Skip to main content

Organizing for Society: A Typology of Social Entrepreneuring Models

Abstract

In this article, we use content and cluster analysis on a global sample of 200 social entrepreneurial organizations to develop a typology of social entrepreneuring models. This typology is based on four possible forms of capital that can be leveraged: social, economic, human, and political. Furthermore, our findings reveal that these four social entrepreneuring models are associated with distinct logics of justification that may explain different ways of organizing across organizations. This study contributes to understanding social entrepreneurship as a field of practice and it describes avenues for theorizing about the different organizational approaches adopted by social entrepreneurs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. We use the terms social entrepreneur and social entrepreneurial organization interchangeably throughout the article as our empirical and theoretical focus is organizing.

  2. Mohr and Guerra-Pearson (2010), for example, used relations between categories of relief recipients, classes of social problems, and the type of activities undertaken as indicators of models used by 600 welfare organizations in New York City during the Progressive Era. Also focusing on the Progressive Era, DiMaggio and Mullen (2000) selected the type of actors involved, the category of actions taken, and the object of action (i.e., the audience) to surface distinct models that shaped civic rituals related to National Music Week.

  3. For text sampled, refer to www.ashoka.org and www.schwabfound.org.

  4. A stratified and weighted random sample was constructed in the case of Ashoka fellows to reflect the distribution across regions and year elected.

  5. We collected all profiles on the web in July 2007.

  6. Unlike other statistical methods for studying configurations such as deviation scores, where the researcher defines ideal types and then calculates distances between the ideal profiles (Delery and Dote 1996), and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), where the selection of attributes is based on theoretical knowledge about their relationship with the outcome (Fiss 2007, p. 1183), cluster analysis makes no prior assumptions about differences in the sample and does not predict outcomes in advance.

  7. Of the hierarchical procedures, Ward’s algorithm has provided superior clustering solutions over other algorithms across distinct applications (Blashfield 1976; Milligan 1980; Mojena 1977). We re-ran k-means cluster analysis using average linkage algorithm to define the initial seed and the results scarcely changed (Cohen’s kappa inter-agreement = 0.76).

  8. The Calinski and Harabasz pseudo-F stopping rule index calculates the ratio of total variation between clusters versus total variation within a cluster. Larger values indicate more distinct clustering. The maximum hierarchy level was used to indicate the correct number of partitions in the data (Calinski and Harabasz 1974). Duda and Hart (1973) proposed a ratio criterion where Je(2) is the sum of the squared errors within a cluster when the data are broken into two clusters, and Je(1) provides the squared errors when one cluster exists. The rule for deciding the number of clusters is to determine the largest Je(2)/Je(1) value (0.8466) that corresponds to a low pseudo-T 2 value (10.15) and has a higher T 2 value above and below it.

  9. Information about the IHRDA was collected from the organization’s website, http://www.ihrda.org/, and retrieved on June 27, 2012.

  10. The ACERWC is a committee of 11 experts appointed by the general assembly of the heads of states of the African Union (AU). These experts examine cases against nations, investigate them and decide whether there is a violation of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, which is a charter ratified by the members of the AU. This committee has no legal power, only the ability to make resolutions and declarations to the members of the AU.

  11. Information about Soul City was collected from the organization’s website, http://www.soulcity.org.za/, and retrieved on June 27, 2012.

  12. Information about Honey Care was collected from the organization’s website, http://www.honeycareafrica.com/, and retrieved on June 27, 2012.

  13. Information about Taproot Foundation was collected from the organization’s website, http://www.taprootfoundation.org/, and retrieved on June 27, 2012.

  14. The Cramer’s V is a χ2-based measure of nominal association which assesses the association strength between two variables where 1 is a perfect relationship and 0 is no relationship. Cramer’s V overcomes the requirement to fill every cell of crosstab matrix.

