Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 85, Issue 3, pp 347–365 | Cite as

Mutually Dependent: Power, Trust, Affect and the Use of Deception in Negotiation

  • Mara OlekalnsEmail author
  • Philip L. Smith


Using a simulated two-party negotiation, we examined how trustworthiness and power balance affected deception. In order to trigger deception, we used an issue that had no value for one of the two parties. We found that high cognitive trust increased deception whereas high affective trust decreased deception. Negotiators who expressed anxiety also used more deception whereas those who expressed optimism also used less deception. The nature of the negotiating relationship (mutuality and level of dependence) interacted with trust and negotiators’ affect to influence levels of deception. Deception was most likely to occur when negotiators reported low trust or expressed negative emotions in the context of nonmutual or low dependence relationships. In these relationships, emotions that signaled certainty were associated with misrepresentation whereas emotions that signaled uncertainty were associated with concealment of information. Negotiators who expressed positive emotions in the context of a nonmutual or high dependence relationship also used less deception. Our results are consistent with a fair trade model in which negotiator increases deception when contextual and interpersonal cues heighten concerns about exploitation and decrease deception when these cues attenuate concerns about exploitation.


deception dyadic negotiation impressions power affect 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, C., & Berdahl, J. 2002. The Experience of Power: Examining the Effects of Power on Approach and Inhibition Tendencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1362–1377. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.83.6.1362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, C., & Galinsky, A. 2006. Power, Optimism & Risk-Taking, European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 511–536. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, C., & Thompson, L. 2004. Affect from the Top Down: How Powerful Individuals’ Positive Affect Shapes Negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95, 125–139. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2004.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aquino, K. 1998. The Effects of Ethical Climate and the Availability of Alternatives on the Use of Deception During Negotiation. International Journal of Conflict Management, 9, 195–217. doi: 10.1108/eb022809 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacharach, S. B., & Lawler, E. J. 1981. Bargaining: Power, Tactics and Outcomes. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, R. A. 1990. Environmentally Induced Positive Affect: Its Impact on Self-Efficacy, Task Performance, Negotiation, and Conflict. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 368–384. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1990.tb00417.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barry, B., I. S. Fulmer and G. A. Van Kleef: 2004, ‹I Laughed, I Cried, I Settled’, in M. Gelfand and J. Brett (eds.), Handbook of Culture and Negotiation (Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA)Google Scholar
  8. Blau, P.M. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New Brunswick, NJ: TransactionGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohner, G., & Weinerth, T. 2001. Negative Affect can Increase Message Scrutiny; The Affect Interpretation Hypothesis. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1417–1428. doi: 10.1177/01461672012711003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bok, S. 1978. Lying: A Moral Choice in Public and Private Life. New York: PantheonGoogle Scholar
  11. Boles, T. L., Croson, R. T., & Murnighan, J. K. 2000. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 83, 235–259. doi: 10.1006/obhd.2000.2908 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bond, G. D., & Lee, A. Y. 2005. Language of Lies in Prison: Linguistic Classification of Prisoners’ Truthful and Deceptive Natural Language. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 313–329. doi: 10.1002/acp.1087 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boon, S. D., & Holmes, J. G. 1991. The Dynamics of Interpersonal Trust: Resolving Uncertainty in the Face of Risk. In R. A. Hinde, & J. Groebel (Eds.), Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  14. Brett, J., Olekalns, M., Friedman, R., Goates, N., Anderson, C., & Lisco, C. 2007. Sticks and Stones: Language and On-Line Dispute Resolution. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 85–100Google Scholar
  15. Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. 1992. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  16. Burke, P. A., & Dollinger, S. J. 2005. A Picture’s Worth a Thousand Words: Language Use in the Autophotographic Essay. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 536–548. doi: 10.1177/0146167204271714 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carnevale, P. J. 2008. Positive Affect and Decisions Frames in Negotiation. Group Decision and Negotiation, 17, 51–63. doi: 10.1007/s10726-007-9090-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carnevale, P. J., & Isen, A. M. 1986. The Influence of Positive Affect and Visual Access on the Discovery of Integrative Solutions in Bilateral Negotiation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37, 1–13. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(86)90041-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carnevale, P. J., C. Wan, R. Dalal and K. M. O’Connor: 2001, ‹Strategic Misrepresentation of Indifference in Bilateral Negotiation’, Presented at International Association of Conflict Management Conference, Cergy, FranceGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, S., Lee-Chai, A., & Bargh, J. 2001. Relationship Orientation as a Moderator of the Effects of Social Power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 173–187. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.2.173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clore G. L., Gasper K., & Garvin E. 2001. Affect as Information. In: J. P. Forgas (Ed). Handbook of Affect and Social Cognition. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 121–144Google Scholar
