. J., & Rallapalli, K. C. (1995). The perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility on organizational effectiveness: A survey of marketers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23, 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Singhapakdi, A., Vitell, S. J., & Leelakulthanit, O. (1994). A cross-cultural study of moral philosophies. Ethical perceptions and judgments: A comparison of American and Thai marketers. International Marketing Review, 11(6), 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Singhapakdi, A., Vitell, S. J., Rallapalli, K. C., & Kraft, K. L. (1996). The perceived role of ethics and social responsibility: A scale development. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 1131–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Smith, A. (2012). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  117. Sully de Luque, M. F., & Arbaiza, L. A. (2005). The complexity of managing human resources in Peru. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16, 2237–2253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tello, M. D., Tavara, J. (2010). Productive Development Policies in Latin American Countries: The Case of Perú, 1990–2007. IDB Working Paper Series No. IDB-WP 129. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
  119. Tromben, C. (2011). Capitalismo 3.0. Américaeconomía Perú. pp. 68–83.Google Scholar
  120. Van Vuuren, L. J. (2002). Institutionalising business ethics: A multi-level ethics strategy. Management Dynamics, 11(2), 21–27.Google Scholar
  121. Velasquez, M. (1996). Why ethics matters: A defense of ethics in business organizations. Business Ethics Quarterly, 6, 201–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vitell, S. J., & Hunt, S. D. (1990). The general theory of marketing ethics: A partial test of the model. In N. Sheth (Ed.), Research in marketing, 10, 237–265. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  123. Vitell, S. J., & Paolillo, J. G. P. (2004). A cross-cultural study of the antecedents of the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility. Business Ethics, 13, 185–1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Vitell, S. J., Ramos, E., & Nishihara, C. M. (2010). The role of ethics and social responsibility in organizational success: A Spanish perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 91, 467–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. WEF. (2011). The global competitiveness report 2011–2012. Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  126. World Bank.: (2011). World development indicators (Edition: April 2011). Manchester: ESDS International, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  127. Yamada, G. (2009). Desempeño de la microempresa familiar en el Perú. Apuntes, 64, 5–29.Google Scholar
  128. Zahra, S. A., & LaTour, M. S. (1987). Corporate social responsibility and organizational effectiveness: A multivariate approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 459–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zattoni, A. (2011). Who should control a corporation? Toward a contingency stakeholder model for allocating ownership rights. Journal of Business Ethics, 103, 255–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Parnell
    • 1
  • Gregory J. Scott
    • 1
  • Georgios Angelopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.CENTRUM CatólicaPontificia Universidad Católica del PerúSantiago de SurcoPeru

Personalised recommendations