Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Ethical Fairness and Human Rights: The Treatment of Employees with Psychiatric Disabilities

  • Published:
Journal of Business Ethics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Extant business research has not addressed the ethical treatment of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. This article will describe previous research on individuals with psychiatric disabilities drawn from rehabilitation, psychological, managerial, legal, as well as related business ethics writings before presenting a framework that illustrates the dynamics of (un)ethical behavior in relation to the employment of such individuals. Individuals with psychiatric disabilities often evoke negative reactions from those in their environment. Lastly, we provide recommendations for how employees and organizations can become more proactive in providing individuals with such disabilities equal employment opportunities for both access and accommodation in the workplace.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alder G. S, Gilbert J.: 2006, Achieving Ethics and Fairness in Hiring: Going Beyond the Law, Journal of Business Ethics 68, 449–464. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9039-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baldridge D. C., Veiga J. F.: 2006, The Impact of Anticipated Social Consequences on Recurring Disability Accommodation Requests, Journal of Management 32 (1), 158–179. doi:10.1177/0149206305277800

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura A.: 1999, Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities, Personality and Social Psychology Review 3, 193–209. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr0303_3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura A., Barbaranelli C., Caprara G. V., Pastorelli C.: 1996, Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (2), 364–374. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bee, L. and G. L. Maatman, Jr.: 2003, ‹Demonstrating Good Faith Helps Buyers Avoid, Win Suits by Disabled Workers’, National Underwriter/Property & Casuality Risk & Benefits Management Edition, February 3, 2003, pp. 26–27

  • Bruyère, S. M., A. J. Houtenville and S. A. Ruiz-Quintanilla: 2007, ‹Disability and Diversity: A Comparative Study on Workplace Employment Discrimination Claims’, Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology, New York, NY

  • Butterfield K. D., Treviño L. K., Weaver G. R.: 2000, Moral Awareness in Business Organizations: Influences of Issue-Related and Social Context Factors, Human Relations, 53(7), 981–1018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crampton S. M., Hodge J. W.: 2003, The ADA and Disability Accommodations, Public Personnel Management 32(1), 143–154

    Google Scholar 

  • Duckworth, K.: 2007, ‹The Virginia Tech Tragedy: Distinguishing Mental Illness from Violence’, Medical News Today, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=69386 (Accessed May 23, 2007)

  • Eisenberg, N.: 1986, Altruistic Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior (Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellison M. L., Russinova Z., MacDonald-Wilson K. L., Lyass A.: 2003, Patterns and Correlates of Workplace Disclosure Among Professionals and Managers with Psychiatric Conditions, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 18, 3–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Finkel, E.: 2005. Working Despite Disabilities, Modern Healthcare 35 (50), 32

    Google Scholar 

  • Godson, N.: 2007, Note to Business Schools: Practice What You Teach, Baylor Business Review 25(2): 48–49

    Google Scholar 

  • Goffman, E.: 1963, Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall)

    Google Scholar 

  • Graham, J. W.: 1995, Leadership, Moral Development and Citizenship Behavior, Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (1): 43–54. doi:10.2307/3857271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenwood R., Johnson V. A.: 1987, Employer Perspectives on Workers with Disabilities, Journal of Rehabilitation 53, 37–45

    Google Scholar 

  • Hafen J.: 2006, Making Reasonable Accommodations for Employees with Mental Illness Under the ADA, Employee Benefit Plan Review 61 (3), 10–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Hergenrather K. C., Rhodes S. D.: 2004, Placing Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder into Jobs: Applications of Behavioral Theory, Rehabilitation Education 18 (2): 77–92

    Google Scholar 

  • Hitt M. A., Miller C. C., Colella A.: 2006, Organizational Behavior: A Strategic Approach (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson C. J., Furnham A., Willen K.: 2000, Employer Willingness to Comply with the Disability Discrimination Act Regarding Staff Selection in the UK, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 73, 119–129. doi:10.1348/096317900166912

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson V. A., Greenwood R., Schriner K. F.: 1988, Work Performance and Work Personality: Employer Concerns About Workers with Disabilities, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 32, 50–57

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones B., Gallagher B. J., Kelley J. M., Massari L. O.: 1991, A Survey of Fortune 500 Corporate Policies Concerning the Psychiatrically Handicapped, Journal of Rehabilitation 57, 31–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Keaty A., Srivastava R., Stewart G. T.: 2005, Trying to Adhere to the ADA: Understanding “Mental Disability” in Hiring Personnel, Equal Opportunities International 24 (2), 42–53. doi:10.1108/02610150510788006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohlberg L.: 1969, Stage and Sequence. The Cognitive Developmental Approach to Socialization, In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of Socialization Theory: 347–480. Chicago: Rand McNally

    Google Scholar 

  • Laden V. A., Schwartz G.: 2000, Psychiatric Disabilities, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the New Workplace Violence Account, Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 21 (1), 246–270

    Google Scholar 

  • LeVar T.: 2001, Why an Employer does not have to Answer for Preventing an Employee with a Disability from Utilizing Corrective Measures: The Relationship Between Mitigation and Reasonable Accommodation, BYU Journal of Public Law 16 (1), 69–87