  22. Copeland, J.T. 1994. Prophecies of Power: Motivational Implications of Social Power for Behavioral Confirmation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 264–277. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. 2005. Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review. Journal of Management, 31, 874–900. doi: 10.1177/0149206305279602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Dreu, C. 1995. Coercive Power and Concession Making in Bilateral Negotiations. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 39, 646–670. doi: 10.1177/0022002795039004003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Dreu, C., & Van Kleef, G. 2003. The Influence of Power on the Information Search, Impression Formation, and Demands in Negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 303–319. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2003.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dees, J. G., & Cramton, P. C. 1991. Shrewd Bargaining on the Moral Frontier: Toward a Theory of Morality in Practice. Business Ethics Quarterly, 1, 135–167. doi: 10.2307/3857260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Druckman, D., & Olekalns, M. 2008. Emotion in Negotiation. Group Decision and Negotiation, 17, 1–11. doi: 10.1007/s10726-007-9091-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunn, J. R., & Schweitzer, M. E. 2005. Feeling and Believing: The Influence of Emotion on Trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 736–748 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.5.736 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eisenberg, N. 2000. Emotion, Regulation and Moral Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665–697. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.665 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ekman, P. 2001. Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics and Marriage. New York: W.W. Norton & CoGoogle Scholar
  31. Elangovan, A., & Shapiro, D. 1998. Betrayal of Trust in Organizations. Academy of Management Review, 23, 547–566. doi: 10.2307/259294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Emerson, R. M. 1962. Power-Dependence Relationships. American Sociological Review, 27, 31–40. doi: 10.2307/2089716 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Foa E. B., & Foa, U. G. 1980. Resource Theory: Interpersonal Behavior as Exchange. In: K. Gergen, M. Greenberg, & R. Willis (Eds), Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research. New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  34. Forgas, J. P. 1998. On Feeling Good and Getting Your Way: Mood Effects on Negotiator Cognition and Bargaining Strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 565–577. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.3.565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedman, R., Brett, J., Anderson, C., Olekalns, M., Goates, N., & Lisco, C. 2004. Emotions and Rationality in Mediation: Evidence from Electronically-Mediated Disputes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 369–376. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.2.369 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galinsky, A., Gruenfeld, D., & Magee, J. 2003. From Power to Action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 453–466. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.453 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaudine, A., & Thorne, L. 2001. Emotion and Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 31, 175–187. doi: 10.1023/A:1010711413444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giebels, E., De Dreu, C., & Van de Vliert, E. 1998a. The Alternative Negotiator as the Invisible Third Party at the Table: The Impact of Potency Information. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 9, 5–21. doi: 10.1108/eb022802 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Giebels, E., De Dreu, C., & Van de Vliert, E. 1998b. Social Motives and Trust in Negotiation: The Disruptive Effects of Punitive Capability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 408–422. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giebels, E., De Dreu, C., & Van de Vliert, E. 2000. Interdependence in Negotiation: Effects of Exit Options and Social Motive on Distributive and Integrative Negotiations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 255–272 doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(200003/04)30:2<255::AID-EJSP991>3.0.CO;2-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Handelman, L. D., & Lester, D. 2007. The Content of Suicide Notes from Attempters and Completers, Crisis. The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 28, 102–104. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910.28.2.102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hegarty, W. H., & Sims, H. P. 1978. Some Determinants of Unethical Decision Behavior: An Experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology 4, 451–457. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.63.4.451 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hirt, E. R., Devers, E. E., & McCrea, S. M. 2008. I Want to be Creative: Exploring the Role of Hedonic Contingency Theory in the Positive Mood-Cognitive Flexibility Link. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 214–230. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. 1987. Positive Affect Facilitates Creative Problem Solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1122–1131. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones, T. M. 1991. Ethical Decision-Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue Contingent Model. Academy of Management Review 16, 366–395. doi: 10.2307/258867 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Keltner, D., Gruenfeld, D., & Anderson, C. 2003. Power, Approach and Inhibition, Psychological Review, 110, 265–284. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.2.265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kenny D., Kashy D., & Bolger, N. 1998. Data Analysis in Social Psychology. In: D. T. Gilbert & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (Vol 2, 4th ed.), New York, McGraw Hill, 233–265Google Scholar
  48. Kim, P., Pinkley, R., & Fragale, A. 2005. Power Dynamics in Negotiation. Academy of Management Review, 30, 799–822Google Scholar
  49. Kollock, P. 1994. The Emergence of Exchange Structures: An Experimental Study of Uncertainty, Commitment and Trust. The American Journal of Sociology, 100, 313–345. doi: 10.1086/230539 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kramer, R. M.: 1994, `The Sinister Attribution Error: Paranoid Cognition and Collective Distrust in Organizations', Motivation & Emotion 18, 199–230Google Scholar
  51. Langfred, K. 2004. Too Much of a Good Thing? Negative Effects of High Trust and Individual Autonomy in Self-Managing Teams. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 385–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lawler, E. 1992. Power Processes in Bargaining. Sociological Quarterly, 33, 17–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1992.tb00361.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lawler, E. 2001. An affect Theory of Social Exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 321–352. doi: 10.1086/324071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lawler, E. J. and S. R. Thye: 1999, `Bringing Emotions into Social Exchange Theory', Annual Review of Sociology 25, 217–244Google Scholar
  55. Lawler, E., & Yoon, J. 1998. Network Structure and Emotion in Exchange Relationships. American Sociological Review, 63, 871–894. doi: 10.2307/2657506 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. 2001. Fear, Anger, and Risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 146–159. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.1.146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lerner, J. S., Small, D. A., Loewenstein, G. 2004. Heart Strings and Purse Strings: Effects of Specific Emotions on Economic Transactions. Psychological Science, 15, 337–341. doi: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00679.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewicki, R. 1983. Lying and Deception: A Behavioral Model. In: M. H. Bazerman, & R. J. Lewicki (Eds.) Negotiating in Organizations. Beverly Hills; SageGoogle Scholar
  59. Lewicki, R. J., M. A. Stevenson and B. B. Bunker: 1997, ‹The Three Components on Interpersonal Trust: Instrument Development and Differences Across Relationships’, Paper Presented at the Academy of Management MeetingGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewicki R., & Wiethoff C. 2000. Trust, Trust Development, and Trust Repair. In: M. Deutsch & P. T. Coleman (Eds). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. SF: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, 86–107Google Scholar
  61. Malhotra, D. and M. Bazerman: 2007, Negotiation Genius (Bantam Books, New York)Google Scholar
  62. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. 1995. An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust. Academy of Management Review, 20, 709–734. doi: 10.2307/258792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McAllister, D. J. 1995. Affect- and Cognition-Based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 24–59. doi: 10.2307/256727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., & Chervany, N. L. 1998. Initial Trust Formation in New Organizational Relationships. Academy of Management Review, 23, 473–490. doi: 10.2307/259290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meyerson, D., Weick K. E., & Kramer, R. M. 1996. Swift Trust and Temporary Groups. In: R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler (Eds). Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc, 166–195Google Scholar
  66. Molm, L. D. 1991. Affect and Social Exchange: Satisfaction in Power-Dependence Relations. American Sociological Review, 56, 475–493. doi: 10.2307/2096269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Molm, L. D., Takhashi, N., & Peterson, G. 2000. Risk and Trust in Social Exchange: An Experimental Test of a Classical Proposition. The American Journal of Sociology, 105, 1396–1427. doi: 10.1086/210434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Murnighan, J. K., Babcock, L., Thompson, L., & Pillutla, M. 1999. The Information Dilemma in Negotiations: Effects of Experience, Incentives and Integrative Potential. International Journal of Conflict Management, 10, 313–339. doi: 10.1108/eb022828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Newman, M. L., Pennebaker, J. W., Berry, D. S., & Richards, J. M. 2003. Lying Words: Predicting Deception from Linguistic Styles. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 665–675. doi: 10.1177/0146167203029005010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. O’Connor, K., & Carnevale, P. 1997. A Nasty but Effective Negotiation Strategy: Misrepresentation of a Common-Value Issue. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 504–519. doi: 10.1177/0146167297235006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. O’Fallon, M. J., & Butterfield, K. D. 2005. A Review of the Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. Journal of Business Ethics, 59, 375–413, doi: 10.1007/s10551-005-2929-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Olekalns, M., F. Lau and P. Smith: 2007, ‹Resolving the Empty Core: Trust as a Determinant of Outcomes in Three-Party Negotiations’, Group Decision & Negotiation 16, 527–538. doi:10.1007/s10726-007-9084-8Google Scholar
  73. Olekalns, M., & Smith, P. 2005. Moments in Time: Metacognition, Trust and Outcomes in Negotiation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1696–1707. doi: 10.1177/0146167205278306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Olekalns, M., & Smith, P. 2007. Loose with the Truth: Predicting Deception in Negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics, 76, 225–238. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9279-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Overbeck, J. R., & Park, B. 2001. When Power does not Corrupt: Superior Individuation Processes Among Powerful Perceivers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 549–565. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.4.549 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pennebaker, J. W., Mehl, M. R., & Niederhoffer, K. G. 2003. Psychological Aspects of Natural Language Use: Our Words, Our Selves. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 47–577. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Raghunathan, R., & Pham, M. T. 1999. All Negative Moods are not Equal: Motivational Influences of Anxiety and Sadness on Decision Making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79, 56–77. doi: 10.1006/obhd.1999.2838 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rousseau, D., Sitkin, S., Burt, R. S., & Camerer, C. 1998. Not so Different After all: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust. Academy of Management Review, 23, 393–404Google Scholar
