Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 84, Issue 3, pp 297–311 | Cite as

The Impact of Perceived Organizational Ethical Climate on Work Satisfaction

  • Meral ElçiEmail author
  • Lütfihak Alpkan
Article

Abstract

This empirical study investigates the effects of nine ethical climate types (self-interest, company profit, efficiency, friendship, team interest, social responsibility, personal morality, company rules and procedures, and lastly laws and professional codes) on employee work satisfaction. The ethical climate typology developed by Victor and Cullen (in W. C. Frederick (ed.) Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, 1987; Administrative Science Quarterly 33, 101–125, 1988) is tested on a sample of staff and managers from 62 different telecommunication firms in Turkey. The results obtained from the 1174 usable questionnaires confirm the existence of nine different ethical climate types observed in western cultures in the present sample context, which is a developing Muslim country. Regarding the effects of ethical climatic factors on employee work satisfaction, self-interest climate type appears to negatively influence work satisfaction, whereas team interest, social responsibility and law and professional codes climate types are found to have positive impacts. Managerial and further research implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords

ethical climate measurement egoistic climates benevolent climates principled climates telecommunication sector Turkey work satisfaction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abelson M. A.: 1987, Examination of Avoidable and Unavoidable Turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology 72, 382–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwall J., Malloy D. C.: 1999, Ethical Work Climate Dimensions in a Not-For-Profit Organization: An Emprical Study. Journal of Business Ethics 20, 1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appelbaum S. H., Deguire K. J., Lay M.: 2005, The Relationship of Ethical Climate to Deviant Workplace Behavior. Corporate Governance, 5(4), 43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold H. J., Feldman D. C. A.: 1982, Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of Job Turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology 67, 350–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babin B. J., J. S. Boles, D. P. Robin: 2000, Representing the Perceived Ethical Work Climate Among Marketing Employees. Academy of Marketing Science 28(3), 345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnett T., Vaicys C.: 2000, The Moderating Effect of Indıviduals’ Perceptions of Ethical Work Climate on Ethical Judgements and Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 27, 351–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baroudi J. J.: 1985, The Impact of Role Variables on is Personnel Work Attitudes and Intentions. MIS Quarterly 9(4), 341–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brower H. H., Shrader C. B.: 2000, Moral Reasoning and Ethical Climate: Not-For-Profit vs. for-Profit Boards of Directors. Journal of Business Ethics 26, 147–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown S. P., Peterson R. A.: 1993, Antecedents and Consequences of Salesperson Job Satisfaction: Meta-Analysis and Assessment of Causal Effects. Journal of Marketing Research 30, 63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown S. P., Peterson R. A.: 1994, The Effect on Sales Performance and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Marketing, 58, 70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bussing A., Bissell T., Fuchs V., Perrar K. M.: 1999, A Dynamic Model of Work Satisfaction: Qualitative Approaches. Human Relations 52(8), 999–1028Google Scholar
  12. Cullen J. B., Parboteeah K. P., Victor B.: 2003, The Effects of Ethical Climates on Organizational Commitment: A Two-Study Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics 46, 127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cullen J. B., Victor B., Bronson J. W.: 1993, The Ethical Climate Questionnaire. An Assessment of its Development and Validity. Psychological Reports 73, 667–674Google Scholar
  14. Deshpande S. P.: 1996, Ethical Climate and the Link Between Success and Ethical Behavior: An Empirical Investigation of a Non-Profit Organization. Journal of Business Ethics 15(3), 315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fritzsche D. J.: 2000, Ethical Climates and the Ethical Dimension of Decision-Making. Journal of Business Ethics 24, 125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hochwarter W. A., Perrewe P. L., Ferns G. R., Brymer R. A.: 1999, Job Satisfaction and Performance: The Moderating Effects of Value Attainment and Affective Disposition. Journal of Vocational Behavior 54(2), 296–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jaramillo F., Mulki J. P., Marshall G. W.: 2005, A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Salesperson Job Performance: 25 Years of Research. Journal of Business Research 58(6), 705–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jaramillo F., Mulki J.P, Solomon P.: 2006, The Role of Ethical Climate on Salesperson’s Role Stress, Job Attitudes, Turnover Intention, and Job Performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management XXVI(3), 271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnston M. W., Parasuraman A., Futrell C. M., Black W. C.: 1990, A Longitudinal Assessment of the Impact of Selected Organizational Influences on Salespeople’s Organizational Commitment During Early Employment. Journal of Marketing Research 27, 333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Joseph, J. and S. P. Deshpande: 1997, ‹The Impact of Ethical Climate on Job Satisfaction of Nurses’, Health Care Management Review 22, 1; Abi/Inform Global, p. 76Google Scholar
  21. Kahn, R. L.: 1973, ‹The Work Module: A Tonic for Lunchpail Lassitude’, Psychology Today 6, 94–95Google Scholar
  22. Koh H. C., Boo E. H. Y.: 2001, The Link Between Organizational Ethics and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Managers Singapore. Journal of Business Ethics 29, 309–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Laabs J. J.: 1997, Aristotle’s Advice for Business Succes. Workforce 76, 75–79Google Scholar