References

  • Aldenderfer, M. S., & Blashfield, R. K. (1984). Cluster analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alvord, A. S., Brown, D., & Letts, C. W. (2004). Social entrepreneurship and societal transformation. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3), 260–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Austin, J., Wei-Skillern, J., & Stevenson, H. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30, 1–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Battilana, J., & Dorado, S. (2010). Building sustainable hybrid organizations: The case of commercial microfinance organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 1419–1440.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Battilana, J., Leca, B., & Boxenbaum, E. (2009). How actors change institutions: Towards a theory of institutional entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Annals, 3(1), 65–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Battilana, J., Lee, M., Walker, J., & Dorsey, C. (2012). In search of the hybrid ideal. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 10(3), 51–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bernard, H. R., & Ryan, G. W. (1998). Text analysis: Qualitative and quantitative methods. In H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology (pp. 595–645). Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Biggart, N. W., & Beamish, T. D. (2003). The economic sociology of conventions: Habit, custom, practice, and routine in market order. Annual Review of Sociology, 29(1), 443–464.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blashfield, R. K. (1976). Mixture model tests of cluster analysis: Accuracy of four agglomerative hierarchical methods. Psychology Bulletin, 83, 377–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boltanski, L., & Thévenot, L. (1999). The sociology of critical capacity. European Journal of Social Theory, 2(3), 359–377.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boltanski, L., & Thévenot, L. (2006). On justification: Economies of worth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Calinski, T., & Harabasz, J. (1974). A dendrite method for cluster analysis. Communications in Statistics, 3, 1–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carter, N. M., Stearns, T. M., Reynolds, P. D., & Miller, B. A. (1994). New venture strategies: Theory development with an empirical base. Strategic Management Journal, 15(1), 21–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chetkovich, C., & Kunreuther, F. (2007). From the ground up: Grassroots organizations making social change. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christen, R. P., & Drake, D. (2002). Commercialization. The new reality of microfinance. In D. Drake & E. Rhyne (Eds.), The commercialization of microfinance, balancing business and development. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christensen, C. M., Baumann, H., Ruggles, R., & Sadtler, T. (2006). Disruptive innovation for social change. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 94–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cleaver, F. (2005). The inequality of social capital and the reproduction of chronic poverty. World Development, 33(6), 893–906.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. L. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dacin, M. T., Dacin, P. A., & Tracey, P. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization Science, 22(5), 1203–1213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2006). Framing a theory of social entrepreneurship: building on two schools of practice and thought. ARNOVA Occasional Paper Series, 1(3), 39–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Di Domenico, M., Tracey, P., & Haugh, H. (2009). The dialectic of social exchange: Theorizing corporate–social enterprise collaboration. Organization Studies, 30(8), 887–907.