  79. Rubin, J. R., & Zartman, I. W. 1999. Asymmetrical Negotiations: Some Survey Results that Might Surprise. Negotiation Journal, 11, 349–364. doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.1995.tb00751.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rubin, J. R., & Zartman, I. W. 2000. Power and Negotiation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan PressGoogle Scholar
  81. Rude, S. S., Gortner, E.-M., & Pennebaker, J. W. 2004. Language Use of Depressed and Depression-Vulnerable College Students. Cognition & Emotion, 18, 1121–1133. doi: 10.1080/02699930441000030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rusbult C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. 2003. Interdependence Interaction and Relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 351–375. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schul, Y., R. Mayo and E. Burnstein: 2004, `Encoding Under Trust and Distrust: The Spontaneous Activation of Incongruent Cognitions', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86, 668–679Google Scholar
  84. Schwarz N. 1990. Feelings as Information: Information and Motivational Functions of Affect States. In: T. E. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior. New York: Guilford, pp 527–561Google Scholar
  85. Schweitzer, M. E., & Croson, R. 1999. Curtailing Deception: The Impact of Direct Questions on Lies and Omissions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 10, 225–248. doi: 10.1108/eb022825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sheppard, B. H., & Sherman, D. M. 1998. The Grammars of Trust: A Model and General Implications. Academy of Management Review, 23, 422–438. doi: 10.2307/259287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shiota M. N., Campos B., Keltner D., Hertenstein M. J. 2004. Positive Emotion and the Regulation of Interpersonal Relationships. In: Philippot P., & Feldman R. S. (Eds). The Regulation of Emotion. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 127–155Google Scholar
  88. Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. 2002. Relative Power and Influence Strategy: The Effects of Agent/Target Organizational Power on Superiors’ Choices of Influence Strategies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 167–179. doi: 10.1002/job.133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Spranca, M., Minsk, E., & Baron, J. 1991. Omission and Commission in Judgment and Choice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 76–105. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(91)90011-T CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Steinel, W., & De Dreu, C. K. W. 2004. Social Motives and Strategic Misrepresentation in Social Decision Making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 419–434. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.86.3.419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tenbrunsel, A. 1998. Misrepresentation and Expectations of Misrepresentation in an Ethical Dilemma: The Role of Incentives and Temptation. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 330–349. doi: 10.2307/256911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tenbrunsel A., & Messick, D. 2001. Power Asymmetries and the Ethical Atmosphere in Negotiations. In: J. Darley, D. Messick, & T. Tyler (Eds.), Social Influences on Ethical Behaviors in Organizations (210–216). NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  93. Tiedens, L. Z., & Linton, S. 2001. Judgment Under Emotional Certainty and Uncertainty: The Effects of Specific Emotions on Information Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 973–988. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.6.973 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Trevino, L. K. 1986. Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model. Academy of Management Review, 11, 601–617. doi: 10.2307/258313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Trevino, L. K., Weaver, G. R., & Reynolds, S. J. 2006. Behavioral Ethics on Organizations: A Review. Journal of Management, 32, 951–990. doi: 10.1177/0149206306294258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Kleef, G. A., De Dreu, C. K., Pietroni, D., & Manstead, A. S. 2006. Power and Emotion in Negotiation: Power Moderates the Interpersonal Effects of Anger and Happiness on Concession Making. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 557–581. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vrij, A., Mann, S., Kristen, S., & Fisher, R. P. 2007. Cues to Deception and Ability to Detect Lies as a Function of Police Interview Styles. Law and Human Behavior, 31, 499–518. doi: 10.1007/s10979-006-9066-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. White, C. H., & Burgoon, J. K. 2001. Adaptation and Communicative Design: Patterns of Interaction in Truthful and Deceptive Conversations. Human Communication Research, 21, 9–37. doi: 10.1093/hcr/27.1.9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wolfe, R. J., & McGinn, K. L. 2005. Perceived Relative Power and Its Influence on Negotiations. Group Decision and Negotiation, 14, 3–20. doi: 10.1007/s10726-005-3873-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yamagishi, T., & Yamagishi, M. 1994. Trust and Commitment in the United States and Japan. Motivation and Emotion, 18, 9–66. doi: 10.1007/BF02249397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhou, L., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker, J. F. Jr., & Twitchell, D. 2004. Automating Linguistics-Based Cues for Detecting Deception in Text-Based Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication, Group Decision and Negotiation, 13, 81–106. doi: 10.1023/B:GRUP.0000011944.62889.6f CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Melbourne Business SchoolUniversity of MelbourneCarltonAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations