Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 95, Issue 4, pp 557–569 | Cite as

Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee–Company Identification

  • Hae-Ryong Kim
  • Moonkyu Lee
  • Hyoung-Tark Lee
  • Na-Min Kim
Article

Abstract

This study proposes two identification cuing factors (i.e., CSR associations and CSR participation) to understand how corporate social responsibility (CSR) relates to employees’ identification with their firm. The results reveal that a firm’s CSR initiatives increase employee–company identification (E–C identification). E–C identification, in turn, influences employees’ commitment to their company. However, CSR associations do not directly influence employees’ identification with a firm, but rather influence their identification through perceived external prestige (PEP). Compared to CSR associations, CSR participation has a direct influence on E–C identification. On the basis of these findings, it is argued that CSR performance can be an effective way for companies to maintain a positive relationship with their employees.

Keywords

corporate social responsibility (CSR) CSR associations CSR participation employee–company identification (E–C identification) perceived external prestige (PEP) 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aaker, J. L. and P. Williams: 1998, ‘Empathy versus Pride: The Influence of Emotional Appeals across Cultures’, Journal of Consumer Research 25(3), 241-261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, N. J. and J. P. Meyer: 1990, ‘The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization’, Journal of Occupational Psychology 63(1), 1-18.Google Scholar
  3. Ambrose, M. L., A. Arnaud and M. Schminke: 2008, ‘Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person-Organization Fit on Job Attitudes’, Journal of Business ethics 77(3), 323-333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. C. and D. W. Gerbing: 1988, ‘Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach’, Psychological Bulletin 103(3), 411-423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashforth, B. E., S. H. Harrison and K. G. Corley: 2008, ‘Identification in Organizations: An Examination of Four Fundamental Questions’, Journal of Management 34(3), 325-374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashforth, B. E. and F. Mael: 1989, ‘Social Identity Theory and the Organization’, Academy of Management Review 14(1), 20-39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagozzi, R. P. and Y. Yi: 1988, ‘On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 16(1), 74-94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartels J, A. Pruyn, M. de Jong, I. Joustra (2007) Multiple organizational identification levels and the impact of perceived external prestige and communication climate. Journal of Organizational Behavior 28(2): 173-190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berger, I. E., P. H. Cunningham and M. E. Drumwright: 2004, ‘Social Alliance: Company/Nonprofit Collaboration’, California Management Review 47(1), 58-90.Google Scholar
  10. Berger, I. E., P. H. Cunningham and M. E. Drumwright: 2006, ‘Identity, Identification, and Relationship Through Social Alliances’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34(2), 128-137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bettencourt, L. A.: 1997, ‘Customer Voluntary Performance: Customers As Partners In Service Delivery’, Journal of Retailing 73(3), 383-406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhattacharya, C. B., H. Rao and M. A. Glynn: 1995, ‘Understanding the Bond of Identification: An Investigation of Its Correlates Among Art Museum Members’, Journal of Marketing 59(4), 46-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhattacharya, C. B. and S. Sen: 2003, ‘Consumer-Company Identification: A Framework for Understanding Consumers’ Relationships with Companies’, Journal of Marketing 67(2), 76-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhattacharya, C. B., S. Sen and D. Korschun: 2008, ‘Using Corporate Social Responsibility to Win the War for Talent’, MIT Sloan Management Review 49(2), 37-44.Google Scholar
  15. Brammer, S., A. Millington and B. Rayton: 2007, ‘The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment’, International Journal of Human Resource Management 18 (10), 1701-1719.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, T. J. and P. A. Dacin: 1997, ‘The Company and the Product: Corporate Associations and Consumer Product Responses’, Journal of Marketing 61(1), 68-84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, T. J., P. A. Dacin, M. G. Pratt and D. A. Whetten: 2006, ‘Identity, Intended Image, Construed Image, and Reputation: An Interdisciplinary Framework and Suggested Terminology’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34(2), 99-106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, S. P. and R. A. Peterson: 1994, ‘The Effect of Effort on Sales Performance and Job Satisfaction’, Journal of Marketing 58(2), 70-80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cardador, M. T. and M. G. Pratt: 2006, ‘Identification Management and Its Bases: Bridging Management and Marketing Perspectives Through a Focus on Affiliation Dimensions’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34(2), 174-184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carmines, E. and J. McIver: 1981, ‘Analyzing models with unobserved variables: analysis of covariance structures’, in G. Bohrnstedt and E. Borgatta (eds.), Social Measurement: Current Issues (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA), pp. 65-115.Google Scholar
  21. Carson, S. J., A. Madhok and T. Wu: 2006, ‘Uncertainty, Opportunism, and Governance: The Effects of Volatility and Ambiguity on Formal and Relational Contracting’, Academy of Management Journal 49(5), 1058-1077.Google Scholar
  22. Collier, J. and R. Esteban: 2007, ‘Corporate social responsibility and employee commitment’, Business Ethics: A European Review 16(1), 19-33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilder D, T. N. M. Schuyt, M. Breedijk (2005) Effects of an Employee Volunteering Program on the Work Force: The ABN-AMRO Case. Journal of Business Ethics 61(2): 143-152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dowling, G. R.: 2004, ‘Corporate Reputations: Should You Compete on Yours?’, California Management Review 46(3), 19-36.Google Scholar
  25. Dutton, J. E., J.M. Dukerich and C. V. Harquail: 1994, ‘Organizational Images and Member Identification’, Administrative Science Quarterly 39(2), 239-263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Festinger, L.: 1957, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, (Stanford University Press, Standford, CA).Google Scholar
  27. Gilliland, D. I. and D. C. Bello: 2002, ‘Two Sides to Attitudinal Commitment: The Effect of Calculative and Loyalty Commitment on Enforcement Mechanisms in Distribution Channels’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 30(1), 24-43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilly, M. C. and M. Wolfinbarger: 1998, ‘Advertising’s Internal Audience’, Journal of Marketing 62 (1), 69-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gounaris, S. P.: 2005, ‘Trust and commitment influences on customer retention: insights from business-to-business services’, Journal of Business Research 58(2), 126-140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greening, D. W. and D. B. Turban: 2000, ‘Corporate Social Performance As a Competitive Advantage in Attracting a Quality Workforce’, Business & Society 39(3), 254-280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gundlach, G. T., R. S. Achrol and J. T. Mentzer: 1995, ‘The Structure of Commitment in Exchange’, Journal of Marketing 59(1), 78-92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guzley, R. M.: 1992, ‘Organizational Climate and Communication Climate: Predictors of Commitment to the Organization’, Management Communication Quarterly 5(4), 379-402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herrbach, O. and K. Mignonac: 2004, ‘How organizational image affects employee attitudes’, Human Resource Management Journal 14(4), 76-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hess, D., N. Rogovsky and T. W. Dunfee: 2002, ‘The Next Wave of Corporate Community Involvement: Corporate Social Initiatives’, California Management Review 44(2), 110-125.Google Scholar
  35. Larson, B. V., K. E. Flaherty, A. R. Zablah, T. J. Brown and J. L. Wiener: 2008, ‘Linking cause-related marketing to sales force responses and performance in a direct selling context’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36(2), 271-277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leana, C. R. and G. W. Florkowski: 1992, ‘Employee involvement programs: Integrating psychological theory and management practice’, in G.R. Ferris and K.M. Rowland (eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management 10 (JAI Press, Greenwich, CT), pp. 233-270.Google Scholar
  37. Lee, S-H., T. W. Lee and C-F Lum: 2008, ‘The effects of employee services on organizational commitment and intentions to quit’, Personnel Review 37(2), 222-237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lewin, D.: 1991, ‘Community Involvement, Employee Morale, and Business Performance’, IBM Worldwide Social Responsibility Conference.Google Scholar
  39. Lichtenstein, D. R., M. E. Drumwright and B. M. Braig: 2004, ‘The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Customer Donations to Corporate-Supported Nonprofits’, Journal of Marketing 68(4), 16-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu, G., C. Liston-Heyes and W. W. Ko: 2009, ‘Employee Participation in Cause-Related Marketing Strategies: A Study of Management Perceptions from British Consumer Service Industries’, Journal of Business Ethics. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0148-3.
  41. Luo, X. and C. B. Bhattacharya: 2006, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Satisfaction, and Market Value’, Journal of Marketing 70(4), 1-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maclagan, P.: 1999, ‘Corporate social responsibility as a participative process’, Business Ethics: A European Review 8 (1), 43-49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mael, F. and B. E. Ashforth: 1992, ‘Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification’, Journal of Organizational Behavior 13(2), 103-123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maignan, I. and O. C. Ferrell: 2004, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing: An Integrative Framework’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 32(1), 3-19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marin, L. and S. Ruiz: 2007, ‘“I Need You Too!” Corporate Identity Attractiveness for Consumers and The Role of Social Responsibility’, Journal of Business Ethics 71(3), 245-260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marin, L., S. Ruiz and A. Rubio: 2009, ‘The Role of Identity Salience in the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Consumer Behavior’, Journal of Business Ethics 84(1), 65-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Meyer, J. P. and L. Herscovitch: 2001, ‘Commitment in the workplace Toward a general