    Google Scholar 

  • DiMaggio, P. J., & Mullen, A. L. (2000). Enacting community in progressive America: Civic rituals in National Music Week, 1924. Poetics, 27(1), 135–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dorado, S. (2006). Social entrepreneurial ventures: Different values so different process of creation, no? Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 11(4), 319–343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Drayton, W. (2002). The citizen sector: Becoming as entrepreneurial and competitive as business. California Management Review, 44(3), 120–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duda, R. O., & Hart, P. E. (1973). Pattern classification and scene analysis. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durand, R., Rao, H., & Monin, P. (2007). Code and conduct in French cuisine: Impact of code changes on external evaluations. Strategic Management Journal, 28(5), 455–472.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elkington, J., & Hartigan, P. (2008). The power of unreasonable people: How social entrepreneurs create markets that change the world. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fiss, P. C. (2007). A set-theoretic approach to organizational configurations. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1180–1198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fowler, A. (2000). Ngdos as a moment in history: Beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation? Third World Quarterly, 21(4), 637–654.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frumkin, P. (2002). On being nonprofit. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gersick, C. J. G., Bartunek, J. M., & Dutton, J. E. (2000). Learning from academia: The importance of relationships in professional life. Academy of Management Journal, 43(6), 1026–1044.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenwood, R., Suddaby, R., & Hinings, C. R. (2002). Theorizing change: The role of professional associations in the transformation of institutionalized fields. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 58–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haight, C. (2011). The problem with fair trade coffee. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 3, 74–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hair, J. E., Anderson, R., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hambrick, D. C. (1983). An empirical typology of mature industrial-product environments. Academy of Management Journal, 26(2), 213–2302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henriques, I., & Sadorsky, P. (1999). The relationship between environmental commitment and managerial perceptions of stakeholder importance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 87–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, M. B. (2007). The multiple sources of mission drift. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(2), 299–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kabanoff, B., Waldersee, R., & Cohen, M. (1995). Espoused values and organizational change themes. Academy of Management Journal, 38(4), 1075–1104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kauppi, N. (2003). Bourdieu’s political sociology and the politics of European integration. Theory and Society, 32(5), 775–789.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ketchen, J. D. J., & Shook, C. L. (1996). The application of cluster analysis in strategic management research: An analysis and critique. Strategic Management Journal, 17(6), 441–458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ketchen, J. D. J., Thomas, J., & Snow, C. (1993). Organizational configurations and performance: A comparison. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6), 1278–1313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Locke, K. (2001). Grounded theory in management research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mair, J., & Martí, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mair, J., & Noboa, E. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: How intentions to create a social venture are formed. In J. Mair, et al. (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship (pp. 121–135). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Margolis, J. D., & Molinsky, A. (2008). Navigating the bind of necessary evils: Psychological engagement and the production of interpersonally sensitive behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 51(5), 847–872.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, S. R. (2011). Conceptualizing the international for-profit social entrepreneur. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 183–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martin, R. L., & Osberg, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship: The case for definition. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 29–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mersland, R., & Strøm, R. Ø. (2010). Microfinance mission drift? World Development, 38(1), 28–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, A. D., Tsui, A. S., & Hinings, C. R. (1993). Configurational approaches to organizational analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6), 1175–1195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyskens, M., Robb-Post, C., Stamp, J. A., Carsrud, A. L., & Reynolds, P. D. (2010). Social ventures from a resource-based perspective: An exploratory study assessing global Ashoka fellows. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 661–680.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milligan, G. W. (1980). An examination of the effect of six types of error perturbation on fifteen clustering algorithms. Psychometrika, 45(3), 325–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milligan, G. W., & Cooper, M. C. (1985). An examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set. Psychometrika, 50(2), 159–179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mohr, J. W., & Guerra-Pearson, F. (2010). The duality of niche and form: The differentiation of institutional space in New York City, 1888–1917. In G. Hsu, O. Kocak, & G.Negro (Eds.) Research in the Sociology of Organizations (pp. 321–368). Volume Categories in Markets: Origins and Evolution. Emerald Press.

  • Mojena, R. (1977). Hierarchical grouping methods and stopping rules: An evaluation. Computer Journal, 20(4), 359–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy, J. P., & Coombes, M. S. (2009). A model of social entrepreneurial discovery. Journal of Business Ethics, 87, 325–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neck, H., Brush, C., & Allen, E. (2009). The landscape of social entrepreneurship. Business Horizons, 52, 13–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nicholls, A. (2010). The legitimacy of social entrepreneurship: Reflexive isomorphism in a pre-paradigmatic field. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 34(4), 611–633.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perrow, C. (1991). A society of organizations. Theory & Society, 20, 725–762.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, N., Lawrence, T. B., & Hardy, C. (2004). Discourse and institutions. Academy of Management Review, 29(4), 635–652.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prabhu, G. N. (1999). Social entrepreneurship leadership. Career Development International, 4(3), 140–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Punj, G., & Stewart, D. W. (1983). Cluster analysis in marketing research: Review and suggestions for application. Journal of Marketing Research, 20(2), 134–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rao, H., & Giorgi, S. (2006). Code breaking: How entrepreneurs exploit cultural logics to generate institutional change. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 269–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rindova, V., Barry, D., & Ketchen, J. D. (2009). Entrepreneuring as emancipation. Academy of Management Review, 34(3), 477–491.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sabeti, H. (2011). The for-benefit enterprise. Harvard Business Review November (Schwab Foundation, N.D.: ‘Five Year Evaluation Report: 2000–2005’, 07 April 2010).

  • Seelos, C. (2013). Theorizing and strategizing with models: Generative models of social enterprises. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 5(5) (forthcoming).

  • Seelos, C., & Mair, J. (2005). Social entrepreneurship: Creating new business models to serve the poor. Business Horizons, 48(3), 241–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seelos, C., & Mair, J. (2007). Profitable business models and market creation in the context of deep poverty: A strategic view. Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(4), 49–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seelos, C., Mair, J., Battilana, J., & Dacin, T. (2011). The embeddedness of social entrepreneurship: Understanding variation across local communities. In C. Marquis, M. Lounsbury, & R. Greenwood (Eds.), Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Communities and Organizations (vol. 33, pp. 333–363). Emerald Press.

  • Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Short, J. C., Payne, G. T., & Ketchen, J. D. J. (2008). Research on organizational configurations: Past accomplishments and future challenges. Journal of Management Inquiry, 34(6), 1053–1079.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2003). Network politics, political capital, and democracy. International Journal of Public Administration, 26(6), 609–634.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spear, R. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A different model? International Journal of Social Economics, 33(5), 399–410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stark, D. (2009). The sense of dissonance: Accounts of worth in economic life. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

  • Steyaert, C., & Hjorth, D. (2006). Entrepreneurship as social change. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strang, D., & Meyer, J. W. (1993). Institutional conditions for diffusion. Theory and Society, 22, 487–512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tolbert, P. S., & Zucker, L. G. (1996). The institutionalization of institutional theory. In S. R. Clegg, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 175–190). London: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van de Ven, A. H., Sapienza, H. J., & Villanueva, J. (2007). Entrepreneurial pursuit of self-and-collective interests. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1, 353–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vasi, I. B. (2009). New heroes, old theories? Toward a sociological perspective on social entrepreneurship. In R. Ziegler (Ed.), An Introduction to social entrepreneurship: Voices, preconditions, contexts (pp. 155–173). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waddock, S. A., & Post, E. J. (1991). Social entrepreneurs and catalytic change. Public Administration Review, 51(5), 393–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walsh, J. P., Kress, J. C., & Beyerchen, K. W. (2005). Book review essay: Promises and perils at the bottom of the pyramid. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3), 473–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weisbrod, B. (2004). The pitfalls of profits. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 2(3), 40–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519–532.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank Lisa Hehenberger, Woody Powell, Tomislav Rimac, Marc Schneiberg, Christian Seelos and Funda Sezgi for comments on earlier versions of this paper and Stefan Dimitriados, David Delgado and Julie Mirocha for research and editorial support. We are grateful to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for financial support (ECO2011-23220 and ECO2011-13361-E).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Johanna Mair.

Appendices

Appendix 1

Coding Process

We analyzed qualitative data (texts) and proceeded in three large stages, although we moved back and forth in an iterative and systematic process that we will detail to show how we got from the data to the findings. The reliability was calculated at the last phase of content analysis.

First Stage: Creating First-Order Codes

We interrogate SEO’s texts, asking questions along three dimensions: (1) which issues are addressed, (2) who needs to be involved, and (3) how these agents of change are involved. We created categories directly from the texts by applying an open coding procedure/inductive approach. Both authors started reading texts about the 200 organizations to develop categories for the dimensions of social change. First, we used in vivo codes to facilitate identification of general code labels. The words taken from the text formed the basis for generating categories of issues, actors and actions. This stage of analysis produced 210 codes for issues, 266 codes for actors, and 69 codes for actions. Summary sheets were constructed for each dimension and a review was conducted to group codes with a clear similar meaning.

Second Stage: Grouping Codes into Higher Abstracted Categories

In the second stage, codes of each dimension were compared and related to be grouped into higher order categories. We reduced the list of codes into increasingly abstract categories. Elements that were found to be theoretically similar to previously coded elements were given the same name and were grouped into the same code. Authors met several times to discuss and brainstorm how these categories related to one another. During several meetings the tentative categories were compared, discussed and revised by the authors to reach the highest abstraction and were assigned a more abstract name. Each time provisional categories were created we went back to the texts and re-coded data to check if it fitted into the higher abstracted categories. When it did not, coders revised categories. For example, when coding which actions are performed we initially created the category “charity” to reflect the activities where actors were provided with free services such as “free eye care.” However, after re-reading texts the category was dropped because it did not reflect the activity performed but rather the cost of the service. Finally, it was coded into the category of “treating medically.” While cost of the service is an important variable in assessing “business” models it is not the subject of this analysis, especially since our data did not include this information for all SEOs. Disagreements with respect to the allocation of codes and the labeling were solved by discussion between the authors and consulting with experts in the field. After refining categories, a coding scheme was created with definitions, sub-categories, and examples.

Third Stage: Re-coding Original Data

At the third stage, we re-coded all the texts using the defined abstracted categories. We went back to the original text data to code texts once again with respect to the generated categories of issues, actors and actions. Any unit of text that could not be categorized with the coding scheme was given a new code and coding scheme was modified. Some categories were re-named to be comprehensive and representative of all codes. The purpose was to achieve categories mutually exclusive and exhaustive. In the final coding scheme, no data could fall into more than one category (mutually exclusive) and no data could be excluded due to the lack of suitable category (exhaustive).

For issues, we created a draft list of issues that we then refined. An issue was defined as the need or problem that concern the SE. Examples of provisional categories were “poverty,” “discrimination,” “illiteracy,” “environment exploitation,” “lack of job opportunities,” or “no access to justice.” We reduced this list of codes into a comprehensive set of categories. Categories were condensed into broader ones on the basis of the domain where issues occur. By domain we mean the specific sphere of norms and structures in which the SEO operates. This criterion of aggregation facilitates the identification of the opportunity spaces where SEs are located. To illustrate, we identified at first “poverty,” “lack of job opportunities,” and “economic crisis” as different categories of issues addressed. In a next step of abstraction, we decided to integrate them into the single category “economic domain” because all of them share a common environment characterized by the lack/deprivation of economic incomes. This process led to the final 11 categories demarcating the variety of issues addressed by SEOs in our sample.

A similar process of reconciliation was undertaken for actors. We identified 15 distinct categories including individual and collective groups. Categories of actors that applied to <2 % of our sample were aggregated into the category “other target actors.” The analysis of data revealed that SEOs used widely diverse actions to engage the actors, and nine categories of actions were identified. Action categories that applied to <2 % of the SEOs were aggregated in the category “other actions” and cases where texts did not reveal any actions were grouped into the category “no actions.” We discussed and revised categories with research associates and external experts. We also validated these categories by coding an additional sample of SE text from Ashoka.

Appendix 2

Coding Schemes

Issues

Categories Definition Provisional categories Codes Example
Civic engagement SEO responds to civic engagement issues Failure/inefficiency of civil society Failure of charity, failure of civil sector organizations, inefficiency of volunteer work, inefficient civil sector organizations, there is no grass-roots movement, local conflicts among villagers Communal rivalries and even interpersonal conflicts were expressed through spurious accusations of sympathy with the PKI. This discrimination, when combined with efforts to block any investigations into the massacres themselves, has long precluded any hopes for transparency and reconciliation (Syarikat)
Civic disengagement Community disengagement
Limited participation in civic life Lack of participation, low democratic participation
Discrimination/marginalization Black stereotypes, blind risks, development projects don’t involve community, difficult integration for prisoners, discrimination against mentally ill and drug addicts, discrimination against Roma, disempowered role of youth, ethnic conflicts, homeless children, homelessness, isolation, tribal divisions in labor force, marginalization, orphans, racial polarization, discrimination against disabled, social discrimination, structural discrimination, vulnerability of children, vulnerability of young girls, discrimination against women, discrimination within labor force, youth stereotypes
Failure/noninvolvement of government Failure of government, government cut-off in health system, government cuts off support, lack of government concern, noninvolvement of government
Failure of social services Failure of children’s social services, failure of social services, failure of youth social services, no access to child care
Culture SEO addresses values and culture issues Repression of traditional values Cultural repression, traditional culture discouraged, traumas of the past Young people in particular suffer from a lack of cultural identity (Oficina MUSCUI)
Contestation Lack of cultural identity
Economic sphere SEO responds to economic issues Economic crisis/unprofitable Agriculture collapse, agriculture underdeveloped, economic crisis, dependence on handouts, failure of industry, high debts, inefficient land use, socioeconomic devastation, uncompetitive farmers, uncompetitive producers, unprofitable because of intermediaries, unsustainable agriculture Due to the lack of economic opportunity, many become beggars, prostitutes, collectors/scavengers or vendors of recyclable scraps (Hagar)
No access to markets/credit unavailability Credit unavailability, lack of economic opportunity, market void in exports, no access to credit, no access to market, noninvolvement of private sector, no access to land, lack of entrepreneurship
Poverty Poverty
Poor working conditions Inadequate working conditions, low working conditions, mismanagement of solid waste management, poor communication among agricultural stakeholders, uncompetitive farmers, uncompetitive producers, work exploitation
Unemployment/lack of job opportunities Agriculture collapse, lack of job opportunities, unemployment
Education SEO tackles educational and skill limitations lliteracy and lack of skills Illiteracy, lack of skills Existing educational programs had little effect because they did not reach enough people and the information was delivered in a dry, bureaucratic manner not conducive to learning (Soul City)
Failure/collapse of educational system Burnout of teachers, education system collapse, failure of educational programs, failure of formal education, lack of appropriate educational programs for children
Limited/no access to education Little public education, no access to formal education
Environment SEO responds to environmental concerns Environment exploitation/sustainability Deforestation, environmental exploitation, environmental pollution, pollution, strain on natural resources, trade in wild animals, uncontrolled commercial forestry Unfortunately, however, years of uncontrolled exploitation have left a large portion of Indonesia’s coral reefs in an endangered state (Meity Mongdong)
Lack/failure of environmental programs Failure of environmental programs, human disconnection from nature, lack of consciousness of environmental problems, low environmental practices, mismanagement of environmental policies, mismanagement of solid waste management, failure of environmental education
Family SEO focuses on family relationships Family crisis Children run away, family crisis The family unit in Poland suffered during the dramatic social upheaval of the 1990s (Fatherhood Center)
Food and Water SEO tackles limited access to food and water Food/water shortage Food crisis, malnutrition, no access to water supply Only 35 % of Nepalis have access to adequate, modern water supply systems. Even those who have benefited from these investments, including much of Kathmandu’s population, often do not have reliable, safe supplies (Nepal Water Conservation)
Health SEO tackles healthcare access and conditions Diseases/addictions Diseases, drugs, HIV/AIDS Mali’s citizens did not have access to sufficient health care (Mutuelle de Santé Communautaire)
Insufficient infrastructure/human resources in health Dehumanization of hospitals, failure of traditional medicine, inadequate home health care, inefficiency of healthcare management, lack of delivery of health services, lack of doctors, lack of medical professional help, overcrowded public hospitals, unhygienic, no access to healthcare, unaffordable medicines for poor, lack of information on health, government cut off in health system
Housing SEO addresses housing access and conditions Deficiencies in urban housing Housing crisis, urban slums, urban sprawl Such housing generally lacks basic infrastructure and services (Community-Based Information Network—Combine)
Law and rights SEO addresses law access and enforcement Lack of legal protection/human rights not enforced/no access to justice Failure of law enforcement, failure of previous public legal services, human rights not enforced, lack of legal protection, low legal protection of workers, can’t afford lawyers, no access to justice By engaging the legal system he demonstrates the absence of legal protection for the Roma and stimulates public discussion about civil rights (NEKI)
No political voice/lack of advocacy Failure of elite women to mobilize, failure of traditional labor unions, lack of advocacy/no political voice, no access to politics
Violence/abuse/criminal activities Child abuse, domestic violence, girls forced into prostitution, human rights abuses, violence against women, violence, conflicts, corruption, mistrust of security systems, violent crime
Technology SEO tackles technology issues Lack of/inadequate technology Lack of technology, inadequate technology, limited reach of social innovations Absence of cheap food-preservation technologies (Jariisu Jama Dema Kafoo—JJDK)

Target constituencies

Category Definition Codes Example
Business sector SEO engages private corporations Business sector, corporations, companies, private sector In addition, founder Safia Minney works to convince conventional companies to sell Fair Trade products and reviews their sourcing strategies (Fair Trade Company)
Communities SEO focuses on communities Communities Using health as an entry point, SA began helping 16 communities to improve their lives through solar-based electrification, environmental education and access to IT (Saúde e Alegria)
Civil society organizations SE engages civil organizations Civil sector organizations, nonprofit organizations, voluntary organizations, NGO, local organizations NGOs from more than 12 countries participated in the Institute’s training (Institute for Human Right Development in Africa—IHRDA)
Children SEO assists children Children The center is Lithuania’s first active network of child psychology and prevention specialists (Ausra Kuriene)
Disabled SEO assists disabled people Disabled people, mentally disabled, physical disabled, blind people, visually impaired Jaime’s first aim is to break this vicious cycle by simultaneously making public spaces more accessible to the visually impaired (Corporacion Red Punto Vision)
Families SEO targets families Families She is helping families join together to help themselves (…) Utis Buddhasud has developed a strategy that supports, educates and nurtures the family unit (Foundation for Rural Child Development)
Farmers SEO targets agricultural workers and farmers Farmers Farouk Jiwa and Honey Care have revitalized Kenya’s national honey industry by focusing on small-holder farmers across the country (Honey Care)
Government SEO engages politics and government institutions Government, policy-makers Ajantha (…) convinced the Ministry of Cooperatives to buy waste from people in rural areas and transport it to recycling industries (Ajantha Perera)
Homeless SEO focuses on homeless Homeless Mel Young founded the Homeless World Cup as an annual street soccer tournament, uniting teams of homeless people from around the world to fight poverty (Homeless World Cup)
Poor SEO focuses on poor people Poor people In 1987, Tasneem Siddiqui conceived of The Khuda-ki-Basti approach because the urban poor, particularly in developing countries, cannot afford to buy “fully serviced land” (land equipped with water, sanitation and electricity) or a completed house (Saiban)
Public SEO targets the whole population Public To achieve this massive national attitudinal change, RENCTAS works on three fronts. First, it raises national awareness of animal trafficking, educating the general public on this issue (Rede Nacional de Combate ao Tráfico de Animais Silvestres—RENCTAS)
Students SEO engages students Students, graduates Ash and Ben have succeeded in getting their pilot Centre certified for purposes of providing law graduates with their “articles,” the final step in the lawyer’s qualification. (Zwane-Sambo Associates)
Teachers SEO turns to educators Teachers, educators The CCE began by helping teachers to learn the active teaching method (Centre For Citizenship Education—CEE)
Women SEO focuses on women Women Constance therefore sees it as her mission of sorts to use her own privilege to benefit the hundreds of thousands of women throughout Cote d’Ivoire who find themselves trapped in webs of regressive, often violent, traditions (Association for Defense of Women’s Rights in Ivory—AIDF)
Youth SEO targets young people Youth César’s work shows that training youth to develop effective voices (Mi Cometa)
Others Those actors involved in <2 % of the sample Agricultural stakeholders, animals, artisans, battered women, caregivers, community leaders, doctors, drug addicts, ecosystems, educational institutions, elderly, entrepreneurs, fathers, gang leaders, garbage workers, HIV affected, independent workers, judiciary, land stakeholders, law stakeholders, marginalized, minorities, prisoners, producers, professionals, judges, rural people, scientists, unemployed, victims of crime, volunteers, war victims, widows Novica works directly with artists and artisans to reduce the effect of the two most significant factors preventing them from earning a living from their craft and keeping traditions alive: geographic distance and multiple layers of middlemen. (Novica.com)

