Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 315–329 | Cite as

On a Source of Social Capital: Gift Exchange

  • Wilfred DolfsmaEmail author
  • Rene van der Eijk
  • Albert Jolink


The concept of social capital helps to explain relations within and between companies but has not crystallized yet. As such, the nature, development, and effects of such relations remain elusive. How is social capital created, how is it put to use, and how is it maintained? Can it decline, and if so, how? We argue that the concept of social capital remains a black box as the mechanisms that constitute it remain underdeveloped and that it is a black hole as many empirical phenomena are attributed to its presence. We use and develop the literature on gift exchange to provide a firmer theoretical basis for the concept of social capital.

Key words

social capital social relations gift exchange trust inclusion exclusion 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abreu, D. (1988). On the Theory of Infinitely Repeated Games with Discounting. Econometrica, 56(2), 383–396. doi: 10.2307/1911077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam, F., & Roncevic, B. (2003). Social Capital: recent debates and research trends. Social Sciences. Information Information Sur les Sciences Sociales, 42(2), 155–183. doi: 10.1177/0539018403042002001 Google Scholar
  3. Adams, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Adler, P·S. (2001). Market, Hierarchy, and Trust: The Knowledge Economy, and the Future of Capitalism. Organization Science, 12(2), 215–234. doi: 10.1287/orsc. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adler, P·S., & Kwon, S·W. (2002). Social capital: prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17–40. doi: 10.2307/4134367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agrawal, A. K., I. M. Cockburn and J. McHale: 2003, ‹Gone but not Forgotten: Labor Flows, Knowledge Spillovers and Enduring Social Capital’, Working Paper 9950.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, T. J. (1977) Managing the Flow of Technology (The MIT Press, Cambridge MA).Google Scholar
  8. Axelrod, R. (1984), The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic BooksGoogle Scholar
  9. Baier, A. (1986). Trust and Antitrust. Ethics, 96(2), 231–260. doi: 10.1086/292745 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barber, B. 1983: The Logic and Limits of Trust. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP.Google Scholar
  11. Beals, R. (1970). Gifting, Reciprocity, Savings and Credit in Peasant Oaxaca. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 26(3), 231–241.Google Scholar
  12. Belk, R. (1979). ‹Gift-Giving behavior’. In J. Sheth (ed.), Research in Marketing Volume 2. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  13. Belk, R.W., & Coon, G.S. (1993). ‹Gift Giving as Agapic Love: An Alternative to the exchange paradigm based on dating experiences. The Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 393–417. doi: 10.1086/209357 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beltramini, R. F.: 1996 ‹Business Believes in Gift Giving’, in: C. Otnes and R. F. Beltramini (eds.), Gift Giving: A Research Anthology (Bowling Green State University Press, Bowling Green).Google Scholar
  15. Blau, P. (1964) Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Blau, P. (1968) ‹Social Exchange’. In D.S. Sills (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences vol. 7. New York: MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  17. Blehr, O. (1974). Social Drinking in the Faroe Islands: The Ritual Aspect of Token Prestations. Ethnos, 39(1), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bodemann, Y.M. (1988). Relations of Production and Class Rule: The Hidden Basis of Patron-Clientage. In B. Wellmann & S.D. Berkowitz (eds.), Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  19. Boulding, K.E. (1981) A Preface to Grants Economics – The Economics of Love and Fear. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bourdieu, P. (1986), ‹Forms of Capital’. In J. G. Richardson (ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bourdieu, P.: 1992, The Field of Cultural Production (Polity Press, Cambridge)Google Scholar
  23. Bouty, I. (2000). Interpersonal and interaction influences on informal resource exchanges between R&D researchers across organizational boundaries. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 50–65. doi: 10.2307/1556385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bradach, J.L., & Eccles, R.G.(1989), ‹Market versus Hierarchies: From ideal types to plural forms’. In R. Th. A.J. Leenders and S.M. Gabbay (eds.), Corporate Social Capital and Liability (pp. 97–118). Dordrecht: KluwerGoogle Scholar
  25. Burt, R.S. (1992). ‹Structural holes: The social structure of competition’. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.Google Scholar
  26. Carrier, J. (1991). Gifts, Commodities, and Social Relations: A Maussian View of Exchange. Sociological Forum, 6(1), 119–136. doi: 10.1007/BF01112730 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheal, D. (1988) The Gift Economy. Routledge: London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Child, J., & Faulkner, D. (1998). Strategies of Cooperation: Managing alliances, networks and joint ventures. Oxford: Oxford UP.Google Scholar