model’, Human Resource Management Review 11(3), 299-326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morgan, R. M. and S. D. Hunt: 1994, ‘The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing’, Journal of Marketing 58(3), 20-38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morling, B., S. Kitayama and Y. Miyamoto: 2002, ‘Cultural Practices Emphasize Influence in the United States and Adjustment in Japan’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28(3), 311-323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. O’Reilly, C. III and J. Chatman: 1986, ‘Organizational Commitment and Psychological Attachment: The Effects of Compliance, Identification, and Internalization on Prosocial Behavior’, Journal of Applied Psychology 71(3), 492-499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pancer, S. M., M. C. Baetz and E. J. Rog: 2002, ‘Developing an Effective Corporate Volunteer Program: Lessons from the Ford Motor Company of Canada Experience’, Canadian Center for Philanthropy, Toronto, ON.Google Scholar
  52. Park, C. W., D. J. Macinnis and J. Priester: 2006, ‘Beyond Attitudes: Attachment and Consumer Behavior’, Seoul Journal of Business 12(2), 3-35.Google Scholar
  53. Peterson, D. K.: 2004a, ‘The Relationship Between Perceptions of Corporate Citizenship and Organizational Commitment’, Business & Society 43(3), 296-319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peterson, D. K.: 2004b, ‘Recruitment Strategies for Encouraging Participation in Corporate Volunteer Programs’, Journal of Business Ethics 49(4), 371-386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Peterson, D. K.: 2004c, ‘Benefits of participation in corporate volunteer programs: employees’ perceptions’, Personnel Review 33(6), 615-627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pratt, M. G.: 1998, ‘To be or not to be? Central questions in organizational identification’, in D. A. Whetten and P. C. Godfrey (eds.), Identity in organizations: building theory through conversations (Sage publications, Thousand Oaks, CA), pp. 171-207.Google Scholar
  57. Raykov, T.: 1998, ‘Coefficient Alpha and Composite Reliability with Interrelated Nonhomogeneous Items’, Applied Psychological Measurement, 22(4), 375-385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rodrigo, P. and D. Arenas: 2008, ‘Do Employees Care About CSR Programs? A Typology of Employees According to their Attitudes’, Journal of Business Ethics 83(2), 265-283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rupp, D. E., J. Ganapathi, R. V. Aguilera and C. A. Williams: 2006, ‘Employee Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: An Organizational Justice Framework’, Journal of Organizational Behavior 27(4), 537-543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schwochau, S., J. Delaney, P. Jarley and J. Fiorito: 1997, ‘Employee Participation and Assessments of Support for Organizational Policy Changes’, Journal of Labor Research 18(3), 379-401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Scott, S. G. and V. R. Lane: 2000, ‘A Stakeholder Approach to Organizational Identity’, Academy of Management Review 25(1), 43-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sen, S. and C. B. Bhattacharya: 2001, ‘Does Doing Good Always Lead to Doing Better? Consumer Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility’, Journal of Marketing Research 38(2), 225-243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Smidts A., A. Th. H. Pruyn and C. B. M. van Riel: 2001, ‘The Impact of Employee Communication and Perceived External Prestige on Organizational Identification’, Academy of Management Journal 44(5), 1051-1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stebbins, S. J.: 1989, ‘The Influence of Community Service Volunteer Work on Perceptions of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Among Oregon Employees of Pacific Northwest Bell’, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.Google Scholar
  65. Stryker, S. and R. T. Serpe: 1982, ‘Commitment, Identity Salience and Role Behavior: A Theory and Research Example’, in W. Ickes and E. S. Knowles (eds.), Personality, Roles, and Social Behavior (Springer-Verlag, New York, NY), pp. 199-218.Google Scholar
  66. Tajfel, H. and J. C. Turner: 1985, ‘The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior’, in S. Worchel and W. G. Austin (eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations, 2nd edition (Nelson-Hall, Chicago, IL), pp. 7-24.Google Scholar
  67. Valentine, S. and G. Fleischman: 2008, ‘Ethics Programs, Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Job Satisfaction’, Journal of Business Ethics 77(2), 159-172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Verhoef, P.C., P. H. Franses and J. C. Hoekstra: 2002, ‘The Effect of Relational Constructs on Customer Referrals and Number of Services Purchased From a Multiservice Provider: Does Age of Relationship Matter?’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 30(3), 202-216.Google Scholar
  69. Welford, R.: 2004, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe and Asia: Critical Elements and Best Practice’, Journal of Corporate Citizenship 13, 31-47.Google Scholar
  70. Wild, C.: 1993, ‘Corporate Volunteer Programs: Benefits to Business’, The Conference Board Report Report No. 1029, New York, NY.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hae-Ryong Kim
    • 1
  • Moonkyu Lee
    • 2
  • Hyoung-Tark Lee
    • 3
  • Na-Min Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Konkuk UniversityChungjuKorea
  2. 2.Yonsei UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Keimyung UniversityDaeguKorea

Personalised recommendations