  24. Locke E. A.: 1976, The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction. In Dunnette M. D. (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago, IL: Rand McNallyGoogle Scholar
  25. Low G. S., David W. C., Grant K., Moncrief W. C.: 2001, Antecedents and Consequences of Salesperson Burnout. European Journal of Marketing 35(5–6), 587–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meron R. K.: 1957, Social Theory and Social Structure. Free Press, NewyorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Mulki J. P., Jaramillo F., Locander W. B.: 2006, Effects of Ethical Climate and Supervisory Trust on Salesperson’s Job Attitudes and Intentions to Quit. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management XXVI(1), 19–26Google Scholar
  28. Netemeyer R. G., Brashear-Alejandro T., Boles J. S.: 2004, A Cross-National Model of Job-Related Outcomes of Work Role and Family Role Variables: A Retail Sales Context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 32(1), 49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nunnally, J. C.: 1978, Psychometric Theory, 2nd Edition (McGraw-Hill, New York)Google Scholar
  30. Peterson D. K.: 2002, The Relationship Between Unethical Behavior and the Dimensions of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire. Journal of Business Ethics 41, 313–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Podsakoff P. M., MacKenzie S. B., Lee J. Y., Podsakoff N. P.: 2003, Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology 88(5), 879–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Porter L. W., Steers R. M.: 1973, Organizational, Work, and Personal Factors In Employee Turnover and Absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin 80(2), 151–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sager J. K., Johnston M. W.: 1989, Antecedents and Outcomes of Organisational Commitment: A Study of Salespeople. Journal of Personnall Selling and Sales Management 9, 30–41Google Scholar
  34. Sager J. K., Varadarajan P. R., Futrell C. M.: 1988, Understnding Salesperson Turnover: A Partial Evaluation of Mobley’s Turnover Process Model. Journal of Personnall Selling and Sales Management 8, 20–35Google Scholar
  35. Schneider B.: 1975, Organizational Climates: an Essay. Personnel Psychology 28, 447–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schneider, B. and J. Rentsch: 1988, ‹Managing Climates and Cultures: A Futures Perspective’, in J. Hage (ed.), Futures of Organisations: Innovating to Adapt Strategy and Human Resources to Rapid Technological Change (Lexington Books, Toronto), pp. 181–201Google Scholar
  37. Schwepker C. H. Jr.: 2001, Ethical Climate’s Relationship to Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover in the Sales Force. Journal of Business Research 54(1), 39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schwepker C. H., Hartline M. D.: 2005, Managing the Ethical Climate of Customer-Contact Service Employees. Journal of Service Research 7(4), 377–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seashore S. E., Taber T. D.: 1975, Job Satisfaction Indicators and Their Correlates. American Behavior and Scientist, 18(1), 333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shaffer M. S., Harrison D. A.: 1998, Expatriate’s Psychological Withdrawal from International Assignments: Work, Non-Work, and Family Influences. Personnel Psychology 51, 87–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Singh J., Verbeke W., Rhoads G. K.: 1996, Do Organizational Practices Matter in Role Stress Processes? A Study of Direct and Moderating Effects for Marketing-Oriented Boundary Spanners. Journal of Marketing 60, 69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Upchurch R. S.: 1998, Ethics in the Hospitality Industry: An Applied Model. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 10(6), 227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Upchurch R. S., Ruhland, S. K.: 1995, An Analysis of Ethical Work Climate and Leadership Relationship in Lodging Operations. Journal of Travel Research 34(2), 36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Valentine S., Barnett T.: 2003, Ethics Code Awareness, Perceived Ethical Values, and Organizational Commitment. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 23(4), 359–365Google Scholar
  45. Victor B., Cullen J. B.: 1987, A Theory and Measure of Ethical Climate in Organizations. In W. C. Frederick (Ed.) Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy (pp. 51–71). Greenwich CT: JAI PressGoogle Scholar
  46. Victor B., Cullen J. B.: 1988, The Organizational Bases of Ethical Work Climates. Administrative Science Quarterly 33, 101–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Viswesvaran C., Deshpande S. P.: 1996, Ethics, Success and Job Satisfaction: A Test of Dissonance Theory in India. Journal of Business Ethics 15(10), 1065–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Viswesvaran C., Deshpande S. P.: 1998, Job Satisfaction as a Function of Top Management Support for Ethical Behaviour: A Study of Indian Managers. Journal of Business Ethics 17(4), 365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vitell S. J., Davis D. L.: 1990, The Relationship Between Ethics and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Business Ethics 9(6), 489–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vroom V. H.: 1964, Work and Motivation. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Weeks W. A., Loe T. W., Chonko L. B., Wakefield K.: 2004, The Effect of Perceived Ethical Climate on the Search for Sales Force Excellence. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 24(3), 199–214Google Scholar
  52. Woodbine G. F.: 2006, Ethical Climate Types and Job Satisfaction: Study of Chinese Financial Institutions. International Review of Business Research Papers 2(1), 86–99Google Scholar
  53. Wu X. W.: 1999, Business Ethical Perceptions of Business People in East China: An Empirical Study. Business Ethics Quarterly 9(3), 541–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Business AdministrationGebze Institute of TechnologyGebzeTurkey

Personalised recommendations