Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 81, Issue 2, pp 261–279 | Cite as

Is the Culture of Family Firms Really Different? A Value-based Model for Its Survival through Generations

  • Manuel Carlos VallejoEmail author
Article

Abstract

The current work represents a piece of research on the family firm of the semasiological, interpretive or culture creation type. In it we carry out a comparative analysis of the organizational culture of this type of firm along with firms not considered to be family firms, using as theoretical framework generally accepted theories in business administration, such as the systems, neoinstitutional, transformational leadership, and social identity theories. Our findings confirm the existence of certain elements of culture, especially values and allow us to propose a value-based model to help family firms to survive through different family generations.

Keywords

culture family firm institutionalism transformational leadership values 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams D., Hogg M. 1998 Prospects for Research in Group Procesess and Intergroup Relations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 1:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth S., Wolfram J. 2003 Families Divided: Culture and Control in Small Family Business. Organization Studies 24:1463–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen N., Meyer J. (1990) The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63:1–18Google Scholar
  4. Anderson R., Reeb D. (2003) Founding Family Ownership and Firm Performance: Evidence from the S&P 500. Journal of Finance 58:1301–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronoff C. (2004) Self-Perputuation Family Organization Built on Values: Necessary Condition for Long-Term Family Business Survival. Family Business Review 17:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aronoff C., Ward J. (1994) Set Policies to Solve Future Problems. Nation’s Business 82:70–71Google Scholar
  7. Aronoff C., Ward J. (1995) Family-Owned Business: A Thing of the Past or a Model of the Future?. Family Business Review 8:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aronoff C., Ward J., Kenyon D. (2004) Paper presented at the Family Firms in Media Business History. The Bonnier Symposium, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  9. Arp, C., D. Arp and V. Mace: 1994, ‹Fortalecimiento de la familia: programas para fomentar el desarrollo sano de las familias’, Occasional Papers Series, 8, documento elaborado para Naciones Unidas con motivo del Año Internacional de la Familia, (Cuadernos de trabajo del centro de estudios del menor, Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales)Google Scholar
  10. Bandura A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social-Cognitive View. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  11. Barclay, D., C. Higgins, and R. Thompson: 1995, ‹The Partial Least Square (PLS) Approach to Causal Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption and Use as an Ilustration’, Technology Studies 2:285–309Google Scholar
  12. Bass B. (1998) Transformational Leadership: Industrial Military and Educational Impact. Lawrence Elbaum Associates Publishers, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  13. Bass B. (1985) Leadership Performance Beyond Expectations. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Bass B. (1999) Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 8:9–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bass B., Steidlmeier P. (1999) Ethics, Character and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behavior. Leadership Quarterly 10:181–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baum J., Oliver C. (1991). Institutional Linkages and Organizational Mortality. Administrative Science Quarterly 36:187–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beerh T. (1976). Perceived Situational Moderators of the Relationship Between Subjective Role Ambiguity and Role Strain. Journal of Applied Psychology 61:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bluedorn A., Lundgren E. (1993) A Culture-Match Perspective for Strategic Change. Research in Organizational Change and Development 7:137–139Google Scholar
  19. Buchanan B. (1974) Building Organizational Commitment: The Socialization of Managers in Work Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 19:533–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burns J. (1978) Leadership. Harper Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Carless S.; Wearing A., Mann L. (2000) A Short Measure of Transformational Leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology 14:389–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cartwright S., Gale A. (1995) Project Management: Different Gender, Different Culture? A Discussion on Gender and Organizational Culture. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal 16(4):12–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chatman J., Jehn K. (1994) Assessing the Relationship Between Industry Characteristics and Organizational Culture: How Different Can You Be?. Academy of Management Journal 37:522–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chin W., Frye T. (1998) PLS-Graph (Version 2.91.03.04) (Computer Software). University of Calgary, CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  25. Christensen E., Gordon G. (1999) An Exploration of Industry, Culture and Revenue Growth. Organization Studies 20:397–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cook J., Wall T. (1980) New York Attitude Measures of Trust, Organizational Commitment and Personal Need Fulfilment. Journal of Occupational Social Psychology 53:39–52Google Scholar
  27. Cox T., Lobel S., Mcleod P. (1991) Effects of Ethnic Group Cultural Differences on Cooperative and Competitive Behavior on a Group Task. Academy of Management Journal 34:827–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Danco L. (1975) Beyond Survival. Center for Family Business, ClevelandGoogle Scholar
  29. De Visscher, F., C. Aronoff and J. Ward: 1995, Financing Transitions: Managing Capital and Liquidity in the Family Business. Family Business Leadership Series. (Business Owner Resources, Marietta)Google Scholar
  30. De Witte K., Van Muijen J. (1999) Organizational Culture: Critical Questions for Researchers and Practitioners. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 8:583–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Denison D. (1984) Bringing Corporate Culture to the Bottom Line. Organizational Dynamics 13:4–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Denison D., Colleen L., Ward J. (2004) Culture in Family-Owned Enterprises: Recognizing and Leveraging Unique Strengths. Family Business Review 17:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dimaggio P., Powell W. (1991) Introduction. in Powell W., DiMaggio P. (eds) The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  34. Dyer W. (1986) Cultural Change in Family Firms: Anticipating and Managing Business and Family Traditions. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  35. Escrig, A: 2001, Efectos de la Dirección de la Calidad en los Resultados: El Papel Mediador de las Competencias Distintivas. Doctoral Thesis, Universidad Jaime I de CastellónGoogle Scholar
  36. Fairclough, G: 1998, ‹Culture Clashes after Combinations Spur a New Brand of Due Dilligence’, Wall Street Journal: A1Google Scholar
  37. Fiedler F. (1967) A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Fiol C., Harris D., House R. (1999) Charismatic Leadership: Strategies for Effecting Social Change. Leadership Quarterly 10:449–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Galán J., Leal A. (1988) El perfil cultural de los sectores empresariales. Revista de Economía y Empresa. 8:149–164Google Scholar
  40. Gallo M. (1995). La Empresa Familiar. Textos y Casos. Praxis, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  41. Gallo, M: 1993, ‹Cultura en Empresa Familiar’, In M. Gallo (ed.), La Empresa Familiar (IESE, Publicaciones de la Cátedra de Empresa Familiar. Barcelona) 4, 225–249Google Scholar
  42. Gersick K., Davis J., McCollom M., Lansberg I. (1997) Empresas familiares, generación a generación. McGraw-Hill, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  43. González-Roma V., Espejo B., Hernández A. (1994) Validez Discriminante de dos Medidas de Compromiso Organizacional e Implicación en el Trabajo. Psicológica 15:343–350Google Scholar
  44. Gordon, G. (1985) ‹The Relationship of Corporate Culture to Industry Sector and Corporate Performance’, In R. Kilmann, M. Saxton, R. Serpa, et al (eds.), Gaining Control of the Corporate Culture (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco) pp. 103–125Google Scholar
  45. Gordon G (1991) Industry Determinants of Organizational Culture. Academy of Management Review 16:396–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hater J., Bass B. (1988) Superiors’ Evaluations and Subordinates’ Perceptions of Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology 73:695–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hogg M. (2001) A Social Identity Theory of Leadership. Personality and Social Psychology Review 5:184–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jiatao-Li X., Pillutla M. (2002) Multi-Cultural Leaders Teams and Organizational Identification in International Joint Ventures. International Journal of Human Resource Management 13:320–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kark R., Shamir B., Gilad C. (2003) The Two Faces of Transformational Leadership: Empowerment and Dependency. Journal of Applied Psychology 88:246–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuratko D., Hornsby J., Naffziger D. (1997) An Examination of Owner’s Goals in Sustaining Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management 35:24–35Google Scholar
  51. Leach P. (1993) La Empresa Familiar. Granica, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  52. Leaptrott J. (2005) An Institutional Theory View of the Family Business. Family Business Review 18:215–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee C., Chen W. (2005) The Effects of Internal Marketing and Organizational Culture on Knowledge Management in the Information Technology Industry. International Journal of Management 22:661–672Google Scholar
  54. Lee J. (2006) Family Firm Performance: Further Evidence. Family Business Review 19:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lyman A. (1991) Customer Service: Does Family Ownership Make a Difference? Family Business Review 4:303–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Martínez R., Dacin T. (1999) Efficiency Motives and Normative Forces: Combining Transaction Costs and Institutional Logic. Journal of Management 25:75–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Martín R. and O. Epitropaki 2001, ‹Role of Organizational Identification on Implicit Leadership Theories (ILTs), Transformational Leadership and Work Attitudes’, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 4:247–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Masi R., Cooke R. (2000) Effects of Transformational Leadership on Subordinate Motivation, Empowering Norms and Organizational Productivity. International Journal of Organizational Analysis 8:16–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McGregor D. (1960) The Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Meyer J., Allen N. (1984) Testing the “Side-bet Theory” of Organizational Commitment: Some Methodological Considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology 69:372–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meyer J., Allen N. (1991) A Three-Component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment. Human Resource Management Review 1:61–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meyer J., Rowan B. (1977) Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure, Myth and Ceremony. American Journal of Sociology 83:340–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Monsen J. (1969) Ownership and Management: The Effect of Separation on Performance. Business Horizons 12:46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Morrison E. (1994) Role Definitions and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Importance of the Employee’s Perspective. Academy of Management Journal 37:1543–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. North D. (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Ogbonna E., Harris L. (2002) Organizational Culture: A Ten Year, Two Phase Study of Change in the UK Food Retailing Sector. Journal of Management Studies 39:673–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Oliver C. (1991) Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes. Academy of Management Review 16:145–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Phillips M. (1994) Industry Mindsets: Exploring the Cultures of Two Macro-Organizational Settings. Organizational Science 5:384–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pillai R., Williams E. (2004) Transformational Leadership, Self-Efficacy, Group Cohesiveness, Commitment and Performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management 17:144–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Piper W., Marrache M., Lacroix R., Richardsen A., Jones B. (1983) Cohesion as a Basic Bond in Groups. Human Relations 36:93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Poe, R: 1980, ‹The SOB’s’, Across the Board, May, pp. 22–23Google Scholar
  72. Powell W. (1991) Expanding the Scope of Institutional Analysis. in Powell W, DiMaggio P (eds.) The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 183–203Google Scholar
  73. Poza E. (1995) A la Sombra del Roble: la Empresa Privada Familiar y su Continuidad. Editorial Universitaria para la Empresa Familiar, OhioGoogle Scholar
  74. Ravasi D., Schultz M. (2006) Responding to Organizational Identity Threats: Exploring the Role of Organizational Culture. Academy of Management Journal 49:433–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosenzweig P., Singh .J. (1991) Organizational Environments and the Multinational Enterprise. Academy of Management Review 16:340–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schein E. (1988) La Cultura Organizacional and el Liderazgo: Una Visión Dinámica. Plaza and Janés, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  77. Schein E. (1996) Culture: The Missing Concept in Organization Studies. Administrative Science Quarterly 41:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Scott W. (1981) Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  79. Scott W. (1995) Institutions and Organizations. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  80. Shamir B, House R., Arthur M. (1993) The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Theory. Organization Science 4:1–17Google Scholar
  81. Singh J., Tucker D., House R. (1986) Organizational Legitimacy and the Liability of Newness. Administrative Science Quarterly 31:171–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith E., Murphy J., Coats S. (1999) Attachment to Groups: Theory and Measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77:94–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sorensen J. (2002). The Strength of Corporate Culture and the Reliability of Firm Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly 47:70–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sorenson R. (2000) The Contribution of Leadership Style and Practices to Family and Business Success. Family Business Review 13:183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sosik J., Potosky D., Jung D. (2002) Adaptive Self-Regulation: Meetings Others’ Expectations of Leadership and Performance. The Journal of Social Psychology 142:211–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sparks J., Schenk J. (2001) Explaining the Effects of Transformational Leadership: An Investigation of the Effects on Subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior 22:849–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spender J. (1989) Industry Recipes. Basil Blackwell, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  88. Stinnett N. (1983) Strong Families: A Portrait. in Mace D. (ed.) Prevention in Family Services. Sage, Beverly Hills, pp. 27–38Google Scholar
  89. Stinnett, N.: 1986, Building Family Strengths: A Manual for Families (Universidad Nebraska-Lincoln)Google Scholar
  90. Tolbert P., Zucker L. (1983) Institutional Sources of Change in the Formal Structure of Organizations: The Difusion of Civil Service Reform, 1880–1935. Administrative Science Quarterly 28:22–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Trostel A., Nichols M. (1982) Privated-Held and Publicly-Held Companies: A Comparison of Strategic Choices and Management Processes. Academy of Management Journal 25:47–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. VallejoMartos M. (2005) Cuando definir es una necesidad: una propuesta integradora y operativa del concepto de empresa familiar. Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de Empresa 11:151–171Google Scholar
  93. Viator R. (2001) The Relevance of Transformational Leadership to Nontraditional Accounting Services: Information Systems Assurance and Business Consulting. Journal of Information Systems 15:99–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vroom V. (1960) Some Personality Determinants of the Effects of Participation. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  95. Walumbwa F., Wang P., Lawler J., Shi K. (2004) The Role of Collective Efficacy in the relations between Transformational Leadership and Work Outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 77:515–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ward J. (1987) Keeping the Family Business Healthy: How to Plan for Continuing Growth, Profitability and Family Ownership. Jossey Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  97. Ward J. (1988) The Special Role of Strategic Planning for Family Businesses. Family Business Review 1:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ward J. (1991) Creating Effective Boards for Private Enterprises: Meeting the Challenges of Continuity and Competition. Jossey Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  99. Ward, J., and C. Aronoff: 1991, ‹Trust Gives You the Advantage’, Nation’s Business, 79, 42–44Google Scholar
  100. Westney E. (1993) Institutionalization Theory and the Multinational Corporation. in Ghoshal S., Westney E. (eds.) Organization Theory and the Multinational Corporation. St. Martin Press, New York, pp. 53–75Google Scholar
  101. Yammarino F., Bass B. (1990) Long Term Forecasting of Transformational Leadership and its Effects among Naval Officers: Some Preliminary Findings. in Clark K., Clark M. (eds.) Measures of Leadership. Leadership Library of América, West Orange, pp. 151–170Google Scholar
  102. Young D. (2000) The Six Levers for Managing Organizational Culture. Business Horizons 43:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zucker L. (1977) The Role of Institutionalization in Cultural Persistence. American Sociological Review 42:726–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ManagementUniversity of JaénJaénSpain

Personalised recommendations