  29. Chong, L. and P. Gibbons: 1997, ‹Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Roles of Ideology and Social Capital’, Group and Organization Management 22, 10–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cicourel, A. (1973). Cognitive sociology: Language and meaning in social interaction. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  31. Coleman, J.S. (1988). Social Capital: in the creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement), S95–S120. doi: 10.1086/228943 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coleman, J.S. (1990) ‹Foundations of Social Theory’. Cambridge MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  33. Cook, K., & Emerson, R. (1984) ‹Exchange Networks and the Analysis of Complex Organizations’. In S. Bacharach & E. Lawler (eds.), Research on the sociology of organizations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  34. Darr, A. (2003). Gifting Practices and Inter-organizational Relations: Constructing Obligations Networks in the Electronics Sector. Sociological Forum, 18(1), 31–51. doi: 10.1023/A:1022650627892 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deal, T.E., & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: the rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  36. Deckop, J.R., Cirka, C·C., & Andersson, L.M. (2003). Doing Unto Others: The Reciprocity of Helping Behavior in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 47, 101–113. doi: 10.1023/A:1026060419167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deutsch, M. (1958). Trust and Suspicion. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2(4), 265–279. doi: 10.1177/002200275800200401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dika, S., & Singh, K. (2002). Applications of Social Capital in Educational Literature: A Critical Synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 72(1), 31–60. doi: 10.3102/00346543072001031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dolfsma, W., & Dannreuther, C. (2003). Subjects and Boundaries: Contesting social capital-based policies. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(2), 405–413.Google Scholar
  40. Dolfsma, W., Finch, J., & McMaster, R. (2005). Market and Society: (how) do they relate, and contribute to welfare? Journal of Economic Issues, 39(2), 347–356.Google Scholar
  41. Dore, R. (1983). Goodwill and the spirit of market capitalism. The British Journal of Sociology, 34(4), 459–482. doi: 10.2307/590932 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Douglas, M., & Isherwood, B. (1979). The World of Goods. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  43. Ekeh, P·P. (1974), Social Exchange Theory: The Two Traditions. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Elangovan, A.K., & Shapiro, D.L. (1998). Betrayal of Trust in Organization. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 547–566. doi: 10.2307/259294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Emerson, R.M. (1981). Social Exchange Theory. In M. Rosenberg & R. Turner (eds.), Social Psychology: Sociological Perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  46. Ferrary, M. (2003). The Gift Exchange in the Social Networks of Silicon Valley. California Management Review, 45(4), 120–138.Google Scholar
  47. Field, J. (2003) Social Capital. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Fine, B. (2000) ‹Social Capital versus Social Theory. Political Economy and Social Science at the Turn of the Millennium’. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Flynn, F.J. (2003). How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity. Academy of Management Journal, 46(5), 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Foley, M., & Edwards, B. (1997). Escape from politics? Social Theory and the Social Capital Debate. The American Behavioral Scientist, 40(5), 550–561. doi: 10.1177/0002764297040005002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gabbay, S. M. and E. W. Zuckerman: 1998, ‹Social Capital and Opportunity in Corporate R&D: The Contigent Effect of Contact Density on Mobility Expectations’, Social Science Research 27, 189–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gambetta, D. (1988) “Can we trust trust? In D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  53. Gouldner, A.W. (1960). The Norm of Reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161–178. doi: 10.2307/2092623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Granovetter, M.S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380. doi: 10.1086/225469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Granovetter, M.S. (1985). Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(November), 481–510. doi: 10.1086/228311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Granovetter, M.S. (1992) ‹Problems of explanations in economic sociology’. In N. Nohria & R. Eccles (ed.), Networks and organizations: Structure, form and action. Boston: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  57. Hansen, M. (1999). The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 82–111. doi: 10.2307/2667032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hanssen, M.: 1998, ‹Combining Network Centrality and Related Knowledge: Explaining Effective Knowledge Sharing in Multi-Unit Firms’, Working Paper (Harvard Business School, Boston).Google Scholar
  59. Heath, A.F. (1976) Rational Choice and Social Exchange: A critique of Exchange Theory. Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  60. Heide, J.B., & Miner, A.S. (1992). The shadow of the future: Effects of anticipated interaction and frequency of contact on buyer-seller cooperation. Academy of Management Review, 35, 265–291. doi: 10.2307/256374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hill, C·W.L. (1990). Cooperation, opportunism and the invisible hand: Implications for transaction cost theory’. Academy of Management Review, 15(3), 500–513. doi: 10.2307/258020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hofstede, G.: 1991, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (HarperCollins Business, London).Google Scholar
  63. Homans, G.C. (1950) The Human Group. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  64. Homans, G.C. (1974) Social Behavior: Its elementary Forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanoviech.Google Scholar