Actions

Category Definition Codes Example
Educating SEO provides educational services or encourages schooling Educating, schooling, provide education, curriculum, teaching, …to educate people on the dangers of drugs and bring into the open taboo subjects like premarital sex and conflicts between the older generation and the young (Theater Group)
Training SEO emphasizes activities to build skills of actors Training, skill building activities, providing vocational services, building capabilities Swayam organizes training in types of work where there is demand for workers, including sectors that have traditionally been reserved for men such as electrical services, plumbing and horticulture (Swayam)
Networking SEO applies methods to connect people and organizations Networking, interlocking, linking, connecting, bridging, build relationships, exchange programs, facilitate meeting, forums, summits With just US$ 250,000 a year, he has been able to organize five World Summits that have brought together around 400 participants from 25 countries (World Toilet Organization)
Counseling SEO advises and guides actors Counseling, advising The services Fenestra offers include crisis assistance and consultancy, counseling, legal advice and advocacy (Fenestra ZZZ)
Organizing SEO develops management services Managing, organizing Gram Vikas works with the villagers to create and manage a “village corpus,” a fund that draws cash and in-kind contributions from all families based on ability to pay (Gram Vikas)
Lending SEO provides loans and financial services Lending, provide financial services, credits, loans, financing The mission of BASIX is to promote a critical mass of opportunities for the rural poor and attract commercial funding by proving that lending to the poor can be a viable business (BASIX)
Treating medically SEO provides healthcare services Health services, provide healthcare, medical treatment CEGIN SRL is a completely self-financed and profitable company, which offers accessibly priced health services to mothers, their children and women in poor rural areas (Centro Ginecológico Integral—CEGIN SRL)
Supplying SEO supplies or commercializes products Supplying, buying, selling To date, Freeplay Energy has sold more than 4.5 million products worldwide, the largest markets by far being North America and Europe (Freeplay Energy)
Lodging SEO provides shelter or lodgings to actors Lodging, provide shelter To gain access to these women—a difficult problem, given their very long workdays and scattered housing—she has decided to create a series of self-sustaining safe residential hostels (Nari Uddug Kendra—NUK)
Employing SEO employs actors or provides jobs Hiring, employing, provide jobs Each year, Job Factory offers 250 unemployed young people a six-month internship in one of 15 divisions (Job Factory)
Others Those actions performed in <2 % of the sample Certifying, building houses, provide security services, provide translation, editing services, collecting waste materials They recognize demonstrated growth in student achievement with RISE Rewards, certificates that teachers can redeem for a wide range of classroom supplies (Resources for Indispensable Schools and Educators—RISE)

Appendix 3

Categorization Matrix

Principles

Principles Worth Typical Behavior Relationship Expressions Key Words
Civic Collective interest Mobilizing people for a collective action Common interest, solidarity Cooperatives, federations, assemblies Citizenship
Collaboration
Community approach
Cooperative
Participatory
Representative
Unity: cohesion
Domestic Trust and respect for tradition, hierarchy and kinship Preserving and reproducing Kinship, face-to-face Household, customs, habits Culture
Family: home
Stability
Tradition
Fame Public opinion, opinion of others Influencing, sensitizing and achieving signs of public esteem Recognition Press conferences, media campaigns Campaign dissemination
Media
Public opinion
Publishing
Raise awareness
Industrial Efficiency, productivity and operational effectiveness Implementing tools, methods and plans Functional, standardized, measurable Organization Efficiency
Experts
Functional
Method: standardize
Organization: management
Productive
Professionalize
Inspired Creativeness, nonconformity Dreaming, imagining and rebelling Emotional, passion Arts Arts
Dreams
Games
Innovation: creativity
Wealth: profits
Valuable: salable
Market Mediation of scarce goods and services; price serves as a mechanism to evaluate these scarce goods Competing and spotting market opportunities Exchange, competitive Salable and marketable things Commercial
Competitive
Income-generation
Ownership
  1. Boltanski and Thévenot (2006, pp. 159–210) argue that there is a plurality of modes of justification. People justify situations appealing to principles or “orders of worth”. Justifications fall into these six main principles

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mair, J., Battilana, J. & Cardenas, J. Organizing for Society: A Typology of Social Entrepreneuring Models. J Bus Ethics 111, 353–373 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1414-3

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1414-3

Keywords

  • Entrepreneuring
  • Organizational field
  • Social change
  • Social entrepreneurship