    Google Scholar 

  • Loviscky G. E., Treviño L. K., Jacobs R. R.: 2007, Assessing Managers’ Ethical Decision-Making: An Objective Measure of Managerial Moral Judgment, Journal of Business Ethics 73, 263–285. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9206-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacDonald-Wilson K. L., Rogers E. S., Massaro J. M., Lyass A., Crean T.: 2002, An Investigation of Reasonable Workplace Accommodations for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: Quantitative Findings from a Multi-Site Study, Community Mental Health Journal 38(1), 35–50. doi:10.1023/A:1013955830779

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Massengill D.: 2004, How Much Better are You? Impairments, Mitigating Measures and the Determination of Disability, Public Personnel Management 33 (2), 181–199

    Google Scholar 

  • Mechanic D., Bilder S., McAlpine D. D.: 2002, Employing Persons with Serious Mental Illness, Health Affairs 21 (5), 242–253. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.21.5.242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merrit J.: 2003, Ethics is also a B-School Business, Business Week 3817, 105

    Google Scholar 

  • Percy S. L.: 2000, Administrative Remedies and Legal Disputes: Evidence on Key Controversies Underlying Implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act, Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 21 (1), 413–436

    Google Scholar 

  • Persson A. J., Hansson S. O.: 2003, Privacy at Work—Ethical Criteria, Journal of Business Ethics 42, 59–70. doi:10.1023/A:1021600419449

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reskin B., Padavic I.: 1994, Women and Men at Work (Pine Forge Press: Thousand Oaks, CA)

    Google Scholar 

  • Rest J. R.: 1986, Moral Development: Advances in Research and Theory (Praeger: New York)

    Google Scholar 

  • Rest J. R., Narvaez D., Bebeau M. J., Thoma S. J.: 1999, Post-Conventional Moral Thinking: A Neo-Kolhbergian Approach (Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ)

    Google Scholar 

  • Scheid T. L.: 1999, Employment of Individuals with Mental Disabilities: Business Response to the ADA’s Challenge, Behavioral Sciences and the Law 17, 73–91. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199901/03)17:1≤73::AID-BSL326≥3.0.CO;2-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sheffield J. W.: 2005, Navigating Current Trends Under the ADA, Employee Relations Law Journal 31 (1), 3–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Society for Human Resource Management: 2007, Society of Human Resource Management Code of Ethical and Professional Standards in Human Resource Management. http://www.shrm.org/ethics/ (Accessed June 28, 2007)

  • Stefan S.: 2001, Unequal Rights: Discrimination Against People with Mental Disabilities and the Americans with Disabilities Act (American Psychological Association: Washington, DC)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Stefan S.:2002, Hollow Promises: Employment Discrimination Against People with Mental Disabilities (American Psychological Association: Washington, DC)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Stone D. L., Colella A.: 1996, A Model of Factors Affecting the Treatment of Disabled Individuals in Organizations, Academy of Management Review 21 (2): 352–401. doi:10.2307/258666

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tessler R. C., Schwartz S. H.: 1972, Help Seeking, Self-Esteem, and Achievement Motivation: An Attributional Analysis, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 21 (3), 318–326. doi:10.1037/h0032321

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson S. K.: 2005, Hostile Work Environment Disability Harassment Under ADA, UMKC Law Review 73 (3), 715–738

    Google Scholar 

  • Towns D. M., Moore J. E.: 2005, Who is Running the Asylum? A Practical Approach to Managing Mental Disabilities Under the ADA, Employee Relations Law Journal 30 (4), 27–41

    Google Scholar 

  • Treviño L. K.: 1986, Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person Situation Interactionist Model, Academy of Management Review 11 (3), 601–617. doi:10.2307/258313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treviño, L. K.: 1990, ‹A Cultural Perspective on Changing and Developing Organizational Ethics’, in R. Woodman and W. Passmore (eds.), Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 4, pp. 195–230

  • Treviño L. K.: 1992, The Social Effects of Punishment: A Justice Perspective, Academy of Management Review 17, 647–676. doi:10.2307/258803

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treviño L. K., Weaver G. R., Reynolds S. J.: 2006, Behavioral Ethics in Organizations: A Review, Journal of Management 32 (6), 951–990. doi:10.1177/0149206306294258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment: 1994, Psychiatric Disabilities, Employment, and, the Americans with Disabilities Act (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC)

    Google Scholar 

  • Weber P. S., Davis E., Sebastian R. J.: 2002, Mental Health and the ADA: A Focus Group Discussion with Human Resource Practitioners, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal 14 (1), 45–55. doi:10.1023/A:1015700729141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams K. B., Williams K. D.: 1983, Social Inhibition and Asking for Help: The Effects of Number, Strength, and Immediacy of Potential Help Givers, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44 (1), 67–77. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson M.: 2006, Walgreens Leads the Way, Chain Store Age 82 (7), 37–39

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lizabeth A. Barclay.

Additional information

Both authors contributed equally.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Barclay, L.A., Markel, K.S. Ethical Fairness and Human Rights: The Treatment of Employees with Psychiatric Disabilities . J Bus Ethics 85, 333–345 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9773-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9773-5

Keywords

Navigation