  65. Humphrey, C., & Hugh-Jones, S. (1992) Barter, Exchange and Value. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  66. Ingram, P., & Robert, P·W. (2000). Friendship among competitors in the Sydney Hotel Industry. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 387–423. doi: 10.1086/316965 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jackman, R.W., & Miller, R.A. (1998). Social Capital and Politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 1, 47–73. doi: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.1.1.47 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Khalil, E. (2004). The Gift Paradox: Complex selves and symbolic goods. Review of Social Economy, 62(3), 379–392. doi: 10.1080/0034676042000253972 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Komter, A.E. (1996). The Gift: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Knoke, D., & Kuklinski, J.H. (1982) Network Analysis. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  71. Kreiner, K., and M. Schultz: 1993, ‹Informal Collaboration in R&D’, Organization Studies 14(2), 189–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kreps, D.M. (1990). ‹Corporate culture and economic theory’. In J. Alt & K. Shepsel (eds.), Perspectives on Political Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  73. Kreps, D., Milgrom, P., & Wilson, R. (1982). ‹Rational Cooperation in the Finitely Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma’. Journal of Economic Theory, 27, 245–252. doi: 10.1016/0022-0531(82)90029-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lakhani, K.R., & von Hippel, E. (2003). “How Open Source Software Works: “Free” User-to-User Assistance. Research Policy, 32(6), 923–943. doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00095-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Landry, R., Amara, N., & Lamari, M. (2001). “Utilization of social science research knowledge in Canada.” Research Policy 30(2): 333–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Larsen, D. & Watson, J.J. (2001). A guide map to the terrain of gift value. Psychology and Marketing, 18, 889–906. doi: 10.1002/mar.1034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Laumann, E.O., & Pappi, F.U. (1976) Networks of Collective Action. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  78. Lawler, E.J., Yoon, J., & Thye, S.R. (2000). Emotion and Group Cohesion in Productive Exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 616–657. doi: 10.1086/318965 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Levi-Strauss, C. (1969) ‹The Elementary Structures of Kinship’. Boston: BeaconGoogle Scholar
  80. Levi-Strauss, C. (1996) ‹The principle of reciprocity’. In A.E. Komter (ed.), The Gift: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Lin, N., & Dumin, M. (1986). Access to occupations through social ties. Social Networks, 25, 467–487.Google Scholar
  82. Malinowski, B. (1996) ‹The Principle of Give and Take’. In A.E. Komter (ed.), The Gift: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University PressGoogle Scholar
  83. Mauss, M.: 1954 [2000], The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies (Norton, New York)Google Scholar
  84. Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H., & Schoorman, F.D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734. doi: 10.2307/258792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McGrath, M.A., & Englis, B. (1996) ‹Intergenerational Gift Giving in Sub-cultural Wedding Celebrations: The Ritual Audience As Cash Cow’. In C. Otnes & R.F. Beltramini (eds.), Gift Giving: A Research Anthology. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State UP.Google Scholar
  86. Nooteboom, B. (2002), Trust: Form, Foundations, Functions, Failures and Figures, Cheltenham: Edgar Elgar Publishin.Google Scholar
  87. Moran, P. and S. Ghosal: 1996, ‹Value Creation by Firms’, in J. B. Keys and L. N. Dosier (eds.), Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings (Georgia Southern University), pp. 41–45Google Scholar
  88. Nahapiet, J., & Ghosal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(20), 242–266. doi: 10.2307/259373 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nye, F. I. (1979). ‹Choice, Exchange and the Family’. In W.R. Burr, et al. (eds), Contemporary Theories about the Family. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  90. Offer, A. (1997). Between the Gift and the Market: The Economy of Regard. The Economic History Review, 50(3), 450–476. doi: 10.1111/1468-0289.00064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Paldam, M., & Svendsen, G.T. (2000). An Essay on Social Capital: Looking for the fire behind the smoke. European Journal of Political Economy, 16, 339–366. doi: 10.1016/S0176-2680(99)00064-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Parkhe, A. (1993). Strategic alliance structuring: A game theoretic and transaction cost examination of inter-firm cooperation. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 794–829. doi: 10.2307/256759 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 1–24. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Portes, A., & Sensenbrenner, J. (1993). Embeddedness and immigration: notes on the social determinants of economic action. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 1320–1350. doi: 10.1086/230191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Putnam, R.D. (1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy., Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.Google Scholar
  96. Regan, D.T. (1971). Effects of a Favor and Liking on Compliance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 627–639. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(71)90025-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rose-Ackerman, S. (1998) ‹Bribes and Gifts’, In A. Ben-ner & L. Putterman (eds.), Economics, values and organization. Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  98. Ruth, J.A., Otnes, C·C., & Brunel, F·F. (1999). Gift receipt and the reformulation of interpersonal Relationships. The Journal of Consumer Research, 25(4), 385–402. doi: 10.1086/209546 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sahlins, M.B. (1972) Stone Age Economics. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  100. Sandefur, R.L., & Laumann, E.O. (1998). ‹A paradigm for social capital’. In E. L. Lesser (ed.), Knowledge and Social Capital: foundations and Applications. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  101. Schein, E.H. (1965) Organization Psychology, New York: Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  102. Schwartz, B. (1996) ‹The Social Psychology of the Gift’, In A.E. Komter (ed.), The Gift: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Scott, J. (1991) Social network analyses: A handbook. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  104. Shapiro, S·P. (1987). The social control of impersonal trust. American Journal of Sociology, 93, 623–658. doi: 10.1086/228791 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sherry, J.F. (1983). Gift Giving in Anthropological Perspective. The Journal of Consumer Research, 10(2), 157–168. doi: 10.1086/208956 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Simmel, G. (1996) ‹Faithfulness and Gratitude’. In A.E. Komter (ed.), The Gift: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Smart, A. (1993). ‹Gifts, Bribes, and Guanxi: A reconsideration of Bourdieu’s Social Capital’. Cultural Anthropology, 8(3), 388–408. doi: 10.1525/can.1993.8.3.02a00060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Telser, L.G. (1980). A theory of self-enforcing agreements. Journal of Business, 53, 27–44. doi: 10.1086/296069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. The Economist (2006) ‹The Business of Giving – A Survey of Wealth and Philanthropy’, The Economist, February 25Google Scholar
  110. Tsai, W., & Ghosal, S. (1998). Social Capital and Value Creation: The role of intra firm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464–476. doi: 10.2307/257085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Uehara, E. (1990). Dual Exchange Theory, Social Networks, and Informational Support. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 521–557. doi: 10.1086/229571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ullman-Margalit, E. (1978). Invisible-hand explanations. Synthesis, 39, 263–291. doi: 10.1007/BF00485077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Uzzi, B. (1997). Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: the paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 35–67. doi: 10.2307/2393808 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Von Hippel, E.: 1987, ‹Cooperation Between Rivals: Informal Know-How Trading’, Research Policy 16, 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Von Krogh, G. (1998). Care in Knowledge Creation. California Management Review, 40(3), 133–153.Google Scholar
  116. Walker, G., B. Kogut and W. Shan: 1997, ‹Social Capital, Structural Holes and the Formation of an Industry Network’, Organizational Science 8, 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Walster, E., Berscheid, E., & Walster, G.W. (1976). ‹New Directions in Equity Research’. In L. Berkowitz & E. Walster (eds.), Equity Theory: Towards a General Theory of Social Interaction. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  118. Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994) Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  119. Weigelt, K., & Camerer, C. (1988). Reputation and corporate strategy: A review of recent theory and applications. Strategic Management Journal, 9, 443–454. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250090505 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wilke, H., & Lanzetta, J.T. (1970). The Obligation to Help: The Effects of the Amount of Prior Help on Subsequent Helping Behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 6, 488–493. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(70)90058-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Williamson, O.E. (1985), The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firm Markets, Relational Contracting, New York: The Free PressGoogle Scholar
  122. Williamson, O.E. (1993). Calculativeness, Trust, And Economic Organization. The Journal of Law & Economics, 36, 159–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Woolcock, M. (1998). Social Capital and Economic Development: towards a Theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27(2), 151–208. doi: 10.1023/A:1006884930135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zeitlyn, D. (2003). Gift economies in the development of open source software. Research Policy, 32(7), 1287–1291. doi: 10.1016/S0048–7333(03)00053-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zelizer, V.A. (1997) The Social Meaning of Money. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Zucker, L.G. (1986). Production of trust: Institutional sources of economic structure, 1840–1920. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 53–111.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilfred Dolfsma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rene van der Eijk
    • 2
  • Albert Jolink
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Economics and Business, University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Rotterdam School of ManagementRotterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations